Questions tagged [phase-transition]

A phase transition is a change in the nature of a phase or in the number of phases of a system as a result of a change in the external conditions. Examples: melting/freezing, vaporization/condensation, ferromagnetic transition, superconducting transition.

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Why does the melting point of water decreases with increase in pressure?

My book mentions that the melting point of water, unlike other substances, decreases with increase in temperature. But the book doesn't mentions any reason why it happens as such.I searched on the ...
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Why does water contracts on melting whereas gold, lead,etc expands on Melting?

My book mentions that water contracts on melting, but the book doesn't give any reason why it does so. It is mentioned that:- 1 g of ice of volume 1.091cm^3 at 0°C ...
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Which melts faster - ice cream or lollipop/popsicle?

My five-year-old wants to know whether ice cream or an ice lollipop (aka a popsicle) melts faster. Does the dairy content in ice cream make it melt more slowly or more quickly? Update: Assume constant ...
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What product results from pyrolysis of hydrocarbons and their deposition in non-planar surfaces?

Pyrolytic carbon forms from the thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons, which the results depositing and crystallizing unto a planar surface. However, what intrigues me is what would result in the same ...
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Froze or freeze bottle Exploding

I kept a bottle in my freezer with full water overnight. When my mom took it out and put it in normal condition, it blasted after a few minutes. More surprisingly the bottle was made of aluminum. Pls, ...
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Is there any substance whose vapor-liquid coexistence area appears leaned?

The usual substance whose vapor-liquid coexistence area appears like that shown in following Fig.1 My question is: is there any substance whose vapor-liquid coexistence area looks leaned, i.e., $V_{...
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Existence of liquid phase of metal below triple point pressure in vacuum chamber

As part of my work, I perform localized heating of metals using a CW laser, upto and past the melting point, inside a vacuum chamber with typical ambient pressures of $\sim 10^{-9}\,$mbar. However, I ...
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Dividing the process of water vaporizing at 25°C and 1 atm into “steps” to calculate entropy of vaporization

On page number 297 and 298, Peter Atkins, in Chemical Principles writes, in essence, that to calculate phase change entropy at any temperature of a substance, we can use the fact that entropy is state ...
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Solid-Liquid phase transition with a Lennard-Jones potential

The usual Van der Waals equation of state doesn't describe the solid phase. Nonetheless, numerically the Lennard Jones potential exhibits a Solid-Liquid phase transition, here and here for example. ...
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Why are critical points of classical systems described by quantum conformal field theories?

So, the question is pretty much in the title: why are critical points of classical systems described by quantum conformal field theories? I get that schematically, conformal symmetry (or rather scale ...
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Difference between first order, second order, and smooth cross-over phase transition particularly in the context of quantum field theory

I have been searching for the differences of the first-order, second-order, and smooth cross-over phase transition particularly in the context of the quantum field theory e.g. spontaneous symmetry ...
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Phase transition and chemical potential

In the case of the Ehrenfest classification for the first order phase transition it is said: If the first derivative of the free energy is discontinuous then we have a first order phase transition. ...
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Gas to liquid phase transitions for electronic matter

Regular atomic matter almost always experiences liquid-gas transition at some temperature (at sufficiently low pressure). Does anyone know if electrons in metals/semiconductors experience a similar ...
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How is the climbing effect of superfluid Helium related to the Classius-Clapeyron relation?

From the Wikipedia article of Helium-4 (emphasis by me). For example, if superfluid helium-4 is kept in an open vessel, a thin film will climb up the sides of the vessel and overflow. In this state ...
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Is there a phase diagram for $\rm CO_2$ below 1 millibar?

Considering $\rm CO_2$ snow on Mars and recent cold temperature on the earths' south pole, I am looking for a $\rm CO_2$ phase diagram below 1 millibar that shows the sublimation temperature of $\rm ...
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Examples of phase transition nuclei whose dynamics impede their own growth?

I recently asked a question over on the Earth Science stack exchange about cumulus cloud formation from (roughly) point sources. These points can form around the same time across large areas, such as ...
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Curie temperature and magnetism

What would happen to the magnetic property of a ferromagnetic material if it is heated above the Curie temperature, and then cooled down below it?
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A question on melting ice

I have a question on melting ice using solar energy. Assuming solar energy transfer in ice obeys Beer's law, i.e. $$R(z)=R_0e^{-z/d}$$ then the intensity could be expressed by $$I(z)=\frac{dR}{dz}$$ ...
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Does the amount of water vapor air can “hold” depend on the temperature of the 'water' or the temperature of the 'air'?

The amount of water vapor that the air in a large region (say a suburb) can hold should be dependent on the average temperature of the liquid water within that region. Not the air temperature of that ...
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Why superconductivity is understood as a second-order phase transition?

Why Ginzburg-Landau theory supposes that superconductivity is a second-order phase transition? According to modern nomenclature or Ehrenfest's one?
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Does evaporation do work on the surroundings?

Suppose it is a dry (effectively no water vapor in the ambient air ) and hot day ($T_{ambient}\approx 40\ C$). My body temperature on this day is $T_{body}\approx 37C$. As a cooling mechanism, my body ...
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Ratio of atomic and molecular hydrogen depending on temperature and pressure

I am interested in all kinds of theoretical/experimental results about the ratio of atomic and molecular hydrogen, in particlular in the high pressure (>10 GPa) and high temperature (~5000 K) ...
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Why can't water be liquid above 647 kelvins?

In this article about vapor, it is said that liquid water can't exist if its temperature is higher than 647 kelvins. But if we put the liquid water in a closed container and heated up the water, ...
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Why do we “feel” steam at 100 °C as hotter than water at 100 °C?

A block of ice as big as a room will have more thermal energy than a cup of hot tea. But the tea feels hotter because the average kinetic energy (temperature) is higher in case of tea. I conclude from ...
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Is supercooling water reversible?

Water can exist in a supercooled state. Even at $-48,3$ degrees Celsius it can be liquid. Below that temperature, the water will freeze. If I cool the ice to, say, $-60$ degrees and heat it slowly ...
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Can ice patterns form on the top of deep water?

Here is a picture of a pattern in ice: There are feathers, or flowers to be seen. The ice has grown on a solid underground. Water condenses on the solid underground and freezes. I have never seen ...
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What would happen if a solid ball of helium suddenly appeared on the bottom of a deep sea? [closed]

Imagine that a solid ball of helium (at zero Kelvin) appeared at the bottom of a deep-sea on Earth? Say the ball has a radius of 100 meters and that the sea is 10 kilometers deep. The temperature of ...
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Latent heat of water at triple point

My class textbook states that the latent heat at triple point of water is zero. When i tried to look up there was less to no information about this fact. Can anyone give any plausible explanation for ...
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Will paper heated in outer space just evaporate?

If a piece of paper is heated in outer space (or in a vacuum chamber), what will I see? Will it just evaporate? I can't imagine that it first melts...
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How do I actually derive the Griffiths inequality for critical exponents? [closed]

The Griffiths inequality for critical exponents says $$\alpha+\beta(1+\delta) \geq 2$$ I have looking for the internet for a full derivation but couldn't find anything.
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Formation of water droplets

Suppose several small water droplets are formed from a big blob of water at room temperature. Will the temperature of resultant water droplets or the surrounding air decrease? Consider it as an ...
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Landau-Ginzburg theory vs. Landau theory for phase transitions

I would like a clarification on the difference between Landau-Ginzburg theory and Landau theory for phase transitions. On one hand, I see some books present the Landau-Ginzburg as a general approach ...
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Virial theorem and pressure in multiphase systems

Pressure in a system of particles with pairwise interactions can be calculated from the virial theorem using the following equation (see here): $$ P = \frac{2}{3}\langle T\rangle\rho + \frac{\langle I\...
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Suggestion on a source to Landau and Ginzburg theory

I am trying to learn by myself on the Landau-Ginzburg theory for phase transition , I have seen few lectures of MIT on their youtube channels but I still not sure I understood the Idea here. I would ...
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Energy for a Lattice gas model

The energy for a Lattice gas model can be written as \begin{equation} E_{LG} = \frac{\epsilon}{4} \sum_{<i,j>} (s_{ij} + s_i +s_j +1) - \frac{\mu}{2}\sum_i (s_i +1) \\ = \frac{\epsilon}{4} \sum_{...
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Finite range 1D Ising model vs. infinite range Ising model

Ising model is defiend as $$ \mathcal{H}=-H\sum_i S_i -\frac{1}{2}\sum_{i,j}J_{ij}S_i,S_j $$ In 1D we assume that indices $i,j$ are integers, $i,j\in\mathbb{Z}$, and that the coupling depends only on ...
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Thermodynamic heat energy and latent heat

I have textbook that says that we can calculate the latent heat $q_i$ during a phase transition using the following formula: $$ mq_i=H_{high T}-H_{low T}=T(S_{high T}-S_{low T}), $$ where H is the ...
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Is there any difference between the words 'fusion' and 'melting '?

My physics text says this: 'The change of state from solid to liquid is called melting and from liquid to solid is called fusion'. But according to my chemistry text in a different context, 'The ...
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Ising universallity class on triangular lattice

Is Ising universallity class on triangular or hexagonal lattice different from universallity class on rectangular lattice? Is universallty class depends on type of microscopical graph or topology on ...
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What is implied by the term “phase transition” as in when you boil water?

I have somehow gathered that when you heat water as you record its temperature, it's temperature begins to rise until it boils. After that it's temperature will not rise by adding anymore heat. So ...
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Critical exponents inequalities - Landau Ginzburg theory of phase transition

By studying the Landau Ginzburg theory of phase transition, I have heard (but couldn't find) that there is a topic related to that, called "critical exponents inequalities". I am familiar ...
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Non-equilibrium phase transition

I have come across the term Non-equilibrium phase transition. And unfortunately I can't find any examples of such a phenomenon. What examples of nonequilibrium phase transitions are known? Are there ...
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What happens when you melt a solid in a perfectly enclosed space?

Here are the parameters: You have a perfectly airtight box made of a very resistant material. You have a block of a substance that melts normally (such as aluminium) that fits perfectly in the box. ...
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Gibbs free energy using the Landau Theory

I am studying the Landau theory. I was given an exercise, given the phenomenological Gibbs energy per unit volume ($g=f-\mu n$), where $n-n_c$ is the density deviation relative to the critical point ...
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Why does the internal energy change in few cases when there is no change in temperature?

Why does the internal energy of a ice- water system increase when a ice slab melts at 273K at atmospheric pressure? I don't understand how the internal energy tends to change when there is no ...
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Ising model: How is $|\langle\sigma\rangle|^{2}=\lim _{r \rightarrow \infty} G^{(2)}(r)$?

In the book of Statistical Field Theory by Giuseppe Mussardo, on page 51, it is given while talking about Ising model that One arrives to the same conclusion by analysing the possibility of a non-...
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Phase transition of lattice gas model

1.1. Lattice Gas Consider a lattice gas in which the particles occupy the sites of a $d$ -dimensional lattice, with the constraint that each site cannot be occupied by more than one particle. Let $e_{...
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Isn't “fluctuations of the order parameter” a wrong terminology in here?

In the book Statistical Field Theory by Giuseppe Mussardo, on page 11, it is given that Aspects of phase transitions. It is now useful to stop and highlight the aspects of phase transitions that have ...
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Theoretical Oxygen Compression

This is all theoretical of course, but I am curious to see what the possible answer might be. So here it goes.... If you took a gallon of liquid oxygen (231 cubic inches for simplicity).....and you ...
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How did I superheat my pasta water?

Last week I had an incident in the kitchen where I almost scolded my face with hot water. What happened: I was boiling some water in one pan and a sauce with veggies and meats in another next to it. ...

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