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# Questions tagged [phase-transition]

A phase transition is a change in the nature of a phase or in the number of phases of a system as a result of a change in the external conditions. Examples: melting/freezing, vaporization/condensation, ferromagnetic transition, superconducting transition.

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### Why do we heat salt water to desalinate it rather than freeze it?

Most sea water desalination plants rely on the basic principle of heating water to evaporate it, after which the salt-free vapor is condensed. According to Wikipedia, over half the cost of ...
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### What will happen if my room is half filled with dry ice? [closed]

Suppose we have a sealed room, the room is a cube, half the room is filled with dry ice. What will happen when the dry ice sublimates to CO2, will the pressure of the room increase dangerously as the ...
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### What is the BKT transition in non-equilibrium systems?

There is a useful page on the BKT (or KT) transition here which describes the role of vortices in 2d equilibrium systems. I am interested in what happens in 2d non-equilibrium driven-dissipative ...
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### Relation between phase transitions and free energy?

I'm a mathematics undergraduate student, and I'm struggling with the concept of phase transition. I know that a (quite general) definition of phase transition is that "a physical system undergoes a ...
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### Critical points of vector field with zeros in the magnitude

I am studying a vector field which has critical points (sources, sinks, saddle points and centers). The magnitude of the vector field goes to zero smoothly in these points, however. Contrast that to ...
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### Phase diagram of a fluid

How is it look like the phase diagram of a fluid in density-pressure plane? I came across the phase diagram in Pressure-temperature plane most of the time. But I can't find the phase diagram in ...
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### What is Landau theory, and why is it only valid within a region close to the transition temperature?

I'm aware of the fact that first order and second order phase transitions are distinguished by at what order their free energy suffers a discontinuity as a function of a state variable, and I know ...
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### Applying the Clausius-Clapeyron relation

An example of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, according to Wikipedia, is: I'm a bit confused with the process. As far as I'm concerned, this slope is the rate of change of pressure with respect to ...
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### Why isn't superconductivity destroyed by the Goldstone modes?

In BCS theory they break particle number conservation and show the existence of a gap, which would explain why groundstate properties stay relatively the same even for higher temperatures (until beta ...
190 views

### Basics of topological order and its relation to entanglement

What is a topological order that drives a topological phase transition? How is it different from say magnetic ordering or the superfluid ordering? What is its relation with entanglement? Please ...
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### Is it possible to find dry ice crystals lying around the base in Antarctica?

Dry ice sublimates at -78.5°C, while the lowest temperature registered is about -89.2°C around the Vostok station in Antarctica. Imagine a person living on that station on that day (or night, since it ...
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### The influence of a temperature gradient on the growth of dendrites in a solid liquid interface

Not sure if this is the correct place to ask... My book states that, for a Solid Liquid interface in which the liquid has an increasing positive temperature gradient (increasing temperatures in ...
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### Why are wet bulb temperatures so warm compared to a naive calculation?

Wikipedia defines wet bulb temperature as: the temperature of a parcel of air cooled to saturation (100% relative humidity) by the evaporation of water into it, with the latent heat supplied by ...
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### Do Maxwell relations hold during a phase transition?

Maxwell relations are found by taking mixed derivatives of a thermodynamic potential. Does this mean that they do not hold at a first-order phase transition, where the thermodynamic potential is ...
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### Phase change in oceans

When ice cube melts in water the level of water doesn't change but when glaciers melts in oceans sea water level increases why?
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### Why the correlation function of 2D classical XY model is written so?

2D classical XY model $$H = -J\cos(\theta_{i}-\theta_{j})%$$ is famous for Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. This is because of the difference of correlation function between hot and ...
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### Do quantum effects play a role in the evaporation of water?

Imagine a thermodynamic system composed of a tumbler half-full of pure water, composed entirely of 1H and 16O. The system is isolated from extraneous influences by a perfect box impermeable to ...
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### Pinch points in fidelity per site (quantum phase transitions)

In Sachdev's Quantum Phase Transitions he defines a quantum phase transition in an infinite lattice as the point in which the ground energy as a function of the parameters of the system becomes non-...
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### Why does placing liquid nitrogen in a low pressure chamber lower its temperature?

As you can see in this demonstration and read in this Wikipedia article if you were to place a cup of liquid nitrogen in a low pressure environment then it would reach a triple point and begin to ...