# Questions tagged [phase-transition]

A phase transition is a change in the nature of a phase or in the number of phases of a system as a result of a change in the external conditions. Examples: melting/freezing, vaporization/condensation, ferromagnetic transition, superconducting transition.

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### What is the difference between change of state and change of phase?

The temperature remains constant during the change of state or phase? I know that the question is silly but this topic has been wrecking my nerves for quite a while.
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### Calculating time it takes to heat water in a microwave and the steam to evaporate

I am stuck on a question in my thermodynamics class. We have studied topics such as heat $Q$, entropy $S$, enthalpie $H$, etc. Bob puts a glass containing 500 grams of water in the microwave. Before ...
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### Why do clouds have well-defined boundaries?

Why do cumulus clouds have well defined boundaries? In other words, what are the physical mechanisms that hold a cloud together, as an entity separate from other clouds, that prevent it from spreading,...
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### How can I keep my just bought dozen of popsicles cold as long as possible? [closed]

It's hot and I bought a dozen of pear popsicles. I discovered the fridge with freezer is dead. How can I keep them cold as long as possible so I don't have to eat them all at once?
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### Central limit theorem and fluctuations

Considering a statistical model away from its criticality, the system can be essentially viewed as a collection of subsystems of size $\xi^d$ (with $\xi$ the correlation length) with no mutual ...
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### Do first-order phase transitions necessarily imply hysteresis?

As an example of first-order transition with hysteresis, I am thinking of the magnetization of the subcritical Ising model as a function of the magnetic field. Or density in the liquid-gas transition ...
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### Is there a liquid which boils at room temperature and normal pressure, and can we use it to produce electricity?

In many places the temperature difference between day and night is more than 20 degrees C. Max 45 C and min 25C. Can we create a machine which uses a liquid which has boiling point around 25-30 C and ...
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### Questioning solution of lake ice melting exercise

My thermodynamics teacher solved one exercise but I'm not convinced of his solution. The exercise asks this: A lake is covered by an ice sheet of thickness $D$ given. Ice latent fusion heat $\lambda$,...
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### Why do not all the semimetals turn into the excitonic insulators?

I want to know the condition for forming the excitonic insulator. When the binding energy of the exciton, $E_b$, overcomes the band gap, the system becomes the excitonic insulator. If so, all ...
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### What is a weakly first order phase transition?

I found some articles talking about a weakly first order phase transition; for example this one: https://arxiv.org/abs/2106.15462 I don't get what it is and find no clear sources on the phenomena. So, ...
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### Phase Diagram of NJL model

I am trying to reproduce the phase diagram of NJL model given in this thesis, plot 3.1 in page 14, with this LINK. I have solved the gap equation and I found the phase boundary. The problem is I am ...
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### To what extent can phase transitions be made rigorous?

It seems a lot of physical intuition in statistical mechanics, for example phase transitions, critical temperature, scaling hypothesis, renormalization group methods etc. should have a purely ...
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### Understanding the Cahn-Hilliard equation in terms of units

The Cahn-Hilliard equation may be formulated as $$\frac{\partial c}{\partial t} = M \nabla^2 \left(\frac{\partial \hat f}{\partial c}\right),$$ where $c : \Omega \to [0,100]$ describes the ...
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### Can the water remain in the vapor gas form at zero Kelvin (0K) temperature? (when the pressure is low enough or under other conditions)

Naively, when the water cools down to low temperature, the water goes to the ice solid phase. (Like below 0 celsius at 1 ATM pressure.) Can water remain in the gas form at zero Kelvin (0K) temperature,...
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### Vaporization - phase diagram

I understand what boiling and vaporization is. But what puzzles me is the phase diagram. When I spill a glass of water in my room, it will soon vaporize, though there was normal atmospheric pressure ...
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### Decrease in average kinetic energy at Lennard-Jones phase transition

I have written a molecular dynamics simulation to model argon using the Lennard-Jones potential. I am investigating the behaviour of the system near it's melting point for a specific pressure and ...
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### Is the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow a kind of phase transition like those in condensed matter?

From the laminar flow to turbulent flow, is it a kind of phase transition? If so, what is the critical point? And what about the correlation length behaviours and fluctuation? Any critical exponents? ...
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### Are all continuous phase transition points describing by conformal field theory?

How about the dimension? For example the higher dimension (d>2). If some properties (like critical exponent) of a phase transition point violate the prediction from conformal field theory, does it ...
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### What exactly happens to the melting point of a substance (except water) due to the presence of impurities?

According to my idea, the impurities will absorb a certain amount of heat too, due to the which the melting point of the actual substance should increase, because, I think, now the actual substance ...
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### Scaling of "non-reduced" parameters in RG theory

I'm studying quantum phase transitions using the Renormalization Group (RG) method. In Continentino's book "Quantum Scaling in Many-Body Systems: An Approach to Quantum Phase Transitions" ...
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### What is kinetic arrest?

I know what kinetic energy is and what chemical kinetics is, but what is kinetic arrest? Could someone please explain? There is no Wikipedia article, and googling throws up only journal articles (...
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### How to understand the notion of critical temperature in thermodynamics?

I just want to verify my understanding of the notion of critical temperature of fluids, because the more I read about it in the literature I become more and more confused. My main clue for ...
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### Breaking of bonds and heat

Is the process of bond breaking instantaneous or slow? (From here Why, exactly, does temperature remain constant during a change in state of matter?) If it is instantaneous, then how does the bond ...
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### Chemical potential in a first order phase transition

I've been taught that the first order derivative of the Gibb's free energy is discontinuous in a first order phase transition. We know : $$\partial G=V\partial P-S\partial T+\mu \partial N$$ This ...