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Questions tagged [phase-transition]

A phase transition is a change in the nature of a phase or in the number of phases of a system as a result of a change in the external conditions. Examples: melting/freezing, vaporization/condensation, ferromagnetic transition, superconducting transition.

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How does Superconductiviy change in 3D to 2D or vice versa? [closed]

I can't really understand how these transition works, maybe someone could recommend me reading something about these tranisiontions in superconductors. How does a 3d supercon transition to 2d or vice ...
David Lagasca's user avatar
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Is there a superfluid dual to superinsulators?

It's well known that there are many analogies between Superconductors and Superfluids. The diagram below explains a few: $$ \begin{matrix} \bf{\text{Superconductors}} \\ \text{0 electrical resistance} ...
Sidharth Ghoshal's user avatar
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1 answer
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Solid-on-solid models

I'm currently wondering about the so-called Chui-Weeks model 1 2, given by $$ H = J \sum_i |h_i - h_{i+1}| + K\sum_i \delta_{0,h_i}, $$ which is a type of solid-on-solid (SOS) model used to describe ...
Wladislaw Krinitsin's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
655 views

Is non-temperature related Symmetry Breaking possible?

In physics. Symmetry Breaking is related to temperature like in electroweak unification at high energies. Does symmetry breaking always involve temperature? Can you give examples of symmetry breaking ...
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Bubble behaviour during water / vapour coexistence in the most idealised scenario without boundaries

Consider the following statement: during a 1st order phase transition, the temperature of the system stays constant and any extra heat goes into turning a larger portion of the system into the new ...
Rudyard's user avatar
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How to calculate the evaporator and condenser pressure in a vapour compression refrigeration cycle?

Imagine a basic vapour compression refrigeration cycle. A compressor which sucks gas from the evaporator and pumps it into the condenser at high pressure. The gas loses heat and becomes liquid in the ...
sms_sr's user avatar
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Alternative potentials in the context of spontaneous symmetry breaking

Consider a one-dimensional real scalar field $\phi$. Usually when spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) with such field is discussed, the following potential is assumed: $$V=-\mu^2\phi^2+\lambda \phi^4$$...
Maik H.'s user avatar
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Universality and continuous variation of critical exponent close to a tricritical point

A tricritical point is a point at which a second order transition line and a first order transition line merge. At equilibrium, this point can be described by a landau potential (see for example this ...
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Gap of Ferromagnet in a magnetic field

There are numerous known results concerning the absence of a spectral gap in ferromagnets in their thermodynamic limit and various bounds on the value of the spectral gap in finite size realizations. ...
user153388's user avatar
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Gaussian fluctuations reducing $T_c$ in Goldenfeld chapter 6

I am trying to understand generally how the critical temperature is shifted relative to its mean-field predictions even in dimensions greater than the critical dimension. This question is related to ...
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Differences and similarities between phase transitions of Kuramoto model and thermodynamics

I am a math post-graduate (hardly have any modern physics background) and I'm considering the phase transition analysis on complex networks. To my knowledge, the Kuramoto model (see the wiki of ...
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What is the mechanism of sublimation?

Evaporation can be easily understood from the Maxwell-Boltzamann distribution. There is always a finite number of high speed atoms/molecules, however small, which have the energy to leave. Solids do ...
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Using the RG equations to find the free energy scaling form of the 2D Ising Model

i am trying to calculate the scaling form of the free energy of the 2D Ising model, starting from it's RG equations: $$\frac{d u_I}{dl} = 2 u_I + u_t^2$$ $$\frac{d u_t}{dl} = u_t$$ $$\frac{d u_h}{dl} =...
Dorek's user avatar
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Ising model in a magnetic field (phase transition?)

I have some questions regarding the Ising model in the presence of a magnetic field which is non-uniform. Let us define the Ising Hamiltonian on a $d-$dimensional lattice, $$ H = -\frac{1}{2} \sum_{i,...
math-int's user avatar
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Meaning of $n$-critical point

My lecture notes about field theory refer to a tricritical point as a point in which a continuous phase transition line meets a discontinuous phase transition line. In the following it refers to a ...
Dirac's delta's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
454 views

What causes the latent heat of solidification?

Every explanation that I read says: "When a crystal (solid state) forms from a liquid, heat is being produced." This seems rather weird, why would the production of something as ordered as ...
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Resources on Phase Ordering Dynamics and Non-Linear System

I am doing a course on Non-Equilibrium Physics. Prof. was initially following Strogatz but has now started teaching Phase ordering dynamics, Cahn-Hillard equation and all? I can't seem to find a good ...
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1 answer
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$P-v$ diagrams and isotherms with two inflection points

I have a very simple naive question concerning the interpretation of the following situation. Let there be an isotherm in a $P-v$ diagram which has two inflection points (different specific volumes, ...
Stuckelberator's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
2k views

Rotating a Pot of Boiling Water on a Stove

I have just boiled a half dozen eggs and wanted to ask about a phenomenon I have witnessed for years but have bottled up inside for so long. Why, when the water is near boiling and nice and hot, does ...
Alexandre DeFreitas's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
4k views

When we pour cold water on a closed jar containing only hot water and water vapour, why does the hot water in jar start boiling?

Here is a video link for the experiment. In the experiment, cold water is being poured on a closed jar containing hot water and water vapour and we observe that the hot water inside jar starts boiling....
Navneet's user avatar
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Does the changes of flow regimes of the renormalization group flow diagram imply always that a symmetry has been broken?

Usually we can use RG flow diagrams to understand that a phase transition has happened. Because they are intimately related to a broken symmetry, does that imply that it always implies that a symmetry ...
olsrcra's user avatar
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1 answer
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Determining Critical Temperature of Oxygen from Six $p$-$V$ Diagrams [closed]

So the question is to plot six $p$-$V$ curves for oxygen at various temperatures ranging from 80 K to 170 K, using the Van der Waals equation. Having done that, the next part asks to estimate the ...
Nero's user avatar
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Second-order phase transition of lattice gas model

Consider the lattice gas energy: $$ H = -\epsilon \sum_{\text{n.n}}c_ic_j-\mu \sum_i c_i, $$ where $c_i$ is the occupation at $i$ and can be $0$ (empty) or $1$ (occupied). I am using the Monte Carlo ...
Michael's user avatar
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Strength of a phase-transition

I'm currently studying neutron stars for a summer research project, and it uses the terms 'weak' and 'strong' transition for nuclear matter in its literature. Can someone explain (in terms that a ...
physicsnoob's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
64 views

Why are Critical Exponents simple non-integer powers?

I'm reading Baxter's Exactly Solved Models in Statistical Physics, and he claims that for $$t=\frac{T-T_c}{T_c}$$ which is just a change of variable in temperature to centre and normalise w.r.t. the ...
Redcrazyguy's user avatar
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1 answer
38 views

Water and ice, scales [closed]

There are scales with an identical bowl on each pan. We pour some amount of water into the first bowl. We pour less water and put an ice cube into the second bowl so the level of water in both bowls ...
Piotr H's user avatar
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Topological phase transitions in BKT-like system: relation to directed percolation

I am studying a non-equilibrium system that transitions between an unbound vortex state to a bound vortex state, that 'looks' like properties of BKT system. I am interested in the self-organising ...
Andy's user avatar
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Quantum Dimer Model with Multiple Chemical Potentials

Regarding the commonly known quantum dimer model on the honeycomb lattice See References: Phys. Rev. B 64, 144416 and Phys. Rev. B 69, 224415 only a chemical potential $v$ for the one possible type ...
jan0155's user avatar
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Anomalous dimension must be positive in Ginzburg-Landau $\phi^4$-like theories?

I am trying to understand/find the argument behind a claim made in this paper (page 3, column 1): that the anomalous dimension/exponent $\eta$ of a continuous phase transition in Ginzburg-Landu $\phi^...
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Cohesion forces and evaporation due to pressure reduction

So, we all know that there are two ways to evaporate a liquid, either by increasing its temperature through heating, which could be explained microscopically, as we're providing the molecules of the ...
Mark Spencer's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
127 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking in phase transitions

I don't really understand the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking in phase transitions. From my understanding of how spontaneous symmetry breaking works I need to find the ground states of a ...
Alex's user avatar
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0 answers
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How is the temperature constant during evaporation but it has different values depending on the location within the liquid?

During phase change such as water evaporation the temperature is supposed to be constant but it varies within the liquid itself i.e. the highest temperature in heterogenous evaporation is at the ...
Lost Bubblegum's user avatar
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0 answers
43 views

How to prove $(\partial^2 P)/(\partial V \partial T) \leq 0$? (Question about Griffiths’ 1965 Thermodynamic Inequalities and Apparent Contradictions)

I am currently studying a paper by Griffiths (1965b) on thermodynamic inequalities and have encountered some conceptual difficulties with the formulation presented therein. I’m hoping to get some ...
John Title's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
31 views

2d Ising model with a longitudinal field -- do the low and high temperature expansions converge for all nonzero $T$?

The 2d Ising model has a ferromagnetic and a paramagnetic phase separated by a critical $K_c$. The paramagnetic phase is often understood via a high-temperature expansion of the free-energy in powers ...
user196574's user avatar
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Can the edge degeneracy in spin-$2$ AKLT go away on an arbitrarily small $SO(3)$-symmetric bulk perturbation?

I am learning about SPTs, or symmetry-protected-topological phases. There is a rich structure in antiferromagnetic spin chains. The Heisenberg point is gapless in half-integer-spin antiferromagnets ...
user196574's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
181 views

Why doesn't latent heat change the temperature?

Seems like there is this new type of heat in town. Temperature is just the average kinetic energy; heat is basically movement of particles, so basically kinetic energy, so temperature is the measure ...
PhineSine's user avatar
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How to calculate the specific heat jump for a van der Waals gas at a non-critical volume?

I am currently self-studying Statistical Physics by Professor Schwabl and encountered a problem in the book (problem 5.5) that has significantly challenged my understanding. The problem is brief but ...
John Title's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

Axion domain wall number and heavy quarks

The domain wall number of a UV complete theory of axion is related to the number of PQ-charged heavy quarks that run in the loop. In the case of KSVZ model, $N_{\rm DW}=1$ while in DFSZ, $N_{\rm DW}&...
PhysicsStudy's user avatar
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2 answers
43 views

Gas and Vapour liquefaction

I am a bit confuse in the first statement. I think the statement is implying vapour as 'former' and gas as 'latter'. Am I correct here? But gas can be liqufied with pressure alone below the critical ...
Cerebral cortex 's user avatar
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0 answers
27 views

Swap operation in a Radiative Random Unitary Circuit

In ref PhysRevLett.131.220404, the author have studied the scrambling in a Radiative Random Unitary Circuit (RUC) -- a RUC that exchanges qubits with an environment at a rate $p$. It might perhaps be ...
Young Kindaichi's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
94 views

Does having a liquid (less dense than ice) above a floating (in water) ice cube, change the fact that the water level remains constant when ice melts?

An ice cube floats in water, with a liquid (less dense than ice) above it. When the ice cube melts will the water level go up, down or remain constant?
WilliamHarvey's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do I calculate predicted curves (or surfaces) on a substance's $p$-$T$ (or $p$-$V$-$T$) phase diagram?

I just saw the announcement "Breakthrough in melting point prediction: over 100-year-old physics problem solved by Queen Mary Professor", which says that Professor Trachenko ... ...
Lawton's user avatar
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What is a name of a critical point?

Imagine a critical line separating two thermodynamic phases. There is a point on this line splitting the line into two pieces such that on one piece the transition between the two phases is 1st order, ...
AVR's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Is there possible isentropic phase transition?

Suppose we have a complex system changing in state but without order parameter jump. Is there possible that during this change particular dynamic of system chsnges enough to name this phase change, ...
kakaz's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is RG fixed point always related to a second-order phase transition?

In practice, usually one of the parameters is tuned (for example temperature in 3D Ising model, which is a relevant parameter) so that it coincides with the value of RG fixed point, then RG flow make ...
Bababeluma's user avatar
14 votes
6 answers
3k views

Can the temperature of a steel ladle in boiling water exceed the temperature of the water?

I'm debating about this problem with my friends (they and I majored physics. But I think it's not a trivial question.) The problem is : The water in the pot is boiling by the gas stove, and there is ...
Hottestbeef's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
72 views

Can latent heat exist when both phases cannot exist at same temperature?

This is my understanding (please tell me if i am going wrong anywhere): During phase change (i.e. ice melting into water) the molecules absorb heat, gain more random kinetic energy, and spread apart (...
Varshil MVH Pets's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
74 views

For a liquid at boiling point, how can it require a set amount of heat (latent heat) to vaporize

I've always had a hard time wrapping my head around the 2 below statements being true for vaporizing a liquid into a gas: When a liquid reaches its boiling point the temperature stops rising (and any ...
LWilkinson's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
131 views

Phase transitions in the XXZ model

Consider the one-dimensional quantum XXZ model defined by the Hamiltonian: $$ H = J \sum_{i} \left (X_i X_{i+1} + Y_i Y_{i+1} + \Delta Z_i Z_{i+1} \right). $$ First, let us focus at zero ...
PhysicsNerd's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

What would happen if you add ice to an isolated system of water that is already at 0°C?

So here’s my question: Say there is some ice at -2°C. And water at 0°C. The ice is added to the water. Now this is a completely isolated system. There is no heat exchange whatsoever with the ...
Shakthi Weerawansa's user avatar

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