Questions tagged [phase-transition]

A phase transition is a change in the nature of a phase or in the number of phases of a system as a result of a change in the external conditions. Examples: melting/freezing, vaporization/condensation, ferromagnetic transition, superconducting transition.

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Pressure of a vacuum left by melted ice

Let's assume we have a completely sealed uncompressible container filled with ice (without no air gap between the ice and the cap). At room temperature, when ice melts in water, as the density of ...
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What is the order of the transition for a 2D Ising model?

I have been running around the block trying to find answers for this question, and I keep running into caveats. So, I just want to write down the list of things I want to know: Given that the order ...
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Phase transition in superconductors

I wonder about how the phase transition in type 1 superconductors work. How the magnetic flux gets expelled in the phase transition. I am trying to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. I ...
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Melting Points and Pressure for Water [duplicate]

I'm thoroughly confused by the relationship between the Melting Point of Water and pressure. Some sources suggest that since water expands upon freezing, applying pressure makes it "harder" ...
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I'm really confused on the formula $Q=mL$ on phase change

"A 6.00 kg piece of solid copper metal at an initial temperature T is placed with 2.00 kg of ice that is initially at -20.0°C. The ice is in an insulated container of negligible mass and no heat ...
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Is this asymmetrically frozen ice cream an example of symmetry breaking?

Today I noticed my ice cream had frozen in an asymmetric pattern because I left it resting at an angle on the fridge. I'm wondering if this is analogous to the concept of symmetry breaking as used in ...
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First-order phase transition in the Ising model?

I am doing a simulation of the 2D Ising model with a Monte Carlo algorithm. I think that the model should exhibit a second order phase transition at $\beta=\beta_c$, but when I try to plot the ...
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What is the upper pressure limit for solid to liquid phase border of water on 0.0 °C?

On phase diagram of water, solid to state border is a straight vertical line. Someone can argue it is only an approximation and nature cannot have vertical lines. For me however, it is clearly ...
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Why the specific heat capacity of the same substance is different in its different phase (state of matter)?

Concise Physics ICSE Volume II page 265 mentions the following: The specific heat capacity of the same substance is different in its different phases. The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg^...
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Is the early universe cosmology phase transition thermal or quantum? WHY?

In this question How does SSB happen?, one of the answers assumes the nature of the early universe phase transition to be thermal. I need to know why can't such phase transition be a quantum phase ...
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How does salt lowers the freezing point of water?

At 0 degree Celsius, water molecules slow down enough to bond with each other and ice starts to form. By adding more salt or sodium chloride the freezing point of water becomes even lower, why is that?...
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Simulation time for Ising model of large systems

I have tried to run simulation for Ising model of large-size square lattices at the critical point. Mostly I use Python optimized with numba decorator for $L=256$ it takes approx 2.5 min with ...
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Mean Field Theory Question

I am currently reading the chapter 10 of Quantum Phase Transitions by Subir Sachdev (1st ed.). Chapter 10 consists of introductory remarks on the Bose-Hubbard Model. Equation (10.8) [Eq. (9.8) in 2nd ...
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What causes the "screaming" sound from sausages when cooking them?

I saw this Youtube clip and wondered what's causing the screaming sounds? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Qz_8zxEGho&ab_channel=perhoskoira Something to do with the cooking oil and how it reacts ...
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How does SSB happen?

I've just finished studying for an exam on the Standard Model (so electroweak theory and symmetry breaking) and I can't figure out how this question never crossed my mind. I'm now studying the QCD ...
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All vapors are in the gas phase. Is my understanding correct?

Cambridge dictionary defines "vapor" as gas or extremely small drops of liquid that result from the heating of a liquid or solid which seems incorrect, because all vapors are in the gas ...
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Flory-Huggins theory of mixing

For the Flory-Huggins theory of mixing, the change in Gibbs free energy for a binary solution is given as $$\Delta G_{m}=kT\left ( \frac{\phi_{1}}{r_{1}}ln\phi_{1}+\frac{\phi_{2}}{r_{2}}ln\phi_{2}+\...
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At the critical point, is Kramers-Wannier duality a unitary symmetry of the model?

I have in mind the transverse ising model and its (self-dual) generalizations, such as $$H_{TI} = \sum_i \sigma^z_{i}\sigma^z_{i+1} + h \sigma^x_{i}$$ and $$H_{SDANNI} = \sum_i (\sigma^z_{i}\sigma^z_{...
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Why is the latent heat of vaporization 0 at the critical point?

This is not a homework question. The critical point of water is $\mathrm{374 \ C}$ and $\mathrm{22.06 \ MPa}$. At the critical point the latent heat of vaporization is $0$ - why? Assume the water ...
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How much heat energy is required to bring 1 liter of water to the critical point?

This is not a homework question. The critical point of water is 374 C and 22.06 MPa. At the critical point the latent heat of vaporization is 0 - why? Assume the water starts at 100 C. If you add the ...
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Connection between Symmetry Breaking and RG flow

I was wondering if this interpretation of how RG flows connects to the conventional symmetry breaking description of phase transitions is correct. Say I am an experimentalist and I move through ...
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Why is Energy change occurring during the reaction at constant temperature and constant volume given by internal energy change?

When volume and temperature are kept constant, shouldn't internal energy remain constant (as it's a state function depending on state variables)? When heat is supplied, why does the internal energy ...
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Does liquid water remain at thermal equilibrium with ice at the melting point of ice?

Suppose, I have a glass of water. Now, I begin cooling it until it reaches $0^{\circ}\rm C$. Just after it reaches $0^{\circ}\rm C$, I stop cooling it. Again suppose I have an ice cube. Now I begin ...
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How do we know that helium is a liquid at absolute zero?

I was looking at a phase chart of helium and like many before me, I was surprised that helium was a liquid at absolute zero: Now there are plenty of explanations online for why it can be liquid ...
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Why the Ginzburg-Landau free energy does not have divergence and curl of the order parameter?

For a vector order parameter $\vec{m}(\vec r)$, Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional contains $|\nabla m|^2$ term, where $m=|\vec m(\vec r)|$ but it does not include terms like $\nabla\cdot{\vec m}$ ...
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Where can I find pressure-temperature diagrams or phase diagrams for various substances on the internet ? (and for free)

In this particular case, I want to investigate making liquid nitrogen. My compressor will only go to 400 PSI, so I want to know what temperature nitrogen will turn liquid at 400 PSI (and really 350 ...
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Are phase transitions in one-dimensional random-field Ising model possible?

Translationally invariant one-dimensional models, with interactions of finite range and a finite number of states at the site, don't allow phase transitions at positive temperatures. This fact is a ...
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Why is snow white? [duplicate]

There is one question that has been bothering me sometimes the last couple of years that I want to share. There are two statements that I believe are true. A) snow's natural color is white B) snow of ...
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Continuous phase transition with no finite critical exponent

I am working with a model in which the energy density as a function of chemical potential $\mu$ and density $n$ is given by $$E = (e^{-1/n}-\mu)n$$ in appropriate units. This model has a phase ...
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Why does water boil in bubbles? [duplicate]

When my glass kettle is boiling water, you can see all the bubbles going up in a line. Why do bubbles originate from a selected group of points on the bottom of the kettle? Why isn't it random? What ...
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Baron Charles Cagniard de la Tour cannon experiment

I've found following description: In 1822 the French physicist Baron Charles Cagniard de la Tour was looking for an answer to the question: 'What happens when you boil a liquid in a sealed ...
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Symmetry group of QCD

In "Remarks on the chiral phase transition in chromodynamics" (1984) by Pisarski and Wilczek it is stated that the (classical) global flavor symmetry is $SU(2)\times SU(2) \times U_A(1)$ ...
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Order and Disorder Operators in QFT

On the wikipedia page, the 't Hooft loop operator is called a "disorder parameter," in contrast to the Wilson loop operator, which is an "order parameter." From my limited ...
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Phase transition in scalar $\phi^4$-theory

In the case of scalar $\phi^4$-theory, there is spontaneous symmetry breaking of $Z_2$ symmetry. And in lattice formulation of $\phi^4$ theory, we observe divergence of magnetization and avg squared ...
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Why liquid helium boils as its temperature is lowered?

Water boils when heated. Liquid helium boils when cooled. Not only that. It boils initially and then stops. Why?
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Is combustion a phase transition?

Is combustion a phase transition? Premise If we take a chemical reaction $$ A + B \leftrightarrow AB, $$ we expect all the three chemicals, $A,B, AB$ to be present in the mixture, in the proportions ...
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Charge ordering and orbital ordering - What is the difference?

In the context of condensed matter physics, particularly phase transitions of transition metal compounds, I often encounter charge ordering (CO) and orbital ordering (OO). For me, the terms look ...
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What is a correlation length? [duplicate]

What is a correlation length? I encountered this term in my space physics lecture, in the context of the "correlation length of the magnetic field magnitude," but I am not sure what does it ...
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Legendre Transformation of Landau Free Energy

I am trying to get an intuition for the Legendre Transformation of a generic Landau free energy, e.g. for the Ising model with magnetization $m$ given by $$F(m) = \frac{a}{2} m^2 + \frac{b}{4} m^4 + \...
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Connection Between Renormalization Group and Phase Transitions

I have a couple of questions on the relation of RG and phase transitions. I've heard in many sources that the theory of most transitions (excluding novel phase transitions like Quantum Critical ...
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$\mathbb{Z}_2$ Symmetry in Water

I have learned that the critical exponents for phase transitions is independent of the microscopic structure of the substance and is dependent on the symmetry. For instance the phase transition for a ...
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Theoretical minimum temperature required to melt any material

Reading about this (New material has a higher melting point than any known substance) got me curious. Given a pressure level (like 1 atm) and a sufficiently hot temperature, I have the intuition that ...
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Why would the entropy of a domain wall outweigh the energetic costs?

I'm reading through David Tong's notes on statistical field theory and on page 29, it is stated that the probability of having a domain wall anywhere on an interval from $x=-L/2$ to $x=L/2$ returns: $...
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Determining the critical current density in superconductors

I am trying to determine the critical current density in a superconductor with the help of a four point probe. The instructions are the following Set the current through the probes 1 and 4 at 0.1 Amp,...
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Steam explosion and how to prevent it while cooking [closed]

I hope this is not off-topic. I have googled for background info but didn't find much on cause and prevention. So the question to some experts. The following accident just happened. I would like to ...
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If a truncated power law distribution still has no characteristic length scale?

I do know that a power law distribution can extend from 0 to $+\infty$, so due to the shape of the distribution, there is no way to define an average value (this might be a characteristic length scale ...
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Can the degree of entanglement be an order parameter in a phase transition?

In most continuous phase transitions, there is a well-defined order parameter $\langle \psi \rangle$ of some observable that is zero above the transition temperature, and continously grows below the ...
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What is the canonical basis in quantum mechanics?

In a paper from 2018, Johannes Bausch et al refers to a classical state of a many-body quantum system to be a product state in the canonical basis. I was wondering what this “canonical basis” is ...
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Why do my "steel ice cubes" have water in them?

I recently bought steel ice cubes. A better name is probably "steel cubes with unidentified liquid" which I presume is water. When I opened the package I was quite surprised that they ...

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