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Questions tagged [phase-transition]

A phase transition is a change in the nature of a phase or in the number of phases of a system as a result of a change in the external conditions. Examples: melting/freezing, vaporization/condensation, ferromagnetic transition, superconducting transition.

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Why succeptibility diverges towards Tc in second order phase transition? [on hold]

Second order phase transition image as shown below.
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How to interpret phase diagrams?

I find quite difficult to interpret phase diagrams in general, for example I see people discuss them along the following lines: Here we see the coexistence line between liquid-solid phases.. a ...
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Why 2nd-order derivatives of $G$ are discontinuous in 2nd-order phase transition?

In most undergraduate books, it is said that for second order phase transition Gibbs free energy and its first order derivatives are continuous at transition temperature. But the second order ...
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How does ice melt when immersed in water?

When an ice cube is immersed in water at a room temperature, how is the thermal energy from the water transferred to the ice cube? Currently I have two answers: Infrared radiation from the water ...
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What determines the specific value of the order parameter in spontaneous symmetry breaking?

Three examples in the spontaneous symmetry breaking that occurs at a phase transitions: A ferromagnet below the Curie temperature chooses an axis of quantisation along which all the spins align, ...
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Understanding the Clausius-Clapeyron equation

I am confused about what the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is saying basically. I learned it from Finn's Thermal Physics textbook. Here is the illustration they used to derive it. Matter of two ...
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Integrability of a non-integrable quantum spin model at critical point

Is it right, that non-integrable quantum spin models in one dimension become integrable at their critical points? Or do they stay nonintegrable at the critical point also? Are there any examples known?...
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How to know if a liquid is boiling?

Unless we know the boiling temperature of a liquid, how can we know when a liquid is boiling ( I have this doubt because at temperatures nearing boiling point evaporation and boiling cannot be ...
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ABS Latent Heat of fusion

I am looking for the latent heat of fusion for ABS Plastic (or at least an estimate). I can't find it anywhere online, or my 1983 copy of CRC handbook of physics and chemistry. I was able to find in ...
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Absence of phase transitions in quantum 1D systems at positive temperature

While it is generally said that there are no phase transitions in classical lattice systems in one spatial dimension, there are also exceptions to this rule. Rigorous proofs involve some fairly strong ...
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Superconducting order parameter seems to depend on the choice of the ground state wave function!

As it is described in this question the BCS wave function has definite phase but indefinite electron number. Therefore the superconducting order parameter $\langle \phi| c_{k \uparrow}c_{-k \downarrow}...
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Why isn't superconductivity destroyed by the Goldstone modes?

In BCS theory they break particle number conservation and show the existence of a gap, which would explain why groundstate properties stay relatively the same even for higher temperatures (until beta ...
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Basics of topological order and its relation to entanglement

What is a topological order that drives a topological phase transition? How is it different from say magnetic ordering or the superfluid ordering? What is its relation with entanglement? Please ...
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Is it possible to find dry ice crystals lying around the base in Antarctica?

Dry ice sublimates at -78.5°C, while the lowest temperature registered is about -89.2°C around the Vostok station in Antarctica. Imagine a person living on that station on that day (or night, since it ...
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The influence of a temperature gradient on the growth of dendrites in a solid liquid interface

Not sure if this is the correct place to ask... My book states that, for a Solid Liquid interface in which the liquid has an increasing positive temperature gradient (increasing temperatures in ...
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Why are wet bulb temperatures so warm compared to a naive calculation?

Wikipedia defines wet bulb temperature as: the temperature of a parcel of air cooled to saturation (100% relative humidity) by the evaporation of water into it, with the latent heat supplied by ...
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Do Maxwell relations hold during a phase transition?

Maxwell relations are found by taking mixed derivatives of a thermodynamic potential. Does this mean that they do not hold at a first-order phase transition, where the thermodynamic potential is ...
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Phase change in oceans

When ice cube melts in water the level of water doesn't change but when glaciers melts in oceans sea water level increases why?
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Why the correlation function of 2D classical XY model is written so?

2D classical XY model $$H = -J\cos(\theta_{i}-\theta_{j})%$$ is famous for Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. This is because of the difference of correlation function between hot and ...
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Do quantum effects play a role in the evaporation of water?

Imagine a thermodynamic system composed of a tumbler half-full of pure water, composed entirely of 1H and 16O. The system is isolated from extraneous influences by a perfect box impermeable to ...
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Pinch points in fidelity per site (quantum phase transitions)

In Sachdev's Quantum Phase Transitions he defines a quantum phase transition in an infinite lattice as the point in which the ground energy as a function of the parameters of the system becomes non-...
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Why does placing liquid nitrogen in a low pressure chamber lower its temperature?

As you can see in this demonstration and read in this Wikipedia article if you were to place a cup of liquid nitrogen in a low pressure environment then it would reach a triple point and begin to ...
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Vacuum energy in continuous phase transitions

In a first-order cosmological phase transition, the tunneling from the false to the true vacuum (see left picture below) releases false vacuum energy corresponding to the potential difference $\Delta ...
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What are phase transiton in different contexts?

I have come across the concept of phase transitions in various contexts. From simple phase transition between different states of matter like water to ice and so on, to phase transition in magnetic ...
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How do I relate phase shift to heat capacity or thermal conductivity for frequency domain thermoreflectance?

I'm trying to measure either thermal conductivity or heat capacity of Silicon devices using frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR). I can get phase shift between the incoming signal from pump laser ...
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Quantization during phase transition

Consider a scalar field $\phi(t,\vec{x})$ in $\mathbb{R}^{1,3}$ with the following lagrangian $$ \mathcal{L} = \frac{1}{2}\partial_\mu\phi\partial^\mu\phi - V(\phi) $$ where $V(\phi)$ is such that ...
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Statistical Mechanics & Dynamical Systems

As a (theoretical) physics student I've taken (advanced) undergrad courses in both statistical mechanics and dynamical systems (which was purely mathematical, treatment of nonlinear differential ...
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Electroweak phase transition and finite temperature field theory formalism

We do our calculations in standard quantum field theory at zero temperature where we can derive pole mass and renormalized mass and ... Due to my understanding, pole mass is independent of any energy ...
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About the Maxwell Construction

From Wikipedia I'm reading Griener Walter Niese's book on thermodynamics. In the section about the Maxwell construction, It says: Because the internal energy is a state function, the difference is the ...
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Non-uniqueness of the Order Parameter and its Critical Exponent

In the theory of phase transitions, an order parameter is usually defined as some quantity which distinguishes the two phases of the system by being zero in one phase, and non-zero in the other (see e....
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Dependence of melting/boiling on external electric or magnetic fields

$H_2O$ is a rather strongly polarized molecule ($\epsilon_r\approx 80$) and it is also diamagnetic ($\chi_m \approx -9\cdot 10^{-6}$). My question is how does the melting or boiling $p-T$ curve ...
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What is the order parameter of 2D generalized $XY$ model?

I'm now studying the phase transition of 2D generalized XY model. This model considered here has a mixture with ferromagnetic and nematic-like interactions, $$\mathcal{H}=-\sum_{\langle i j\rangle}\...
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Phase separation in physics

I would like to familiarize myself with the current literature about phase separation. please direct me to statistical/thermodynamics theories of phase separation. Has phase separation been adopted ...
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What is role of nucleation centre in the formation of ice?

Water must be impure so that the impurities can act as nucleation centre for ice to form. What is role of nucleation centre? Why can not ice form with some nucleation centre? About existing (and ...
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Estimation of specific heat of a solid

I'm investigating a material, that under high temperature-pressure conditions undergoes a phase transition. In order to correctly calculate the temperature, or even estimate a reasonable value, I need ...
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Why do ice crystals form from the top to the bottom of a bottle filled with supercooled water?

If I bang a bottle filled with supercooled water against a hard surface, the ice crystals form from the top to the bottom:$\hspace{50px}$$\hspace{75px}$–source. YouTube has videos showing this ...
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Order of phase transition in random walks

If we consider a random walk with step size distribution $P(s)\sim s^{-\gamma}$, we know the order of $\langle s^2\rangle$ changes at $\gamma=3$, while the order of $\langle s\rangle$ changes at $\...
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Where is the gauge symmetry in an ideal Bose gas?

It seems in the literature that there is a certain notion of a “macroscopic wavefunction” associated with a Bose-Einstein system (see this PSE answer) which exhibits a global $U(1)$-phase symmetry. ...
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Obtaining an expression for spontaneous magnetization in 1D Ising model with $H=0$ from the beginning

The usual trick to find the spontaneous magnetization for the 1D Ising model is to calculate the partition function $Z$ with the Hamiltonian $$\mathscr{H}=-J\sum\limits_{i}S_iS_{i+1}-H\sum\limits_{i}...
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Potts model equivalent to Heisenberg model

The mean-field equations for the three-state Potts model $$ \mathcal{H}=-J\sum_{\langle ij \rangle}\delta_{\sigma_i\sigma_j}\:,\qquad\sigma_i=1,\,2,\,3 $$ is equivalent to $$ \mathcal{H}=-J\sum_{\...
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Why do gas expand when heated?

So as a volume of gas is heated, the addition of energy increase the particles' kinetic energy. This only means that they are now moving faster right? I cannot relate this increase of kinetic energy ...
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What is so topological about topological phase transitions?

I am studying the KT-transition, which is called a topological phase transition. The phase transition is driven by vortices in a 2-D superfluid, where it is shown that at a critical temperature $T_c$ ...
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Gapless modes at the boundary between topological insulator and normal insulator

I am currently learning about topology in condensed matter physics. I think I understand most of how topological indeces come about and differences between Z and Z2 indeces and the symmetries that ...
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Is a paste a type of glue?

I just wanted to know the answer to this because of the idea of phases of matter, would a paste (or glue) drying count as a change between the states of solid and liquid?
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What are the differences between specific latent heat and latent heat?

What are the differences between specific latent heat and latent heat? As far as I know, latent heat is the heat required or released during the change of state, without change of temperature. So ...
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2answers
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Critical point of a pure substance

What I've understood is no matter how much pressure we apply to a gas present at its critical temperature, it will never liquefy, and that there will be no 'distinction' between the 2 phases, liquid &...
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Why is the electrochemical potential $\mu$ constant in the phase transition?

I was studying thermodynamics and my book shows that the electrochemical potentials have to be equal in a phase transition and I can't understand why. (the book I'm using is Callen).
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Multiple Triple Points

I was reading Chandler's Introduction to Modern Statistical Mechanics and noticed a strange feature in one of the figures. The phase diagram in the image has two triple points; however, according to ...
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What mechanism at the microscopic level determines whether a system heats up or not?

When placed in an ordinary or a microwave oven, a beaker of water heats up except during boiling (i.e., a phase change involving latent heat). Now, suppose a system absorbs energy in such a way that ...
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Latent heat and and raising temperature [closed]

So in first order phase order transitions, the parcel of matter undergoing the phase change can release energy into its surroundings. However it is "latent" in so far it will not raise the temperature ...