Questions tagged [phase-diagram]

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Why vapor pressure exist below saturation temperature? [duplicate]

Say, there is water at $50^{\circ}\text{C}$ at 1 atm pressure on an open pot. Water boils at $100^{\circ}\text{C}$ at that pressure. So there should be no vapor at that condition as well as vapor ...
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17 views

Explanation of formation of bubbles when gases reach the hydrostatic pressure in a lake

I am learning about the hydrostatic pressure in a lake, can someone please explain to me why when the gases reach saturation in a lake, there is a formation of bubbles?
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70 views

First and second order phase transition classificiation and scope of Landau theory

I am puzzled by the definition of continuous and first-order phase transitions and the use of Landau theory. I think I am lost in technicality. In the phase diagram below the critical point, we have ...
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2answers
48 views

Understanding the critical temperature on a $pV$ diagram

I know that the critical temperature is the highest possible temperature before a liquid becomes a gas. I also know that at the critical volume on the critical temperature isotherm, $\frac{\partial P}{...
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1answer
216 views

Is there any substance whose vapor-liquid coexistence area appears leaned?

The usual substance whose vapor-liquid coexistence area appears like that shown in following Fig.1 My question is: is there any substance whose vapor-liquid coexistence area looks leaned, i.e., $V_{...
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Existence of liquid phase of metal below triple point pressure in vacuum chamber

As part of my work, I perform localized heating of metals using a CW laser, upto and past the melting point, inside a vacuum chamber with typical ambient pressures of $\sim 10^{-9}\,$mbar. However, I ...
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1answer
47 views

Is there a phase diagram for $\rm CO_2$ below 1 millibar?

Considering $\rm CO_2$ snow on Mars and recent cold temperature on the earths' south pole, I am looking for a $\rm CO_2$ phase diagram below 1 millibar that shows the sublimation temperature of $\rm ...
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1answer
444 views

Why can't water be liquid above 647 kelvins?

In this article about vapor, it is said that liquid water can't exist if its temperature is higher than 647 kelvins. But if we put the liquid water in a closed container and heated up the water, ...
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1answer
39 views

Latent heat of water at triple point

My class textbook states that the latent heat at triple point of water is zero. When i tried to look up there was less to no information about this fact. Can anyone give any plausible explanation for ...
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1answer
232 views

What does 'saturated' air actually mean?

I'm having some problem in getting an insight on what 'saturation with vapor' actually means. The question is asked in the context of atmospheric air becoming saturated with water vapor and beginning ...
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3answers
64 views

What is implied by the term "phase transition" as in when you boil water?

I have somehow gathered that when you heat water as you record its temperature, it's temperature begins to rise until it boils. After that it's temperature will not rise by adding anymore heat. So ...
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Boiling in completely filled vessel

Suppose we completely fill a vessel with water and then close it in such a way that no matter can escape from it. If we now heat the vessel to 373K then what will happen inside vessel?
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$S$-Parameter Phase in Matlab

I'm trying to plot the phase of S-parameters on Matlab. The data I have is the coupling matrix (M) of the system and from that I have extracted S11 and S21 (column 1 in image is frequency and column 2 ...
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Why was water freezing almost instantaneously when shaking a bottle that spent the night outside during a frosty night?

Due to the forecasted frost last night, I placed yesterday evening, some 1.5l standard PET bottles filled up to 90% with warm tap water(+60°C) close to some vegetables that I wanted to protect in my ...
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1answer
16 views

What pressure does liquid nitrous oxide need at -45°C?

What pressure does liquid nitrous oxide need at -45°C to remain liquid? How can I calculate it's pressure required for other temperatures?
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57 views

Phase Diagrams - Hypereutectic, pro-eutectic phase

While designing some questions for my undergraduate class, I came across a scenario that is having me scratch my head. I am using the Cu-Ag phase diagram and arbitrarily selected Co = 90 wt.% Ag. My ...
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1answer
48 views

Why does adding salt to the water in a humidifier increase the amount of steam it makes?

Rather than "it decreases the latent heat of vaporization", can you explain why?
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1answer
30 views

Can the freezing point of Nitrogen be reduced?

There was an interesting Q/A about mixing helium and nitrogen. Is there anything that can be added to liquid nitrogen to reduce it's freezing point to below 63 kelvin?
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44 views

How to convert these from the given free energy $G$ vs $X$ to $T$ vs $X$ diagrams?

What I really do not understand is how they are converting from G vs X curves to T vs X. I have a couple of more diagrams with which I am having problems. A detailed answer to this is most welcome.
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Having doubt with how these diagrams have originated

This is written in the context of miscibility gap. What I do not understand is why delta H mix is greater than 0 for the situation. This is particularly written in context of systems with a ...
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Critical point for fusion curve

In phase diagram, on vaporization curve there exists a critical point beyond which a gas can not be liquifies but why does fusion curve does NOT end at a critical point and continues to infinity?
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1answer
161 views

Properties of water at a temperature of 300°C and a pressure of 3000 kPa

I'm using a online calculator, and it says that the boiling point of water at a pressure of 3000 kPa is 233.7°C. So then I understand that the water in is a superheated state (and thus still a liquid)....
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11 views

Why are spinodal points of such a great significance?

I can well understand that spinodal points have to do with inflection points in a G vs X curve but I do not yet understand why on earth do I need those points at all?Any guidance in the direction ...
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31 views

Where does the mass go in Clausius-Clapeyron approximation for ideal gases?

I am currently studying Clausius-Clapeyron equation at university. One of the proposed problems asked us to find the latent heat of vaporisation of camphor using ideal gas laws. In the solution by my ...
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Proving this modified classical 2D Ising Hamiltonian has a phase transition

Consider the following Hamiltonian with a local Hilbert space $\mathcal{H}=\mathcal{H}_\Delta\otimes \mathcal{H}_{Ising}\cong\mathbb{C}^2\otimes\mathbb{C}^2 $. Denote an $L\times L $ square lattice as ...
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3answers
145 views

R134a state at rest

I'm a mechanic and I've had a question for some time regarding AC systems that no one in my garage seems to be able to answer (or care actually). R134a has a boiling point at -26°C at atmospheric ...
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24 views

Is it possible to have three stable liquid phases in a binary mixture?

With this system, it would be possible to have three liquid phases and two liquid-liquid coexistence regions at various compositions. Similar behaviour is common for solids such as alloys, sometimes ...
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99 views

Why are there two states of matter in a bottle of gas?

Say a bottle of natural gas used for heating or cooking. There is a liquid phase, which I believe is the densest part, at the bottom of the bottle. And on top of it, there is presumably gas in a ...
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1k views

Does the density of ice increase further when it is further cooled?

As we know, water becomes ice at $0^°$C. After becoming ice, if we lower the temperature further ($<0^°$C), then does the density of ice increase further? If yes, in that case, does the volume ...
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1answer
109 views

How can Water exist in two different liquid states at the atomic scale?

We know how unique water is and this question is based on a recent discovery that water can exist in two different liquid states. The density of the two states vary by almost 20 %. Can someone explain ...
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1answer
48 views

Shouldn't the projection on the y-axis, of a radial vector in a circle making an angle theta with the x axis, also be the radius?

I don't understand this diagram... the projection is meant to be a shadow, right? So shouldn't the shadow of the radial vector as shown in the circle on the y-axis, be the entire y-axis (since the ...
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35 views

First-Order Phase Transition

When the density/volume abruptly changes (isobar/isothermal) while providing a sufficient latent heat to the system, is this variation related to a high compression/expansion as it is illustrated to ...
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Understanding liquid-liquid phase separation

The above figure shows how the regular-solution free energy might lead to liquid–liquid equilibrium. In the region between the compositions $x^I_A$ and $x^{II}_A$, $G$ increases with $x_A$. If the ...
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1answer
21 views

Liquid-Vapour Surface Tension

In a multi-phase system with a liquid which meets a gas at the free surface, one can define liquid-vapour surface tension $\gamma_{LV}$: is this surface tension a constant when one varies the pressure ...
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1answer
64 views

What happens physically in a second-order liquid-gas phase transition?

I know the difference between first and second order phase transition in terms of the discontinuity of the derivatives of free energy. I am curious to know what happens as the system is viewed. ...
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933 views

Why water behaves strangely at 4 degree celsius?

The basic physics concept I hope almost every one might be aware of i.e "water tend to expand instead of freezing just below and above 4 degree celsius". My question is why exactly at 4 ...
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32 views

Question concerning phase curves and Lissajous figures

I want to draw the "orbits" of a spherical pendulum under small oscillations. In this case its equations are given by $\ddot{x}_{1}=-x_{1}$ and $\ddot{x}_{2}=-x_{2}$. Of course the potential ...
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1answer
326 views

Is there a state of matter with no definite volume but definite shape? [closed]

Essentially I am wondering since solids have definite shape and volume, liquids have definite volume, and gases have neither definite volume or shape if there was a state of matter that can change ...
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30 views

Can phase diagrams be obtained by Helmholtz energy minimization?

I know that in calculating phases of materials it is standard to choose a pressure $p$ and temperature $T$ of interest and then, keeping these two quantities fixed, find the mixture of phases that ...
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131 views

First-order phase transitions as branch cuts

First, I apologize for the long preface to my question. The actual question is in bold below. In Kardar's Statistical Physics of Fields, on page 10, the author writes, "the free energy of the ...
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121 views

Continuous Transition From gas to liquid

Consider the following figure: Let us suppose we were at some point in gaseous phase. Can we go from gaseous to liquid phase by moving about critical point continuously? Why isn’t any critical point ...
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98 views

Why does critical temperature exist?

This question has been previously asked over here and the comment and answer there has already answered my original question (the one that I had in my mind), but the following question arises: Why ...
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1answer
79 views

Why does diamond-graphite phase digram not contain a critical point?

I was curious as to why in all the diagrams I have seen that the diamond-graphite phase diagram does not display a critical point, do all substances eventually reach a critical point?
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829 views

Is there any relevance between phase diagram and energy?

                               Phase Diagram for Carbon Dioxide I watched ...
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276 views

How to differentiate solid, liquid and gas on the basis of symmetry breaking? [closed]

I want to ask this question how to solid, liquid and gaseous state arises due to the concept of symmetry breaking?
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1answer
43 views

Quark gluon plasma at arbitrarily high temperature

Does the quark-gluon plasma become weakly coupled at infinite temperature (due to asymptotic freedom), or does it maintain some non-perturbative behavior?
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39 views

Why do some textbooks use $T$-$V$ diagram for temperature table instead of $p$-$V$ diagram?

I am confused about this thing. In the temperature table, the first column explains specific temperature and the second column explains corresponding saturation pressure. From what I understand, if ...
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2answers
125 views

Phase diagram method

I was trying to find the famous attractor solution of the inflaton field which follows the equation $$\frac{d\dot{\phi}}{d\phi}=-\frac{\sqrt{12\pi}(\dot{\phi}^2+m^2\phi^2)^{1/2}\dot{\phi}+m^2\phi}{\...
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492 views

Why is temperature and pressure constant during a phase transition?

During a phase transition, I have read that phase transitions occur at constant pressure and temperature. The explanations I have found both in books and online for this is that all the energy ...
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1answer
94 views

Why can you find running water lower than $0^\circ \text{C}$?

I was looking at the phase diagram for water: It seems there is not much of a region on the diagram at which you can be in the liquid phase, for temperatures lower than $0^\circ \text{C}$. I am ...