Questions tagged [particle-detectors]

the tools used to detect (and sometimes) characterize ionizing radiation. This tag is appropriate for question about the characteristics and behavior of all such devices from the simplest Geiger-Muller tube, to the compound monsters used by high-energy experiments to the mega-ton instrumented volume of IceCube.

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How can I perform particle identification with a proportional counter? I mean, how am I able to discriminate between an alpha particle or beta rad?

As far as I understood for PID you need to know the momentum, the charge and the energy loss by the particle. So if I measure a certain energy loss with a proportional counter how can I know that I ...
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What are some household sources of radiation detectable with a geiger counter?

I recently started rock tumbling with my preschool-age kids and bought a cheap geiger counter to check out rocks we find (more from curiosity than concern). Specifically it's a GQ GMC-500Plus model ...
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If two decays have the same topological effects are they the same?

What i mean is, if two decay processes have the same decay products (and initial state) and very similar topology can we treat them as the same? Or would you be able to detect which decay mode had ...
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Are Geiger tubes sensitive to magnetic field?

I know that photomultiplier tubes do not work in magnetic fields >30G. A Geiger tube is 'somewhat' of a similar device in that they both measure electron avalanche/breakdowns and electrons are ...
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How to estimate the experimental acceptance of a particle as a function of its life-time?

My lecturer stated that we can calculate the experimental acceptance of the Higgs boson as a function of the life-time and also as a function of the mass by reading the following article: Davier and ...
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Error propagation in measurement of photon rate

A detector is measuring photons coming from a known source $D$ and a background $B$ which produce photons respectively with rates $F_D$ and $F_B$. Suppose we want to measure $F_D$ by performing two ...
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What does the inverse background efficiency represent?

I am reading a paper from the ATLAS experiment on the identification of tau jets from background jets and came across this figure: I am struggling to find what the formula is for the inverse ...
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What is the peak lineshape in spectroscopy?

I have two questions regarding the lineshape of peaks in spectra obtained with detectors (such as germanium detectors) in spectroscopy. What we often read is that the detector's response lineshape ...
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Difference between an electromagnetic calorimeter and a pet-detector

Is there a conceptual-technical difference between an electromagnetic calorimeter and a pet-detector? Surprisingly I couldn't find a better/rough concept of an Ecal but ultimately it consists of a lot ...
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Spark chamber spectrometer in Cronin and Fitch experiment

I'm currently studying Cronin and Fitch experiment that showed the indirect CP-violation. I understand the physics behind it and how the experiment was done, but while trying to go deeper into the ...
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What does "Position Reconstruction" mean?

What does "Position Reconstruction" mean in the context of Dark Matter detection? Specifically see e.g. the title of arxiv:1112.1481. Does it refers to an actual position in the dark matter ...
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Parton, detector and particle level at LHC [closed]

What is the difference between parton, detector and particle level in high energy physics? I found a similar question but I couldn't understand the explanation for detector and particle level given ...
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What is an infrared quantum counter?

What is an infrared quantum counter? Please explain this like you were telling it to an undergrad - I haven't taken quantum yet but I took modern physics. I've googled, YouTubed, etc the closest I ...
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How can we detect neutrons?

If I am asked to design a simple experiment to detect neutrons, how can I do that? The problem is, neutron is a neutral particle. So, application of electric and magnetic fields won't help. Can I ...
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Stopping power vs linear energy transfer (LET)

I wonder about the difference between stopping power and linear energy transfer. I would like to refer to http://radonc.wikidot.com/stopping-power-v-linear-energy-transfer-let where it is quite ...
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Do neutrinos absorb light?

I have been reading about neutrinos lately. One thing that I found amazing about these, is that their detection is not so easy. My question here is, do neutrinos absorb light?
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Is it the term "telescope" the same as a "detector"?

For example, in this reference, MITO: muon telescope they use the term telescope but clearly the "telescope" is a muon detection system. And they also talk about angular resolution, angular ...
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Is hadronic calorimetry dependent on pion production?

I'm new to this area and currently reviewing literature before making simulations with a toy model for calorimetry. While reading some texts about hadronic calorimeters, I have the impression that the ...
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How would you remotely detect interaction of a beam of 1 GeV protons with an aluminum sheet?

The inelastic interaction with an electron of the aluminum atom would knock them out of the atom, and would give rise to emission lines characteristic of aluminum when a free electron filled the ...
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Can the time interval between measurements A and B be arbitrarely small?

If we make two measuraments of a particle-antiparticle spin should the interval between the two measuraments be so small that no signal emitted by one particle can have effect on the measueament of ...
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How to calculate the direction of the missing transverse energy (MET)?

How exactly do you calculate the direction of the missing transverse energy? This paper (arXiv:1412.2641), for example, makes use of it to get some cuts. Adding to this, how can you correlate this to ...
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What is wrong with my cloud chamber? [closed]

Ive been trying to make a cloud chamber for a few days. I seem to have gotten most of the way there, but cant quite see any tracks, only mist. Im using isopropanol with cooling from salted water ice ...
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How does scintillation work? [duplicate]

We are doing an experiment on gamma spectroscopy and came across the concept of scintillation. It says that it's a property of materials through which we can change high energy photons (gamma photons ...
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$\rm kph/MeV$ for Light yield?

I was reading an article on Scintillation and I came across a peculiar unit $\rm kph/MeV$ for Light yield. It stated for Organic Scintillators, it has a Lower light yield (1-10 kph/MeV). Here do kph ...
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Muon trajectory in the ATLAS experiment at CERN

In the ATLAS experiment, muons were created after a beam-cross and pass through the New Small Wheel and the Big Wheel. According to the picture, the muon is not moving in a straight line. (IP stands ...
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What would happen if I change the polarity of my gas chamber radiation detector?

What would happen if I change my ionization chamber polarity?
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How is number of photons found on a spectra?

Sorry for the stupid question, but I am very new to this and have no background in physics. Say we have a spectra as the one in the image, which represent a charge distribution over a specific channel,...
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Can we detect the alpha and beta particles using the scintillator detectors?

In the experiment gamma ray detection with scintillators, we can detect the gamma ray particle. Is it possible to detect alpha and beta particle using scintillator detectors. If not then why is so? ...
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Why can't indirect ionisation be seen in the silicon tracker of a HEP particle detector?

So the inner tracker system of a particle detector (say CMS) can detect charged particles because they ionize particles in the detector. These inner tracker systems are made of silicon pixels and ...
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How do we know that the muons created by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere are the same muons reaching our detectors at the surface?

I was reading the summary of most significant experiments done so far verifying muon's Special Relativity time dilation and lifetime extension here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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What is the probability distribution for the detection times of radioactive emissions from a radioactive sample?

Assume I have a radioactive sample composed of $N$ atoms of some type A. I know that if I measure at time t the number of atoms not already decayed, this number will be given by $$ N(t) = N_0 \exp^{-t/...
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Can spin be used for charged particle identification?

In modern particle physics experiments, identification of charged particles (pions, kaons, muons, protons, electrons) is often required. This is usually achieved with techniques based either on time-...
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How the calculate the energy resolution of a lead crystal calorimeter?

I'm trying to calculate the energy resolution that can be found with a lead crystal calorimeter, and I have the following equation to find the approximate value: $$ \frac{\sigma_E}{E} = 0.02\% + \frac{...
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Data rate of Atlas and CMS, LHC's detectors too slow?

There is a technical question I always curious about to ask a CERN expert? I have read, http://nordberg.web.cern.ch/PAPERS/JINST08.pdf, page 5, that the data sampling rate, number of stills taken from ...
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Is there a way to determine the production method of a Higgs boson created via collisions in the LHC?

So I'm aware that there are several currently accepted production methods for Higgs boson, such as gluon fusion. When a Higgs boson is detected is it possible to determine the production method from ...
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ZEUS Uranium-Calorimeter

According to Wikipedia: In the ZEUS calorimeter neutral pions interacted with uranium atoms to produce slow moving neutrons which were captured by the scintillator and increased the hadronic signal. ...
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Does boron trifluoride have to be replaced in a proportional chamber detector with ${\rm BF}_3$?

Does boron trifluoride have to be replaced in a proportional chamber detector with ${\rm BF}_3$? Boron-10 reacts with a neutron through alpha decay $$^{10}{\rm B}+{^1}n \rightarrow {^7}{\rm Li}+{^4}\...
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What is a 'kinematic endpoint' in experimental particle physics?

In experimental particle physics, I see 'kinematic endpoint' pop up quite often. I've made an assumption of what it is but now I am not so sure. Example sentence: "This region is enhanced in B-&...
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2 votes
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Signal to noise ratio with noise equivalent power

I am reading this document about the noise equivalent power (NEP). I want to calculate the signal to noise ratio for a photon detector. I denote the signal power as $P_s$. The width of the signal is $\...
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1 vote
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What is meant by spatial resolution in a particle detector?

I'm reading a document about a particle physics detector and its sub-detectors. They mention that: ' its drift chamber has a spatial resolution of 130 μm'. Can anyone please explain to me what is ...
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6 votes
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Why some alpha particle tracks shows curvature *without* applied magnetic field?

For the past few months I have been observing alpha tracks with my homemade expansion cloud chamber assembly, trying to replicate early achievements in particle physics using modern, low-cost ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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How do we measure other particles that are not photons?

I believe most particle detectors are based on either the photoelectric effect, or simply on excitation of atoms by light. Then, the energy resulting from this process is converted into something we ...
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Strange output of Geiger counter

Recently, I got a Geiger counter (si3bg). I applied a 400V voltage and a 1m Ω resistance load to it, and connected a 47K Ω resistor in series. The voltage at both ends of the resistance was measured ...
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How to calculate the Likelihood function of a gaussian pdf

Suppose a model for a flux of (astro)particles $\dot \Phi(E,t)$ (from a supernovae) that depends on particle energy $E$ and time $t$ (from beginning of explosion), and 3 free parameters $T_a, M_a, \...
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Cherenkov light rings

Let's suppose a muon emits Cherenkov light while travelling in a medium along a straight line. Let's suppose the motion is perpendicular to a wall which is instrumented with photomultipliers. Question:...
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Why do gamma-rays and neutrons produce different decay times in scintillation pulses from the same compound?

The basis of pulse shape discrimination is that gamma-rays and neutrons have different decay times of their electronic pulses. What makes gamma-rays and neutrons interact with the same compound ...
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Shape of exclusion plots of WIMP

What is the reason why the exclusion plots of WIMP experiments have that "U" like shape? And what sets the minimum of the curve?
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How do I determine the rest mass of a $J/\psi$ particle from CMS Dimuon Data?

Essentially, I'm using CMS Dimuon data, from the decay of a $J/\psi$ particle, to prove that momentum is 'conserved' in relativistic collisions. However, I'm unable to find how I can do this. I ...
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How can you produce a spectrum with He3 thermal neutron detector?

I'm looking to understand how Bonner Sphere System works. I understand the whole idea, but I'm lost about how a single sphere can produce a whole spectrum. For instance with He3 thermal detector, the ...
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How do you get the total energy of an event for a detector array?

THE SET-UP: The air-shower detector array made out of six detectors. The detectors are composed of a scintillator and a SiPM (Sillicon Photomultiplier) each. Depending on the shower size, one or more ...
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