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Questions tagged [particle-detectors]

the tools used to detect (and sometimes) characterize ionizing radiation. This tag is appropriate for question about the characteristics and behavior of all such devices from the simplest Geiger-Muller tube, to the compound monsters used by high-energy experiments to the mega-ton instrumented volume of IceCube.

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What is meant by an “Any Energy” efficiency curve for a particle detector?

So I'm simulating a silicon detector with an electron source incident on it. I need to get 2 efficiency curves, one "photo-peak" and one "any energy". I've got the photo peak one, but I don't ...
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In particle colliders, according to QM, how are two particles able to “collide”?

According to QM, we know that The act of measurement forces a particle to acquire a definite (up to experimental errors) position, so in a particle collider, like the one in CERN, by which means ...
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Notation in a question on probabilities and particle counting

I'm working through Stephen Barnett's book on quantum information and have come across the following question (1.5, for anyone keeping track at home) A particle counter records counts with an ...
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Majorana Neutrinos in the KamLAND-Zen

I'm reading the following paper concerning the KamLAND-Zen experiment "Search for Majorana Neutrinos near the Inverted Mass Hierarchy Region with KamLAND-Zen" In the second paragraph of the first ...
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Micro-channel Plate Detectors - do they or don't they degrade?

Micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors are microscopic holes in a plate. They get put in an electric field and there act like many tiny dynodes, amplifying any electrons that enter. This makes them ...
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What is the pulse that is counted in Geiger Muller tube?

I have started reading the theory behind the working of Geiger Muller tube. I dont understand the concept of pulse! According to wikipedia: The ionization is considerably amplified within the ...
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In HPGe detector how electron-hole pair remembers energy information of incident gamma?

In the HPGe detector, any gamma energy (> e-h pair production E) shall excite the electron of the valence band and send it to the conduction band. Due to reverse bias, the conduction band e shall be ...
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How do scintillation detectors work, for gamma ray spectroscopy

So I understand what happens in the crystal with respect to the interactions and how the electrons in PMT are multiplied by hitting dynodes etc. But what I can't really seem to find any information on ...
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Matter effects contributing in solar, atmospheric and reactor neutrino oscillations

Neutrino oscillations are affected by the matter effects. For solar neutrinos, which are exclusively neutrinos of $\nu_e$ type, the matter effects can be contributed by (i) the solar plasma, (ii) ...
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Width of $\eta$ meson mass peak?

In an experiment an $\eta$ meson is produced with total energy $E _ { 0 } = 2000$ MeV in the laboratory frame. Estimate the width of the $\eta$ mass peasured in a calorimeter that has an energy and ...
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What formula is used to make exclusion plot in the direct detection of dark matter?

The idea of direct detection of dark matter is that a dark matter particle striking some underground target will cause the target nucleus to recoil. From the recoil, one can determine the scattering ...
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What’s wrong with my cloud chamber setup?

For my setup, I am using a fish tank, lined with black felt and with one side open for viewing and a slit on a side for the light. I have a pretty bright multi led flashlight. I am using dry ice ...
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Effects of a wire's radius

I have recently read a paper by R. G. Markham titled "High Resolution Position-Sensitive Proportional Counter." In this paper, the author stated that "The guard wires were chosen to have a large ...
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Pile-up in particle physics

Regarding pile-up, I came across two definitions. One dealing with electronics of detector where more than one event get recorded at the same time and other regarding all the pp collisions in the ...
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1answer
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Why is it easier to observe B-meson oscillations than D-meson ones?

B-meson oscillations were observed several years ago by the CDF experiment B-oscillations, but D-meson could not be observed until very recently by the LHCb experiment. I'm wondering why is it more ...
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Noise in AC/DC coupling devices

I what is the reason why we perform AC coupling of electronic devices for particle physics. I was told that it is because the noise is lower, but I do not know why this is the case.
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Spatial resolution of silicon pixels

There is a variety of silicon pixels being used in very high energy particle applications. I would like to know, if I have a detector with silicon pixels of dimensions N x M, how can I calculate what ...
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Ion detection probability of a photo-multiplier tube (PMT)

Let's say we have two ions (A$^{+}$ and A$^{2+}$) with the same energy around 2.5 keV. If these two ions hit a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) detector what will be the detection probability of these ...
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Impurities in HPGe crystals

Is there any way that one can find the impurities existing in an HPGe crystal? This is required for making an accurate simulation of the material of the crystal including the concentrations of Ge and ...
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Acoplanarity in particle physics

Given a particle detector (i.e. ATLAS) measuring two particles after a collision, their acoplanarity is defined by the angle made by the each particle's plane containing the beam. When this angle is 0,...
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What are resistive electrodes?

I am reading an article, "Signal, Noise and Resolution in Position-Sensitive Detectors," by V. Radeka. In the article, the author mentioned about resistive electrodes. I have seen the same term in ...
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1answer
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What is an Anderson-Braun neutron counter?

I found this type of tool reading an article ("A neutron monitor with silver activation") but surfing the internet I can not find an explanation of what it is and how it works. It's probably a basic ...
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How do we identify distant radiation sources?

I was reading this question and the answer cites a page which discusses the identification of an x-ray source very far away. I'm a nuclear engineer and based on my understanding of radiation detection,...
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Poisson statistics in photo detectors

I was wondering how would Poisson statistics be used in a photodetectors to account for the number of events that I'm missing in my experiment. Say I have a material (scintillator, ...) that emits $n$ ...
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What is the difference between electrons and holes in silicon?

Electrons and holes behave differently in a silicon semiconductor (e.g. mobility of holes is one order of magnitude smaller than that of electrons, the collection time of holes at the same electric ...
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1answer
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Inverse polarization of semiconductors as detectors

I've been reading the particle detector section of the PDG and in point 33.2.3 they talk about Solid-state photon detectors. They say there that Silicon Photodiodes are simply a "reverse-biased p-n ...
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Resolution of a scintillator

I am thinking on buying a scintillator for a particle physics lab lesson. I would like to know what is the best way of measuring its resolution (the photon yield is 4$\times10^4$ photons/MeV and I'm ...
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Physical processes taking place inside Germanium detectors

Reading about differences between Silicon detectors and Germanium detectors, I decided to learn a bit more about the latter, since I've always used Silicon detectors in all the experiments I worked ...
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Electron cloud diffusion in bulk material

I have an issue where I need to simulate the electrons beahviour in a CdTe crystal after a x-ray interaction. The number of electrons are the photon energy divided by 4.43 eV. The major contributor to ...
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How do you calibrate a proton-recoil scintillation fast neutron detector?

I have a proton recoil scintillator, but gamma sources like Cs-137, Co-60 don't seem to have linear calibration for the device. Are there other ways of calibrating this device? I'm trying to detect ...
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Why are the ionisation tracks not visible when there is turbulence a cloud chamber?

I noticed that if I build a cloud chamber (with 99% isopropyl alcohol), when the mist is falling smoothly, I can see particle tracks passing through the mist. However, if I move the jar at all, ...
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Periodic, linear increase in photon counts

Background: In my experimental physics class I had to do an experiment like this one regarding the Bell-Inequality. For the data shown below the photons of blue laser diode in the state $|V\rangle$ ...
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How to measure the levels of muonium in the experimental area of a particle accelerator?

I want to know if there is any way of measuring the levels of muonium in the experimental area of a particle accelerator. So, it would start with a beam made up by anti-muons which would collide with ...
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Double Slit Experiment Detector Interference

about the double slit experiment. When a detector is placed in one of the slits how do scientist are sure the detector is not interfering with the particle and that's what destroy the interference ...
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Silicon detectors with charge division?

Instead of using double-sided silicon strip detectors to gain a 2D position resolution sometimes a one-sided strip detector is used with resistive charge division, where the signal at one strip is ...
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Transverse mass of Higgs boson

There is lots of literature on Higgs decay to two leptons and two neutrinos ($H\rightarrow WW^*\rightarrow ll\nu\nu$) The transverse mass is defined as $m_{T}^2 = (E_{T}^{ll} + p_{T}^{\nu\nu})^2 - |...
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Electrons diffusion in gas with present of electric field

For research purposes, I am looking for a way to calculate how far the electrons "spread" perpendicularly to the electric field in a chamber of gas. For example, if a beam of alpha particles ionize ...
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What is a non-gaussian tail of momentum resolution?

While reading about the reconstruction of high transverse momentum muons in particle detectors I came across the following statement which I do not understand: Showers and radiative loss account ...
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Particle detection at LHC - leptons and jets

Invariably, the events that are triggered on have large transverse momentum, so it seems plausible that a jet and a lepton are often detected in nearly the same point of the detector. In this ...
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Is it possible to know the efficiency of a particle detector without assuming the truth of Theory (e.g.,, Quantum Theory)

I reorganized the question to clarify exactly what it is that I'm asking. Suppose an experiment is performed where a particle detector records 50 particles per second, on average. Absent any other ...
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1answer
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How is the energy of a particle measured in a Cherenkov detector [closed]

I don't understand how is the energy measured in a cherenkov detector. How is the number of photons radiated related to the energy of the particle or the measure of energy has nothing to do with the ...
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Why can't we see particle tracks in clouds or dense fog? [duplicate]

We can see the tracks of charged particles in a cloud chamber. According to Wikipedia "A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water or alcohol". Also, in ...
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Why does the speed of sun play a role in dark matter detection

I'm reading the book supersymmetry and beyond from Gordon Kane and got a bit confused at the point where he started explaining how we can check whether the signal we got at a detector is truly because ...
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1answer
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How to detect muonic hydrogen?

I was wondering how can we detect if a muonic hydrogen is produced! Let's imagine we have a beam made of (u-). These particles enter a proton chamber. If the particles are slow enough to fall in the ...
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How come I never see cosmic rays in steam like they appear in a cloud chamber?

I just put like half a cup of water in a mason jar and put that in the microwave and accidentally left it in there for to long and it got boiling hot, then when I took it out and let it cool of course ...
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In the Homestake experiment, why did they alternate runs with $^{36}\rm Ar$ and $^{38}\rm Ar$?

In the Homestake experiment, why did they alternate runs with $^{36}\rm Ar$ and $^{38}\rm Ar$? I understand why they use a carrier isotope like $^{36}\rm Ar$ or $^{38}\rm Ar$ to mesure the efficiency ...
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1answer
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Difference between hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeter

How do these both detectors separate from each other? Of course I can derive the terms and this is, more or less, all I can look up: In an electromagnetic calorimeter the particles interact mostly ...
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What is a revolution frequency spectrum?

I would like to know what is a revolution frequency spectrum? I stumbled over this in the context of detector physics respectively with resepect to the measurement of the beam (beam revolution ...
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Can a Geiger counter detect backscatter x ray?

Assume Backscatter x ray pointed at a person through three brick walls, 4 inch each, creating real time video at 10-20 FPS of person moving. Can backscatter x-ray show real color images (if connected ...
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Basic concepts of ionization dectectors

I am reading "Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments" by William R. Leo. I have some questions about the ionization detectors chapter (chapter 6). In chapter 6, there is a figure like ...