Questions tagged [particle-accelerators]

A machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to very high speeds and energies, collimate them in well-defined beams, and then collide them in order to induce interactions, decays, and creation of new particles. They are used for basic research in particle physics.

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What exactly do we observe in particle accelerators that we have named "particles"?

Do we observe dots on a position detector like in the double slit experiment? I doubt that because the double slit experiment is non-relativistic QM, and so a "position measurement" is ...
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Accelerator physics text

Physicist here, looking for a suggestion for a very comprehensive, very detailed textbook on accelerator physics---particularly with a focus on cyclotrons/synchocyclotrons/AVF-cyclotrons. My work is ...
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Pile-up events in collider experiments and the average number of interactions

Is the average number of interactions a measure of the amount of pile-up events (pollution background events to hard-scatter events)? if not, why is always presented as an indication and how accurate ...
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Does a free proton shrink when accelerated?

Reading about the charge radius of the proton and proton radius puzzle I started wondering if the cross section and therefore also the charge radius (i.e. size of proton) changes or more specifically ...
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Cyclotron: why is there no work during the polarity shift?

From what I understand, the point of cyclotrons is to accelerate charges without requiring a huge potential difference: e.g. to accelerate a proton to 10 MeV, instead of using a single 10-megavolt ...
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What happens in a particle accelerator? [closed]

How is the particle accelerated? Is it by increasing its energy? Is it only charged elementary particles that can be accelerated, because they are the only ones that can absorb photons and gain energy?...
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On Mandelstam variables

Citing Wikipedia: $[\dots]$ the Mandelstam variables are numerical quantities that encode the energy, momentum, and angles of particles in a scattering process in a Lorentz-invariant fashion. They ...
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Do virtual particles appear in a particle accelerator and cause a type of pollution?

please note (as may be obvious from my question) that I am not trained in physics so I apologize if this is a stupid question. Do virtual particles appear in a particle accelerator and get accelerated ...
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On slip factor and the like in particle accelerators

Citing Wikipedia: The momentum compaction or momentum compaction factor is a measure for the momentum dependence of the recirculation path length for an object that is bound in cyclic motion (closed ...
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Proton accelarating in homogeneous electric field

Hi I was studying for my physics exam, when I ran in to this problem. A proton in a particle accelerator uniformly accelerated in 3.23 ms over a distance of 1 km. The field in which the proton is ...
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Why not use Neodymium magnets in cyclotrons? [closed]

I am wondering if we can make relatively strong cyclotrons /200-400MeV/ far less massive, in the range 10-20t. Why don't we use neodymium magnets in cyclotrons instead of electromagnets? Nd2Fe14B ...
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Difference between X-ray device and linac

What is the difference between an x-ray device and a linac (for medical purposes)? In case both have to produce photons. Linac: source X-ray device: source As far as I see the major difference is, ...
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Is time dilation connected to particles or space around?

Is kinematic time dilation considered connected to accelerated particles or the spacetime around the particles?
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How many particles can a cyclotron accelerate per accelerating cycle?

What is the limit for how many particles can be accelerated in a batch per one accelerating cycle by a cyclotron /size of gap between D's?/? I've found simillar question - the answer was refering to ...
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How are paths of particles tracked in particle accelerators?

I was wondering how they track the particles in particle accelerators that allow them to create images like this: http://www.supraconductivite.fr/media/images/Applications/image036.jpg At 27:50 into ...
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Charged particle accelerate between charged plate [duplicate]

I have an electron that travel with a velocity v, and kinetic energy Ek. At some point it enter a region between two charged plate where there is an electric field that accelerate it. So the variation ...
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Molecular accelerators

I wanted to know if we have accelerators for molecules just like particle accelerators. If so, what are they called and what is the maximum size of the molecules that can be accelerated in such ...
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What is the fastest velocity that has been observed for an atom?

I know that particle accelerators have sent electrons to velocities that are significant percentages of the speed of light. My question is instead, have they done the same with atoms? And do the ...
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How can i shoot accelerated electron directly into the air?

I am trying to do an experiment in which I have to first accelerate the electron to 10eV and then shoot into the air directly. I need some kind of membrane which allows electron to pass and keep ...
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How to distinguish between $\pi$ neutrinos and $K$ neutrinos?

Consider the neutrinos produced by two decay channels: $$ \pi^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ +\nu_\mu\,, \qquad\qquad K^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ +\nu_\mu\,. $$ with $\pi$ decay being 10 times more likely than $K$ ...
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How Does Deuteron Bombardment Work?

I've been reading about the discovery of Plutonium, and I'm confused about how absorbing a deuteron can convert Uranium-238 into Neptunium-238. Plutonium was first produced by Glenn T. Seaborg, ...
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Drawbacks of dielectric wall accelerators

Wby are dielectric wall accelerators not used as a replacement to conventional particle accelerators? How “efficient” are they in accelerating particles compared to conventional accelerators?
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Why are edge fields in undolators necessary to comply with Maxwell?

In our lecture scripts there is a paragraph about the magnetic field of an undulator: "Its [the undulators] magentic field can be described by \begin{equation} \vec{B}\equiv-B_0 \begin{pmatrix} ...
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Photons produced when high energy positrons hit a target

I recently learned that high energy positrons thermalize (slow down) as they enter matter undergoing bremstrahlung, producing photons. Eventually they will collide with an atom bound electron, with ...
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Synthesis of new elements with Pb-126 as particle projectile?

Why isn’t Pb-126 used in the synthesis of new elements as a projectile against a target instead of Ca-48 considering it is heavier and has a double magic number of protons and neutrons, just like Ca-...
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Why is it advantageous to use to moving two particles to collide in a head-on collision, over a stationary target?

I have seen similar questions on this topic but I am more specifically wondering for particle accelerators what the effect on momentum and its relation, (if there is one) to the de Brogilei wavelength....
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Radiation in particle accelerators

I was reading about particle accelerators in Wikipedia and I came across this. Depending on the energy and the particle being accelerated, circular accelerators suffer a disadvantage in that the ...
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Do Particle Accelerators Generate External Electrical or Magnetic Interference?

Among others, I am engaged in private pendulum research work during which there have been reports of disturbances of unknown pseudo-periodic human origin. It has been surmised that transmitted noise ...
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On not counting initial energy in cyclotrons

The formula for finding the final kinetic energy of a particle exiting a cyclotron is $2nqV$, where q's the charge, V the potential, and n the number of rotations. If the particle starts from exactly ...
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Where is the direction of acceleration in a body moving in 1 dimension? [closed]

like where is the direction of acceleration if a car is moving in a straight line or if an object is thrown upwards (its direction if acceleration) ?
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Using something like a linear accelerator, could a visible object to accelerated to thousands of miles per second?

I am wondering what problems would arise using the same process that accelerates protons, etc. on something as large as a bb or maybe just a grain of sand. Not sure the practical reason for this but ...
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Acceleration mechanism [closed]

Ionized gas, if compressed (by magnetic field) to a mm cylinder, collapses rapidly and accelerates the e/ions to MeV. What could be the possible acceleration mechanism? The question is how a magnetic ...
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Electron gun voltages

I saw on the internet that catode of electoron gun should have negative potential to zero (ground). On the other hand catodes of tv CRTs were grounded and anodes were connented to positive high ...
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Vacuum polarization and initial state radiation correction for the cross section

I saw that the experimental Born cross section measured for (e+e- -> Hadrons) for positron-electron particle physics experiments such as the (BESIII or BaBar experiments) is corrected by initial ...
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Collision Energy for heavy ions

I found this formula in Sahoo Relativistic Kinematics: $$\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2\sqrt{s_{pp}}+\sqrt{s_{pp}}\sqrt{\frac{Z_{1}Z_{2}}{A_{1}A_{2}}}$$ But because English isn't my first language i got confused. So ...
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Can we create black holes in modern particle accelerators? [duplicate]

The question is if modern particle accelerators (or cosmic rays for that matter) can create black holes. Has those events been detected? If not, how far are we in terms of orders of magnitude energy? ...
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Charge state in Accelerator physics

while asking for calculation of magnetic rigidity for accelerators, I am seeing notations like '238-U-28+' & '197-Au-77+ Previously I was comfortable seeing charge state like 40-Ca-1+ ions before. ...
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In Al27 (alpha,n): why is a neutron ejected?

Why does a neutron get ejected when Aluminium-27 is hit with an alpha particle? It seems like: Al-27 + He-4 --> P-31 (stable) and a gamma/(s) as the nucleus re-arranges. So why eject the neutron ...
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Can the cyclotron radiation be called a Bremsstrahlung process?

The term 'bremsstrahlung' is usually reserved for the emission of electromagnetic radiation caused by $(1)$ acceleration or deceleration of the charged particle by an electric field and $(2)$ in ...
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Does Bremsstrahlung refer to the radiation produced exclusively by deceleration?

A charged particle, decelerated by the electric field of another charged particle, typically an atomic nucleus, emits electromagnetic radiation, called Bremsstrahlung. This process typically happens ...
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Particle accelerators use a beam or single particle?

In textbooks the trajectory of a single particle is always shown, but in real life is a single particle or a beam of particles used?
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Child Universes

I was watching a program on the future of the Universe and it got into the eventual heat death resulting from Hawking Radiation as the last hurdle till nothingness (assuming the unproven theory of ...
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When we use magnets in linear accelerators?

I'm searching particle accelerators. I couldn't see focusing magnets in Linear accelerators. When we need focusing magnets in Linacs? I'm sharing some photos of what ı found.
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Relativistic Force and Non-tangent initial velocities

Dear physics stack exchange, I was looking over the darker non-mainstream physics wing of youtube when I came across a video with a person who gave a simple experiment to prove you could accelerate ...
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Linear particles accelerator

Why in a linear accelerator is used an AC voltage? Wouldn't it work with a constant electric field?
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How is speed measured in the LHC

In this question: "Without the Michelson-Morley experiment, is there any other reason to think speed of light is the universal speed limit?", it is stated in Emilio Pisanty's answer that From a ...
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How does a cyclotron release electromagnetic waves?

I am currently working on a project on fusion reactors and am researching the basics of them. During my research, I encountered "antenna" which produce ion and electron cyclotron frequencies to heat ...
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Could one, with enough electricity to spare, use particle accelerators to mass produce heavy elements

If electrical, and economic limitations are ignored, would it be possible for a civilization to mass produce many millions of tonnes of useful heavy elements using particle accelerators? Could they ...
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Why did the RHIC luminosity decrease after 2010?

This physics today article about particle accelerator operation contains this figure, showing the evolution of peak luminosity over time for major proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders. ...
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On the change in half-life of tritium traveling at near $c$ in a cyclotron

Barring physical effects I do not know about, I would expect that the beta decay of tritium of about 12.32 years to increase by the time dilatation accorded to its increased mass while traveling in a ...
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