Questions tagged [particle-accelerators]

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1answer
673 views

Why are there fixed target experiments?

Collider experiments put all their energy into $ \sqrt{s} = 2E $ while target experiments only provide $ \sqrt{s} = \sqrt{2Em+m^²} $. Yet, there are fixed target experiments. Why?
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2answers
83 views

Why is particle physics called high energy physics? [duplicate]

The highest energy accelerator till date is the LHC which operates at an energy scale of perhaps 10-100 TeV. In SI units this is about $\sim 10^{-6}-10^{-5}$ Joule which is several orders of magnitude ...
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1answer
35 views

Determine/measure energy of neutral particles

I wonder that nobody came up with this question in advance - maybe it is too obvious? However.. How can neutral particles be measured (with respect to their energy in a particle detector)? I know ...
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3answers
67 views

How are particles produced in accelerators?

Let's take, for example, a proton-proton circular collider. Protons are accelerated to the nominal energy and then they collide head-on in the interaction point. In order to figure out what particles ...
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1answer
37 views

Collision of accelerated particle [duplicate]

If two particles, accelerated by a particle accelerator, collide together when they are individually very close to speed of light, so when they collide their relative speed will be more than the speed ...
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1answer
38 views

What accelerator energies and types would be needed to explore electroweak unification, and if accessible, what would be the likely observables?

Question originally referred to electrostrong, but I actually meant to ask about electroweak. Edited to fix, but this is why there's an answer referencing ES not EW - that's my bad. Broadly as the ...
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1answer
105 views

Why is it better to accelerate electrons in a linear collider?

An accelerated charge (say an electron for simplicity) emits photons. Changing direction of movement is an acceleration. Electron-positron collisions are preferably done in linear colliders. But why ...
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1answer
53 views

How did the Intersecting Storage Rings Actually Perform Tests

I am reading the book written in 1982 titled "Quarks, The Stuff of Matter" by Harald Fritzsch. In it he writes about the ISR at Cern, that slammed protons together and in some of those collisions, 2 ...
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1answer
123 views

How much current can be produced by Van de Graaff generators or Pelletrons?

The Van de Graaff generator is a source of high voltage at low current based on the transfer of static electricity, and its higher current successor the Pelletron could deliver more current by ...
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0answers
32 views

Radiation emitted by collision of two photons

Using Lamor's formula, can someone tell me how much radiation is emitted by a particle accelerator or by the collision of two photons? It requires a 4 momentum vector which I'm not very acquainted ...
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3answers
91 views

Particle accelerators and the amount of radiation they emit

Do particle accelerators emit a lot of radiation? If they do, can someone give me a rough estimate of how much? I'm also curious as to what kind of radiation they give off.
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What devices are used in a proton accelerator to separate the protons from their electrons and send the protons into the vacuum chamber? [duplicate]

I understand the general idea of how they accelerate the protons once they get them isolated in the chamber, but what's the device they use to isolate them to begin with even called?
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Plasma tubes and accelerators

to find a relation between acceleration produced by a plasma beam accelerator and the density of the plasma and length of the plasma tube. So what is the feasibility of this idea .
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1answer
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Special Relativity for Synchrotron Radiation

For the last few hours, I tried to solve an exercise about synchrotron radiation but can't get to a solution. I think there are some concepts about special relativity that I didn't understand during ...
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2answers
77 views

Could we use experimental evidence of micro black holes to prove the existence of additional spatial dimensions?

They are planning to create a new particle accelerator that can smash particles together at a much higher energy than the LHC. If in the process we observe the decay of a micro black hole, would that ...
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1answer
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3's a crowd. Particle me but may i have this dance? [closed]

In a particle accelerator (built for 3 particles), could we smash them into a vacuum with only enough space for 2 particles?(electrons, protons, neutrons) what would be the result?
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1answer
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Is it possible to use an accelerator/collider as a space engine? [closed]

I was just trying to get a discussion going about physics that we can already create. I did not realize that I would have to write a paper to ask a simple question. Is it possible to use an ...
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1answer
88 views

How far can a moving object embed itself

Let's say we have an electron moving at 10% the speed of light toward a 10 cm thick block of pure carbon. How do we calculate the distance that the electron travels into the carbon? Even though there ...
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1answer
55 views

Understanding Bremsstrahlung

I have this problem: The Stanford Linear Accelerator can accelerate electrons to 50 GeV What is the minimum wavelength of photon it can produce by Bremsstrahlung? Is this photon still called an ...
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2answers
57 views

Collider Luminosity basics

In a collider experiment, the Luminosity is defined as the proportionality factor between the interaction rate and the interaction cross section $dN/dt = L\times\sigma$, with units of $cm^{-2}s^{-1}$. ...
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1answer
44 views

Particle accelerator adapted to transport humans

Would it be possible to create a human transport system that uses the same principles as a particle accelerator? So if you had a vacuum tube that could fit a 2 m diameter metallic sphere/pod that ...
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2answers
108 views

What is the strongest practical magnet?

I thought that magnets stronger than a few telsa tear apart. What is the strongest practical magnet that could be used for something like a particle accelerator? I am asking for a theoretical or ...
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5answers
5k views

Why not build a particle accelerator on ground level? What is the shallowest feasible depth to build one?

Assume you wanted to build a particle accelerator in a non-commerical/non-residential area. It costs more money the deeper you want to build it, therefore you want to build it as close to ground ...
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1answer
75 views

CNO fusion using particle accelerator?

The CNO cycle is a catalytic fusion reaction that produces energy in stars larger than the sun. It converts four protons into a helium-4 nucleus using a cycle of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopes ...
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2answers
93 views

Super collider and black hole [closed]

I've read somewhere that to create a wormhole we would have to build a supercollider on the side of the solar system. If we were capable of doing this, would a supercollider of this scale create its ...
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1answer
54 views

Has the next particle accelerator been designed yet?

Has the next particle accelerator been designed yet? As I understand it is called the Future Circular Collider. Where are we at in the process of this?
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1answer
70 views

Why is it easier to observe B-meson oscillations than D-meson ones?

B-meson oscillations were observed several years ago by the CDF experiment B-oscillations, but D-meson could not be observed until very recently by the LHCb experiment. I'm wondering why is it more ...
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1answer
53 views

Invisible energy in hadronic calorimeters

Hadronic calorimeters are more difficult to be built than electromagnetic ones because the cascade containment is much larger for former. There is also some "invisible" energy that is not contained in ...
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2answers
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Alternative way of bending electrons trajectory in synchrotron

I read that in synchrotron, the X-ray is produced whenever the electrons undergo acceleration, in particular at the bending magnet, the wiggler or undulator. Since these three devices all employ ...
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1answer
174 views

Does an electron accelerated in a linear accelerator lose any energy?

In a circular one, it would lose energy due to bremsstrahlung (synchrotron emission), but if it is accelerated from rest to ~GeV energies, does it lose any energy in this acceleration process?
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1answer
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Are there processes other than fusion which can create very heavy elements? [closed]

Have there been hypothesized processes other than nuclear fusion which could possibly create heavy elements? For example these incredibly powerful particle accelerators we are continuously building ...
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1answer
51 views

CP violation in the B-meson system

I was reading about historical measurements of CP violation and apparently, until the discovery of the top quark, one of the strongest CP violations was coming from the system of B-mesons. I read that ...
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1answer
44 views

What is the reason of the low probability of a B-meson decaying into two muons

I found a Nature article where they measure the probability of a B-meson decaying into two charged muons $$B^0 -> \mu^++\mu^-$$ (actually this decay is measured in the article at the level of ~3$\...
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3answers
104 views

Why electron/ion beams are not prefered over lasers as driver for inertial confinement fusion?

Most of hi-end ICF research facilities, and proposals for future powerplant or space-ship propulsion use lasers as driver. Problems with lasers intense lasers needed (e.g. NdYAG 3rd harmonic ...
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1answer
49 views

Cyclotron-conservation of energy dilemma

In a cyclotron we increase the K.E. of a particle by allowing the E field to do work on it. But if I take the cyclotron and the particle as my system it's net energy only increases. How will the net ...
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1answer
20 views

Radiofrequency acceleration of ions in a collider

Reading about the radiofrequency acceleration in circular colliders (https://home.cern/about/engineering/radiofrequency-cavities) made me wonder, this is how it is performed for particles going in one ...
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0answers
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Identification of light nuclei in heavy nuclei collisions

At the LHC, apart from proton collisions, there are heavy ion collisions. Imagine that we have two beams of Fe nuclei. In the collision there would be lighter ions produced and I was wondering: How ...
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1answer
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Energy loss due to synchrotron radiation in linear and circular accelerators

Is the energy loss of an electron accelerated in a circular accelerator (with radius R and circumference $2\pi R $) the same as the energy loss in a linear accelerator over the same distance, if both ...
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1answer
28 views

Maximum energy reached by a particle in an accelerator depend on magnet coverage?

Superconducting magnets in an accelerator usually do not cover 100% of the particle track. Particularly, I read that in the LEP, dipole magnets use to cover some 2/3 of the ring (27 km). Is the ...
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1answer
63 views

Anti-nuclei production in particle accelerators

Related to Why is Anti-deuterium so important in the search for dark matter?. If the detection of anti-helium in the cosmic rays would be a signature of dark matter, is it possible to measure any ...
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4answers
2k views

How fast are cyclotrons?

I know this question is kind of vague, but I just want have a handle on how fast a average cyclotron can accelerate particles, and what kind of limits there are...
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1answer
32 views

If I put charged particles in the center of long hollow cylinder shaped electromagnet, in a vacuum, would it accelerate them?

If I put charged particles in the center of long hollow cylinder shaped electromagnet, in a vacuum, would it accelerate them? Is this how particle accelerators work? If so are there formulas I could ...
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1answer
53 views

Higgs measurements at the LHC

The Higgs boson has been measured by CMS and ATLAS at the LHC, but I was wondering wether they used the same decay channel to measure it or not (for me, in the latter case, the measurement would be ...
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2answers
122 views

LEP measurement of the top quark mass

Some time ago I read that the top quark mass was measured in the LEP collider, but as far as I had understood, that was an electron collider, how was the production of a top quark possible there?
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1answer
37 views

Characteristics of plasma accelerators

I've been reading about plasma accelerators but I do not understand the main differences between a plasma accelerator and a "normal" one. In the case of LHC for example, if we have free protons ...
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1answer
72 views

Quadrupoles in an accelerator

The quadrupole magnets in a particle accelerator are just to center de beam or do they have any other application?
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1answer
47 views

Is it possible to detect muonium at the end of the experimental area of a particle accelerator by exciting its electron?

I've been wondering: if the muonium atom is very similar to the hydrogen atom, can I detect it (at the end of the experimental area in a particle accelerator) by exciting and then unexciting its ...
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1answer
54 views

How to measure the levels of muonium in the experimental area of a particle accelerator?

I want to know if there is any way of measuring the levels of muonium in the experimental area of a particle accelerator. So, it would start with a beam made up by anti-muons which would collide with ...
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2answers
266 views

Is it possible to create anti-muons in a particle accelerator?

I love particle and nuclear physics and I'm starting to search some things about it even though I'm only a high school student. So, my doubt is: is it possible to create antimuons (positive charged ...
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0answers
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Frequency spectrum of bremsstrahlung

I have tried to find a method to derive the spectrum of the emitted radiation of accelerated relativistic charged particles but I've never found such a method in any books. Does anyone know a method ...