Questions tagged [pair-production]

Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle out of a neutral boson, typically a photon, but sometimes a gluon.

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Does QED evolve unitarily after the Schwinger limit?

If QED becomes nonlinear after the Schwinger limit, shouldn't QED no longer be unitary (above the limit) since linearity is a requirement of a unitary operator (and vice versa)? Does this mean that ...
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Can Schwinger effect occur in electric field of a nucleus?

I know that electron-positron pairs can be produced within a uniform electric field with electric field strength above $10^{18}V$. Electric field of such strength can be found near atomic nuclei. So ...
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Pair production in vacuum

So , everywhere I have looked for pair production it is stated that it cannnot happen in vacuum . Most proofs I have seen for that , state that the conservation of energy and momentum cannot be true ...
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Pair-instability supernovae: a thermodynamic perspective

The discovery of a black-hole pair with "forbidden" masses has gotten me trying to understand pair-instability supernovae. A well-crafted sentence from a recent paper gives the explanation ...
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Why does pair production of an electron and positron only needs 1 photon whereas their annihilation releases 2 photons? [duplicate]

I know that in particle annihilation, for momentum to be conserved, we have to create a minimum of 2 photons moving in the opposite direction. According to Wikipedia: Pair production often refers ...
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Doubt regarding Schwinger pair production derivation done in Schwartz (Errata checked)

In chapter $33$ Schwartz discusses Schwinger pair production using Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. My doubt starts in the paragraph above $(33.92)$. The calculation starts with Schwartz using optical ...
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Meson could include both matter and antimatter?

I wonder eta and pion could exist containing up quark (anti up quark)? Isn't there pair annihilation in this meson?
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Can Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) be used for creating antimatter?

In this excellent answer by Emilio Pisanty, he states that: Of course, all the cool laser-driven QED stuff at the top of that second diagram: if your laser is strong enough that, if you release an ...
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Pair production through massless gauge mediator

I am wondering if it is possible for a massless boson to change the particle interacting with it, into another type of particle. In other words, is it possible to have a pair production process (in S ...
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Pair production in more detail

I have stumbled upon pair production recently and it intrigued me,but i need help understanding the subject further. If i understood correctly you can produce a pair of a particle and an anti-particle ...
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Pair production problem

Can you explain me why in the pair production process we need a minimum energy $E_\gamma=2m_e$ in terms of invariant mass? I tried to calculate it but I get another result like $E_\gamma=2m_e+\frac{...
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Fermion production and criticality within the context of relativistic quantum mechanics

Can anyone recommend a textbook or paper that explains fermion production in a potential in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics?
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Pair production: photon collides with an electron

During pair production, a high energy photon collides with an electron which then creates an electron–positron pair, but what happens to the electron that the photon collides with? I am asking ...
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Ratio of cross-sections for muon pair production with photons from electron-positron pair

What is the ratio $\sigma(e^+e^- \rightarrow \mu^+\mu^-) : \sigma(e^+e^- \rightarrow \mu^+\mu^-\gamma) : \sigma(e^+e^- \rightarrow \mu^+\mu^-\gamma\gamma)$? My thoughts so far are that, due to $C$ ...
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How is momentum conserved in pair production?

I saw today in book that the momentum in pair production is conserved. My question is, how could it be possible that the momentum is conserved?
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Pair production mass

I’ve read other questions on here, but I still don’t have the answer that I need. In pair production, where does the mass come from that’s found in the electron-positron pair? I’m extremely novice and ...
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Where does the relation between the vacuum non-persistence due to Schwinger pairs equals 2*Im(Lagrangian) come from?

The title says it all. I don't understand how in the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian for the effective QED theory the ratio between Schwinger pairs and the Lagrangian comes from, namely $$\begin{...
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Why does electron/positron pair production form a fractal?

The wikipedia page for electron/positron pair production from photons has a weird section titled "aestheticity", which says that the symettry of the phenomenon meets the definition of a fractal, but ...
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Pair production limit

We know that a gamma photon with energy that is higher than 1.02 MeV produce electron and positron when its close to the nucleus. So, my question is if the photon has a very high energy, lets say 70 ...
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How are proton-antiproton pairs produced?

The production of electron-positron pairs occurs if a photon with high enough energy passes near a nucleus so that the energy of the photon is converted into particle mass, in accordance with the mass-...
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Differential cross section for muon pair production?

I derived the following QED probability density for $e^+e^-\rightarrow\mu^+\mu^-$ \begin{equation*} \langle|\mathcal{M}|^2\rangle =e^4\left(1+\cos^2\theta+\frac{m^2+M^2}{E^2}\sin^2\theta+\frac{m^2M^2}{...
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Real particles gets replaced by virtual ones all the time?

If virtual particles arises all the time, everywhere, wouldn’t an virtual electron-positron pair arise near an real electron; the virtual positron annihilate the real electron (as opposed to the ...
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How do photons create matter?

How exactly do photons create matter? I really have a hard time understanding this. I've seen an explanation where they use other, virtual particles to create electron and positrons, but even then, I ...
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Minimum energy for pair production near charge $eZ$

According to the text "On the Production of the Positive Electron" by Oppenheimer and Plesset, from 1933, the authors give a lower bound for the energy $E$ for the pair production near a nucleus of ...
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Is pair production a type of elastic scattering?

Pair production is the creation of a subatomic particle and its antiparticle from a boson. Pair production often refers specifically to a photon creating an electron–positron pair near a ...
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Why are there two photons in pair production Feynman diagram? [duplicate]

Given I wonder why are there two photons entering in a) pair production? Isn't it one photon resulting in $e^+e^-$ ?
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Pair production form high energy cosmic microwave background photons and related calculations

If assume that fluctuating fermion-antifermions pairs in space are products of photon-photon fusion reactions. Thus their total electric charge and total color are null. And the pairs spins are ...
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Electron and positron pair production and annihilation

An electron and a positron arise from an energetic gamma photon. However during annihilation of an electron and positron, two gamma photons are released. Is this a violation of law of ...
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Does pair production happen even when the photon is around a neutron?

In order for a photon to decay into a pair of $e^+ e^-$, it must have at least $E_{\gamma}=1.022$ MeV and must be near a nucleus in order to satisfy the conservation of energy-momentum. But would ...
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Question about pair production

Pair production can't occur in vaccum because momentum cannot be conserved because the photon does not have a rest frame of reference, that means that the produced pair has a center of mass frame of ...
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Pair production problem, how is energy not conserved here?

The problem is asking me to find the minimum photon energy that would produce an electron-positron pair when it collides with a free electron at rest. This is my attempt at trying to conserve both ...
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Are 40 Kelvin interstellar gas clouds evidence of virtual positron and real electron annihilation

Given that Hawking radiation includes separation of a virtual electron-positron pair, then why cannot it be the case that in the vicinity of a real electron it annihilates with the virtual positron? ...
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Can an electron inside an atom annihilate? [duplicate]

We know that in QFT, all particles are being created and annihilated, and because of the conservation laws, on average the number of particles remains constant. Suppose we have an electron in an atom....
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Can vacuum fluctuations change the position of an electron?

According to QFT, virtual electron-positron pairs are created everywhere in the space, and more frequently near electric charges. Suppose that one such a pair is created in the proximity of an ...
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What parameters determine the amount of Uehling potential and self-energy correction effects?

Uehling potential correction and electron self-energy correction are the two most important factors contributing to the lamb shift in the hydrogen atom, by "smearing" the wavefunction of the electron. ...
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Does the Compton wavelength put a limitation on how precise we can measure the position of a particle?

I have read on Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compton_wavelength) that we cannot measure the position of a particle more precise than half of its Compton wavelength, since the photon we ...
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Photo pair production: differential cross section

In a scientific paper, I need for my Bachelor thesis, the differential cross section for photo pair production $\gamma\gamma\to e^{+}e^{-}$ is given as follow: $\mathrm{d}\sigma = \frac{r_{0}^{2}\...
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Pair creation and annihilation and Wheeler's one electron universe

I stumbled upon Wheeler's idea that there could be only one electron. If I understood correctly, basically the idea is that one electron moves forward and backward in time such that it appears as if ...
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Does the Uehling potential have any observable effect?

Uehling potential is the correction made to the coulomb potential due to vacuum polarization (electron-positron pair creation and annihilation). How big is this correction compared to the coulomb ...
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Why do we always choose centre-of-mass frame to study particle physics problems (e.g. Feynman diagrams)? Even in non-relativistic regimes (v<0.3c)

Example: electron positron annihilation forbids a single photon production, and searching through this forum (Why can't a single photon produce an electron-positron pair?) and a few books, they ...
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How can one of the particles on a pair of virtual particles created by vacuum fluctuations have negative energy? How does it lower black hole mass?

Assuming Stephen Hawking’s 1975 “Particle Creation by Black Holes” : “One might picture this negative energy flux in the following way. Just outside the event horizon there will be virtual pairs of ...
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Is there a simple rule connecting all indirect semiconductors band gaps to their electron-hole pair generation average energy?

The band gap of Diamond, Silicon and Germanium is 5.5, 1.12, 0.66 eV while the average energy to produce an electron-hole pair for the same semiconductor is namely 13, 3.6 and 2.9 eV. This ratios are ...
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Spaghettification on quarks?

Imagine a nucleon falls into a black hole, I would expect the gravitational force acting on each quark to be drastically different but due colour confinement wouldn't there more pairs of quarks being ...
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How far the pairs emitted by the photon has to be?

An electron-positron pair can be emitted by a photon having enough energy. Can one say the pairs are already inside the photon (like an atom), and when got the right energy they fly off? If this ...
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What is negative energy as used by Dirac to explain pair production? [duplicate]

While reading about pair production, I came across the concept of negative energy. What is negative energy exactly? And can there be negative mass corresponding to this energy?
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Why does pair production produce an electron and positron with opposite spin?

So I was trying to understand quantum entanglement and the example that was used to describe an entangled pair of particles was of an electron and positron after it is formed from a photon in pair ...
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Why does a particle-antiparticle collision produce $2$ photons instead of $1$?

In one of the questions that I did, it asked: What is produced when an electron and positron collides with each other? The answer is $2$ photons. Why doesn't it merge into one? After all, the photon ...
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How can a Kugelblitz form because pair production will occur before that

I might be incorrectly mixing up two separate theories - quantum physics and general relativity but from what I've studied, a Kugelblitz is a black hole that is formed from condensing large amounts of ...
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What happens to pressure exerted by photons in pair production?

Photons exert (positive) pressure which is a source of gravity. What happens to pressure exerted by a photon after converting into an electron-positron pair or a proton-antiproton pair? Does it still ...
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What is the most massive symmetric black hole pair that can pair produce during their collision?

Gravitational waves produced by inspiraling black holes have a similar inverse dependence on mass that the strength of the gravitational field outside of the event horizon has. For example, look at ...