Questions tagged [orbitals]

The tag has no usage guidance.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
2answers
297 views

How does electron makes transition from one state to another?

i am not asking why it makes. i am curious about how it makes the transition. Does it go from one state to another via straight line or it makes smaller and smaller orbits till it reaches the next ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Higher $L$ lower energy?

For multi-electron atoms, what is the physical reason behind the fact that a higher total orbital angular momentum, $L$ gives a smaller total energy, $E$?
-1
votes
2answers
353 views

Density Matrix representation of excited atoms

I'd like to get an answer to this question from someone who knows his density matrix theory. I want to compare two different systems and ask how their density matrix representation looks. First look ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Surface potential and symmetry breaking

I am studying surface states currently and am a little confused about something. If I consider p-orbits on a surface state that is the top layer of an HCP structure -- I understand the hopping terms ...
0
votes
1answer
106 views

How does one determine orbital configurations in multi-electron atoms?

When we measure absorption/emission spectra for hydrogen-like atoms, we can point to a particular line/energy level and say "Aha! That's almost exactly the $A\rightarrow B$ transition that we ...
0
votes
2answers
2k views

Gaining or Losing Too Many Electrons

So I understand that an atom can gain or lose electrons and still retain it's identity - for example a Carbon atom is still carbon even if it loses 5 of it's 6 electrons because it is the number of ...
0
votes
1answer
242 views

Rydberg formula for hydrogen

I've been told that if a hydrogen atom is exposed to electromagnetic radiation of wavelength $\lambda$ such that Rydberg's formula $$\frac{1}{\lambda}=R\left(\frac{1}{n_{1}^2}-\frac{1}{n_{2}^2}\...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Quantum mechanics of the electron in an atom vs. Gryzinski's free-fall atomic model [closed]

According to Heisenberg's Principle of uncertainty, you can not know the place and speed of a particle, at the same time. You only have probabilities of the estimate values. These probabilities forms ...
0
votes
2answers
365 views

exciton binding energy and orbital binding energy

What is the difference between an exciton binding energy and orbital binding energy? I can see no difference between them since when an exciton is created, the electron is excited to the next (or one ...
0
votes
1answer
727 views

Calculating with quantum numbers and shape of nodal shells

I'm attending in a chemistry course now, and in the beginning we scratch the surface of the quantum physics, which have led me to some problems. Mostly I understand all what we get until now, but ...
4
votes
3answers
726 views

How important is the Pauli exclusion principle in the distribution of particles on energy levels

It is usually said that the Pauli exclusion principle is the big arbiter of how particles will distribute themselves along energy levels (especially electrons on atomic orbitals), but how accurate is ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Does Rydberg's formula work for different orbitals?

Rydberg's formula is given as $\frac { 1 }{ \lambda } =R\left( \frac { 1 }{ { { n }_{ 1 }^{ 2 } } } -\frac { 1 }{ { { n }_{ 2 }^{ 2 } } } \right) $ where ${ n }_{ 2 }$ and ${ n }_{ 1 }$ are the ...
2
votes
0answers
203 views

Hund's rules on wikipedia

I'm trying to understand the examples on Hund's rules on Wikipedia, but I have a problem. Wikipedia says that for Silicon the possible combinations of quantum numbers are $1D$, $3P$ and $1S$ (first ...
24
votes
2answers
13k views

Why do non-hydrogen atomic orbitals have the same degeneracy structure as hydrogen orbitals?

The solutions of the Schrödinger equation for hydrogen are the "electronic orbitals", shown in this picture: (source) They have the following degeneracy structure: (source) It is often said that ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

Why do electrons jump between orbitals? [duplicate]

When an electron is excited to higher energy levels, it will jump back to the same level from which it was excited. Why does it develop "sentiment" with that level?
1
vote
2answers
141 views

Notation of complex valued atomic orbitals

Atomic orbitals are usually labeled $1s$, $2p_x$, $2p_x$, $2p_z$ and so on. These wave functions are defined to be real valued. The original wave functions are complex valued. The $2p_x$ orbital is ...
1
vote
1answer
380 views

Why wavefunction is sometimes multiplied by the radius to get probability density?

When solving 1d particle in a box, the probability density is said to be proportional to $|\psi|$, but when solving 3d orbitals, the probability density is said to be proportional to $|\psi|^2 r^2$. ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

A doubt on Magnetic domains and electron orbits

If electrons spin not in 2d orbits but 3d orbitals, how is it that in the magnetic domain explanation, we say that electron's motion around the nucleus is like a current loop and hence we get the ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

Number of spectral lines

In case of single isolated atom if electron makes transition from nth state to the ground state then maximum number of spectral lines observed $ = ( n — 1)$. Is the above statement true? If yes, then ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

How to determine the position of a planet in our solar system? [duplicate]

I am trying to modelize our galaxy with a simple program. I know how to find the period speed and acceleration of a satellite but I don't know how to get the angle and the current distance between ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

Which electron is first ionized $n=2,\ell=1, m=?$ [closed]

Eletrons in atoms are described by n,l, m, s quantum numbers? For noble gas 1s2 2s2 2p6 which is the first electron that will be ionized n=2, l=1, m=?, s = ?
2
votes
0answers
59 views

A question on energy levels of molecular orbitals

Here is a phenomenon from MO theory for diatomic homonuclear molecules that I could not understand. If $Z \le 7$ then $\sigma_{2pz}$'s energy is higher than $\pi_{2px}$'s energy. I did not get ...
12
votes
2answers
772 views

Are orbitals observable physical quantities in a many-electron setting?

Orbitals, both in their atomic and molecular incarnations, are immensely useful tools for analysing and understanding the electronic structure of atoms and molecules, and they provide the basis for a ...
9
votes
1answer
399 views

Are atoms unstable in $d\geq 4$ spatial dimensions when quantum mechanics is taken into account?

I understand that in 3+1 dimensions according to classical physics atoms should be unstable however atoms are stable in 3+1 dimensions because the behavior of atoms is governed by quantum physics ...
3
votes
2answers
751 views

In the hydrogen atom, why is the electron orbital spherical rather than flat like a 2D orbit plane?

In a hydrogen atom an electron is orbiting around a proton, similarly to a moon around a planet. The orbit of a moon around a planet is flat (2D) whereas the orbit of an electron around a proton is ...
0
votes
1answer
164 views

Electron configuration in the 2p orbital

I looked through the questions already asked about this topic and they were very specific and over my head. I'm having trouble with the basics. When drawing orbital diagrams I know electrons are ...
2
votes
2answers
463 views

Do electrons actually reside in orbitals?

(Following this answer on Chemistry.SE) Let's define "dwell"/"reside" as the area in which the probability to find an electron is more than 90%, for example. Calculated orbitals comprise a basis set,...
2
votes
2answers
468 views

How do we decide whether an electron orbital has a non-zero or zero probability of lying inside the nucleus of an hydrogen atom?

How do we decide whether an electron orbital has a non-zero or zero probability of lying inside the nucleus of an hydrogen atom? It is mostly from the radial function, as to what I think but how ...
0
votes
1answer
262 views

The wavelength of photons emitted

If for example an electron in a hydrogen atom moved from n=2 to n=1, how can you find the wavelength of the emitted photon? I know that the energy involved is E = -13.6 eV * (1/(n_1)^2 - 1/(n_2)^2) ...
2
votes
1answer
225 views

Hydrogen atom nodes and Bohmian trajectories

Wouldn't the fact that the solutions to the hydrogen atom orbital shape have nodes prove that the Bohmian interpretation is incorrect, since in that interpretation, the electrons would have a fixed ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Why can't electrons be found inside the nucleus if there are infinite number of orbitals?

If there are an infinite number of orbitals, we can assume, that they can be present in any point in space. If that is correct, why do we not find electrons in the nucleus? I study in high school. ...
18
votes
3answers
619 views

Why does the conjugated $\pi$ bond not violate the Pauli Exclusion Principle?

Let's look at the molecule 1,3 butadiene: $CH_2=CH-CH=CH_2$ and number the carbon atoms 1 to 4 from left to right. The bonds between 1 and 2 and between 3 and 4 are double bonds: each constitutes ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Why are electron wavefunctions standing waves?

How can I convince myself that wavefunctions of electrons on molecular orbitals are indeed standing waves? Is it a consequence of the fact that electrons don't drift away from the molecule? In other ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How do you determine the symmetry of spatial wave functions?

I have been reading about the ways to determine the ground of state of an atom. There are three Hund's rules in determining which electronic state is a ground state. And the second rule says you need ...
0
votes
3answers
141 views

How can electrons still occupy orbitals in metals if they are delocalised?

I was reading about why most metals are gray/silvery in colour and it said something about d orbital electrons transitioning to s orbitals and the visible spectrum not having sufficient energy to ...
0
votes
1answer
2k views

Is it possible to determine the velocity of electron in its orbit? [closed]

I read here that the orbital speed of an electron around a proton can be calculated as: $$\frac{m_ev^2}{r} = F_G+F_E$$ where $F_E$ is the proton-electron electromagnetic force, $F_G$ is the proton-...
-4
votes
1answer
89 views

what make orbitals and can they be destroyed? [closed]

What is making an orbital to be an orbital? I mean how are the orbital formed. If big bang theory is true that there was nothing before the big bang then definitely these orbitals in the atom would ...
0
votes
4answers
3k views

Physical intuition behind negative values for wave function?

So a positive and a positive wave function create a bonding orbital where the probability of finding an electron is summed while a positive and a negative create an anti-bonding orbital with a lower ...
1
vote
2answers
72 views

Is the change in orbital of an electron the only way a photon is created

I would like to know if there are any other ways in which photon's are being emitted other than in the case an electron's orbital around a nucleus changes.
21
votes
2answers
2k views

Is there experimental verification of the s, p, d, f orbital shapes?

Have there been any experiments performed (or proposed) to prove that the shapes of the s,p,d,f orbitals correspond to our spatial reality as opposed to just being a figment of the mathematics that ...
1
vote
1answer
438 views

How covalent bonding lower the energy of potential energy? [duplicate]

Considering the potential energy of interacting particles, how does covalent bonding lower the energy of the system?
3
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the difference between real orbital & complex orbital?

While reading Atomic orbitals, I came before these two terms. The 'real orbital' is given here: Real orbitals An atom that is embedded in a crystalline solid feels multiple preferred axes, ...
0
votes
1answer
122 views

Software to calculate electron binding energy of molecules?

I need to calculate the binding energies for the various electrons in a few different molecules (to determine an appropriate wavelength to selectively ionize them). Are there any software packages to ...
4
votes
1answer
380 views

Would Hund's rules still be valid if the electron had spin 3/2?

One of my homework assignments in atomic physics was the following: Given electrons had a Spin of $S = 3/2$, what would be the number of the first 4 noble gasses (complete shells)? The obvious ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How much space does an atom occupy? [closed]

So my stupid question is: we know that in the classical model of a atom there is a nucleus at the middle and electron revolving around it in orbits numbered from 0 to infinity. So according to this an ...
0
votes
0answers
68 views

Slope of p-orbitals at the nucleus

Is there any analytic expression describing the slope of the p-orbital at the nucleus, for example for hydrogen.
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Why only three combinations of three 1s-orbitals?

When bringing three $\mathrm{H}$-atoms close together, their 1s-orbitals will overlab and combine. I have a text saying that there are 3 ways to combine these. Those three combinations are: for ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Molecules from atoms [closed]

Why does two oxygen atoms combine to form a molecule and not 3 or 4?Also why does one sodium and one chlorine atom combine to form NaCl while two chlorine atoms are required to combine with one ...
1
vote
0answers
949 views

How do the Fermi level, HOMO and LUMO change with doping?

I am a bit confused about solid state physics of organic materials because as I know the workfunction changes with the doping of a material but the Fermi level is constant with doping. So depend on ...
2
votes
2answers
648 views

Do rainbow shows spectral lines?

A spectral line is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when the electron jumps from higher orbital to a lower orbital of an atom. Water mainly consists of two elements namely hydrogen and oxygen, ...