# Questions tagged [orbitals]

An orbital is the mathematical function describing the location and wave-like behaviour of an electron in either an atom ( for atomic orbitals) or in a molecule (molecular orbitals).

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### Would externally applied centrifuge force push electron out of an atom?

Background about me: I know nothing about physics. It occurred to me to ask the following question: Imagine a small amount of some element placed in centrifuge device that spins with very fast speed. ...
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### On degeneracies of energy levels in atoms

For hydrogenic atoms the energy levels are (in cgs units): $$E_n = -\frac{e^2Z^2}{2n^2a_0}$$ This formula shows there's no dependence on quantum numbers $l$ and $m_l$. These so-called degeneracies ...
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### Why octet atom are stable? And what make atom unstable?

I have search a lot that want make octet atom stable but all I found is that it need to fill the orbit! why . Why it need to fill the orbit. And I also search that why atom which don't have octet are ...
184 views

### Can a light element with excited nucleus undergo internal conversion?

Internal conversion occurs when an excited nucleus ejects a low level electron from the first 2 low energy shells such as a $k$-shell electron instead of emitting gamma when returning to ground state. ...
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### Different versions for the Radial Solution of the Hydrogen Atom [closed]

Initially, I'm trying to prove if the following is true $$|\psi_{n00}(r=0)|^2 =\dfrac{1}{\pi n^3a_0^3}$$ I'm looking to solve some calculations made in Introductory Quantum Optics Christopher Gerry ...
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### Why is it easier to throw electrons from a higher energy shell?

From what i understand, as we increase the radius of unlike charges, the potential energy of the system also increases, so electrons in the outer shell live in a higher potential system, i.e more ...
1 vote
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### How did the Aufbau principle come to be? [duplicate]

How did the Aufbau principle come to be? Being that my education on chemistry doesn't go past highschool, i was never sure how the following diagram was conceived: I would like to understand how the ...
58 views

### Which element has the bigger atomic radius Cr or Mn?

In ncert Mn is bigger. In periodic table app, Cr is bigger.
1 vote
62 views

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### About why electrons in atom don't radiate(considering wave nature also) [duplicate]

It's said in textbooks that electrons won't radiate and fall into nucleus because matter wave of it's form a standing wave but could somebody explain why being a standing wave it doesn't radiate, even ...
215 views

### How does $s$ subshell not have a node in the center despite the nucleus being there?

In most images of $1s$ subshell I see that there's no node shown at the center, and even the formula $n-\ell-1$ gives 0 as the answer. But, isn't the nucleus experimentally proven to be at the center? ...
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### How many $\rm d$ orbitals do I have in $\rm [Ar]3d^{10}4s^1$ configuration materials?

I have noticed in a book the following band configuration for copper: But I think I read in the book that each band has 2 electrons if it is fully occupied. But in here I see only four 3d types of ...
2k views

### How to think about speed or velocity of an electron (in an atom)?

One answer to this question explains that "velocity of electrons has no meaning" while another says that "it can be argued that they don't move around atoms at all". And then in another post it is ...
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### Splitting of $sp$-System due to LS coupling

How do I explain the splitting of $sp$-system due to LS interaction? I think it is due to the magnetic field created due to the orbital motion of the electron, and that magnetic field splits the ...
1 vote
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### Are atoms still unstable in 4 spatial dimensions when the physical size of nuclei is accounted for?

Per this answer, depending on a dimensionless parameter hydrogen atoms in 4 spatial dimensions can be either unbound (i.e., nonexistent), stably bound dependent on boundary conditions, or unstable ...
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### The uncertainty principle and the quantization of electron momentum in orbitals - Why are larger energy gaps considered more uncertain?

I am a chemist trying to understand how the uncertainty principle can be applied to the mechanics of atomic and molecular orbitals in order to have better intuitions about stability and reactivity. ...
1 vote
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### Pauli exclusion principle and quantum state

Wikipedia says that two identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state. My question is what does this quantum state means? In classical mechanics, this means that the two particles cannot ...
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### Are the shapes of atomic orbitals direct consequence of the Schrödinger equation?

I am trying to understand whether the shapes of the orbitals are inevitable given the standard model. They would probably change if we change the fine tuning of the fundamental physical constants, ...
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### What is the standard explanation for tungstens abnormal high Pauling electronegativity?

The electronegativity of tungsten does not follow the common trend along the periodic table.
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### Hydrogen atom quantum numbers distribution

The wave function of the hydrogen atom is given by $\psi_{n \ell m} \left( r, \theta, \varphi \right) = R_{n \ell} Y_{\ell}^{m} (\theta, \varphi)$ which depend on the quantum numbers $n, \ell, m$. I ...