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Questions tagged [orbital-motion]

The path a body takes while moving through space under the influence of the gravitational forces of other bodies

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23 views

Calculation of magnitude and direction of impulse [on hold]

A satelite of mass 50kg is to be put into orbit 500km above the earth surface assummed to be of uniform radius.if after its launch the velocity is 2000m/s ,calculate the magnitude and direction of ...
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38 views

Implication of Earnshaw theorem to the orbit of the moon

Can we apply Earnshaw theorem in circular/elliptical/hyperbolic orbits? I was wondering how did the moon stop at its current stationary orbit. It seems to me the fragments that gave origin to the moon ...
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Acceleration of a satellite orbiting Mars

I am studying how a satellite would move in orbit around Mars. I have calculated the velocity of its movement. However, if the gravity of Mars is the only force affecting the movement of the satellite,...
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Problem with relative magnetic reference frames [closed]

I came across this problem a while ago and I'd like to solve it, but I'm not even sure where to start. I know I need to use the magnetic reference frame to its angular rate of change, then use it to ...
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Problem with relative reference frames [closed]

I came across this problem a while ago and I'd like to solve it, but I'm not even sure where to start. How would I start this problem and what formulas do I need? I'm not asking for a solution, but ...
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Physical reason for $T^2=a^3$ when $T$ is in years and $a$ is in AU

Kepler's third law states $$T^2\propto a^3$$ When $T$ is in years and $a$ is in AU, the proportionality constant becomes $1$. This can't be a coincidence; I would like to know the physical reason for ...
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52 views

Satellites orbiting around any planet's [closed]

Suppose a satellite is revolving around a planet with radius r. Now if we increase the value of r then the angular velocity and kinetic energy will decrease, but the total energy & potential ...
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1answer
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Even and odd polar coordinates in general orbits

I'm learning about orbits in classical mechanics at the moment. I'm not understanding something about the evenness of the distance component and oddness of the angle component. I see that the radial ...
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1answer
34 views

Free return trajectory versus burning rocket

It is said that Apollo was set to the free return trajectory while leaving earths gravity, heading to moon.Now the Free return trajectory is the one in which satellite uses moon gravity to return back ...
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2answers
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Escape velocity and orbital velocity confusion

If orbital velocity is reduced when we want to put a satellite in a higher orbit, and if to achieve a lower orbit we need to increase it's velocity, then how come by increasing the speed of the ...
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27 views

Inextensible filament structure in gravitational field

Let $\gamma$ be a curve lying in a gravitational field with each point moving as an independent point mass. Formally, \begin{equation} \partial^2_t \gamma(u, t) = -\nabla U(\gamma(u, t)), \end{...
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Achieve geosynchronous orbital speeds at leo while moving relative to a electric field

Would it be possible for an object to move at geosynchronous orbital speeds at LEO? Assume that a superconductive ring extending around the entire Earth existed at the same height as the ISS. Could an ...
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58 views

Can dark matter explain the unusual orbit of transnettunian objects? [closed]

While we are struggling to find an hypothetical planet 9 to explain the unusual orbit of transnettunian objects, I was wondering if it could be just dark matter. We know that the universe is mostly ...
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59 views

Creating a Gravitational 2-body simulation

I am trying to create a simulation for a gravitational 2 body problem. But I am kind of having trouble to define the equations that can be solve numerically. From an inertial frame I defined the ...
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1answer
57 views

Relation of specific angular momentum $h$ with velocity and impact parameter for massive particle?

I am computing the path of an incoming massive (!!) particle with speed $v$ far from the black hole in the schwarzchild metric. To determine its path, i need to input the specific angular momentum ...
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1answer
47 views

Could a planet have terminal velocity greater than its escape velocity?

I've had 2 semesters of college-level physics (1 of Mechanics and 1 of E&M) and was wondering after exploring a bit about terminal velocity: Is it physically possible for a planet to have a ...
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2answers
122 views

Can we deorbit space trash into the sun by splitting it in two?

So there's an issue of deorbiting stuff because if you just deorbit it a little, it'll enter a more elliptical orbit but still hit you in the back when you return to this place a year later. Size and ...
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1answer
41 views

How to simulate an explosion in space [closed]

I have a simulation of some bodies orbiting each other in space, and I would like to add explosions to it to see how the behave, but I don't know how to do it. Sorry if this is has been asked before, ...
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Why does earth not follow the same rule around sun as moon follows around earth?

As you all know that only one side of the moon faces earth through the whole of its journey. The reason why it happens can be owed to the fact that the center of gravity of the moon (because of ...
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2answers
86 views

About Mercury perihelion again

Sorry to bother you, but I did not get anywhere answer what exactly moves Mercury periapsis. "Sun gravity" or "GR" or "warp of spacetime" are very broad answers, I want to know how they affect this ...
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58 views

Is the Moon's rotation affected by Earth's?

There is a lot written on the moon affecting the Earth's rotation but not so much the other way around. I know that moon has its own rotation: Tidal locking is the phenomenon by which a body has ...
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What is topocentric horizon coordinate system?

I was going through the book Orbital Mechanics by Howard Curtis and in the book he talks about topocentric horizon frame and its angular velocity about an inertial frame? What does it mean and how do ...
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3answers
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Why does an orbit become hyperbolic when total orbital energy is positive?

I stumbled across this page describing the energy of a given object in orbit. It describes 'total energy' as: $$E_{k} + E_{p} = E_{\mathrm{total}} $$ where $$E_k = \frac{1}{2}mv^2$$ and $$E_p = \...
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1answer
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In a binary system, why $m_1 a_1 = m_2 a_2$?

In the center of mass coordinate, $m_1 r_1 = m_2 r_2$, which is straightforward. Yet in this detailed deviation of radial velocity page 27, it says that the $r_1$, which is the magnitude of the vector ...
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1answer
55 views

Express the total mass of the galaxy in solar masses

I have the following problem: "The Sun has an orbital speed of about 220 km s−1 around the center of the Galaxy, whose distance is 28 000 light years. Estimate the total mass of the Galaxy in ...
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1answer
54 views

How massive does a satellite have to be in order to shift the earth's orbit around the sun?

How massive does a satellite have to be in order to shift the earth's orbit around the sun? I am wondering how massive a satellite has to be in order to be able to shift the orbit of the earth by ...
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29 views

Kepler's law for comparable masses

I've recently been studying about Kepler's 3rd law... I went through the modification of it when the orbiting masses are comparable in terms of their mass.It was almost symmetric with the one I learnt ...
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1answer
46 views

Intersection angle for two orbits?

If there are two circular orbits, each with the same semi-major axis, and the two orbits only differ in inclination and RAAN; what is the intersection angle between the two? Example: two satellites in ...
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2answers
51 views

Geosynchronous satellites with polar orbit?

I know that satellites can go in polar orbits, but as far as I have read, this is only done by LEO satellites. I think it is possible to have geosynchronous satellites with polar orbits (near polar), ...
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1answer
49 views

Finding free orbit formula by cartesian coordinate

As a simple idea, I want to find a simple orbital function using calculus rather than using the law of Kepler. However, using the recurrence relation is too difficult to solve. Help me to solve...
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43 views

How is Schrodinger's model of atom consistent with reference to Maxwell's Theory of Electromagnetic Radiation? [duplicate]

When Rutherford proposed his model of atom, he mentioned that "Nucleus is surrounded by electrons that move around the nucleus with very high speed in circular paths called orbits. James Maxwell ...
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55 views

Central force problem

Two masses, $m$ and $2m$, orbit around their CM (center of mass). If the orbits are circular, they don’t intersect. But if they are very elliptical, they do. What is the smallest value of the ...
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60 views

Relativistic Doppler Effect between rotating bodies

The Wikipedia article "Relativistic Doppler effect - One object in circular motion around the other" confused me. There they say that when the light source orbits the observer, the observation of ...
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1answer
106 views

Are black holes affected by tidal forces?

I've recently read about the last parsec problem, which states that supermassive black holes should not be able to merge within the current age of the universe. Once they reach a distance of about one ...
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2answers
92 views

Calculate escape velocity without using energy? [closed]

Is it practically doable to calculate the escape velocity on the earth not by using the principle of energy conservation, but by calculating the velocity of the particle as a function of time using ...
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12answers
5k views

Escape Velocity - Won't the orbital path just become larger with higher initial velocity?

Escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. However, gravity has infinite range. Object $A$ is always getting pulled by the ...
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1answer
52 views

Do all the planets in our solar system orbit the sun in the same direction and in the same plane?

Do all the planets in our solar system orbit the sun in the same direction and in the same plane? (as in a flat orbit if you are looking from "above")
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1answer
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Shouldn't cosmic rays slow down Earth's movement around the Sun?

Maybe a dumb question. Are cosmic rays slowing down earth's (or any planets) movement around the sun? To me it sounds like an analogy of moving a mass through air and being slowed down by the impact ...
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1answer
72 views

Modelling lunar motion in Python [closed]

I'm trying to solve the equations of motion of the Moon in the Moon-Sun-Earth system (equations 1139-1141 here:http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/336k/Newtonhtml/node130.html) My initial ...
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1answer
84 views

How can I use Runge-Kutta4 to solve this orbit in polar coordinates?

I want to simulate a simple orbit of a planet moving around a star which is fixed in position. I have formulated the ODEs for this problem using Lagrangian Mechanics and have found the equations of ...
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1answer
43 views

Satallite orbiting the earth [closed]

I need help understanding a question from my physics book. It goes like this: a communications firm wants to place a satellite in orbit so that it is always directly above the earth’s 45th ...
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2answers
104 views

Is the physics behind planetary travel simpler than atmospheric travel?

I've been watching a bunch of documentaries lately and had a question that I couldn't really figure out the answer to online. When spacecraft travel through space, are the equations and physics used ...
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1answer
149 views

Does an asymmetric top return to its initial position &orientation, while rotating freely in space? (contradiction in Landau&Lifshitz mechanics book)

The Poinsot's ellipsoid tells us that the angular momentum ($M$) (in the rotating frame) should be lying on the intersection curve between the conservation of momentum sphere radius $|M|$: $M_1^2 + ...
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1answer
38 views

Ptolemaic system parameters

I recently learned about the Ptolemaic system, which seems pretty accurate. There is even a simulator on the Internet: https://astro.unl.edu/naap/ssm/animations/ptolemaic.html You can see that there ...
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1answer
39 views

What is the relation between Earth's orbit and orbit of another planet around Sun? [closed]

Lately, I come across the following problem, "The maximum and minimum speeds of a comet that orbits the Sun are 80 and 10 km/s respectively. The ratio of the aphelion distance of the comet to the ...
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1answer
30 views

Show that angular momentum is independent of the angle

I was thinking about the Bohr atomic model which states, that the angular momentum (L) must be an integral multiple of the reduced Planck constant, this implies that $L=mvr$ must be constant for a ...
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17 views

Newtonian geodesic equation in barycentric frame

In a paper I was reading, I came across the Newtonian geodesic deviation equation $${\ddot{\eta}}^a + K{^a}{_b}{\eta^b}=0$$ Where $\eta{^a}$ are the components of the 3 -vector separating the two ...
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2answers
59 views

How does spatial curvature apply to the planets' orbits?

We all know that in the presence of large, massive objects, spacetime is positively curved, more so the more massive it is. This means that the path of an object without any forces on it is a straight ...
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2answers
87 views

How is spacetime warped by a massive object?

I was going through this question (Why don't planets have Circular orbits?) related to planetary orbits. In the accepted answer it is stated that orbits are actually conic sections. Given this ...
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2answers
67 views

Which orbit planet will take with 2 stars?

Is there a law or an equation that shows which star gravity will win and suck a a planet that has 2 stars Assume planet P has 2 stars A & B A is smaller than B Planet P is closer to A more than ...