Questions tagged [optics]

Optics is the study of light, and its interaction with matter. It includes topics such as imaging systems, fiber optics, lasers, quantum optics, and more.

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42 views

What does it mean for a wave to be fully transmitted?

I have a misunderstanding concerning what it means for a wave to fully transmit from one medium to another. I will demonstrate. Say we have a wave $\psi_1 =e^{i(kx-\omega t)}$. When it encounters a ...
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Technical name (radiometric/photometric/ray-optic) of the physical field that is measured with a camera

A camera (that is FPA and objective) is a device that measures [intensity][1] or radiant intensity vs. two angles (horizontal & vertical). So it generates a representation of the physical quantity ...
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Is there a frequency converting amplifier?

Frequency conversion means output of the amplifier is at a frequency different from that of the input.
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Range of magnification outside plane of focus in a microscope

This should be a simple question, but somehow it's stumping me due to the way microscope objectives are, necessarily, built and classified (compared to, e.g., ideal thin lenses and photographic lenses)...
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Effect of saturated beam laser on transmission in solid materials

The transmission measurement setup commonly features a source (e.g. laser), steering mirrors, an integrating sphere, coupled to a power meter (or spectrometer). For a solid sample placed between the ...
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Which one among these will be the correct alternative for the final polarisation state of light? [closed]

An upolarised light is incident on combination of a polariser , a half wave plate and a quater wave plate kept one after tge other ..
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Why a $e^{i \pi/4}$ (or $e^{-i \pi/4}$) causes a phase shift of $\pi/2$ instead of $\pi/4$ in the case of a quarter-wave plate?

Given a spinor $\begin{pmatrix} E_x \\ E_y \end{pmatrix}$, I learned that if we place a quarter-wave plate with its fast and slow axes in the x- and y-direction, the relative phase shift in the x- and ...
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Reflection using a single wave of light

While dealing with formation of images either by reflection or refraction we have always used at least two rays ( here ray refers to a single wave of light). Suppose we have a single ray of light and ...
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Couple-Mode Theory: Coupling Coefficients of Two Resonators

I'm currently reading H. Haus book on "Wave and Fields in Optoeletronics". On the chapter of Coupling of Two Resonators Mode, the rate equations for the fields are introduced: $$ \frac{da_1}{...
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The Fourier Transform and Fraunhofer Diffraction

I'm currently learning about Fraunhofer diffraction and I don't really understand how it works with the fourier transform and the tophat function. I'm currently struggling on a question involving two ...
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Why is fringe width in ydse Dλ/d and not Dλ/2d? [closed]

im a class 12th student currently studying wave optics. the formula for calculating fringe width in ydse is Dλ/d which is the distance between the centres of two consecutive dark or bright fringes but ...
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Fresnel through multiple media

I am interested in the propagation of light through different media in the context of Fresnel diffraction equation, $$ U_{image}(x,y,z) = U_{object}(x,y,0) \circledast h(x,y,z) $$ where $U_{object}(x,...
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Using flat or thin glass for Surface Plasmon Resonance

SPR is typically created using prism with a thin gold film on the other end. I was wondering if I cut the triangular prism (using a glass cutter at home) into thinner slices, would this have an impact ...
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3answers
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The mathematical solution for the formation of infinite images in parallel mirrors is incorrect?

Textbooks and websites say that parallel mirrors form a $0^\circ$ angle between them and that is why the number of images formed is $(360^\circ/0)$ or infinite.   But I challenge this. There are two ...
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3answers
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Why are infrared images not great?

Why are infrared images not great? Simply googling infrared images, and looking at pictures of things like streets, people, animals, etc. . . I can't quite pin ...
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What is the value for the plasmon frequency of intrinsic $\rm Si$?

I found some values for the plasma frequency $\omega_p$ of doped $\rm Si$, but not for intrinsic Si. Because of this, I tried to calculate it with $$ \omega_p^2 = \frac{ne^2}{m_\text{eff}\ \epsilon_0\...
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Can light travel in closed loops indefinitely?

For simplicity, consider the two dimensional space. My question is that can there be a refractive index $(x, y)\mapsto n(x, y)$ such that the there is at least one closed permissible path (which can ...
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Diagonalizing the linearized optomechanical Hamiltonian

I am trying to diagonalize the Hamiltonian in equation (2) in the paper "Nonlinear Interaction Effects in a Strongly Driven Optomechanical Cavity", by the means of a Bogoliubov ...
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Collimating 3 LED light sources into one point

I am creating a bespoke piece of lighting which requires modifying an existing piece of equipment Currently the equipment is lit up by a single SMD white led chip, however I am going to be replacing ...
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23 views

Which of those two is better way of avoiding mode hopping in laser?

I'm supposed to design a laser cavity that would avoid mode hopping. I have two projects in mind, and I did some simulations. The result for relative intensity of modes (no gain spectrum in account, ...
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16 views

How does Titanium dioxide reflect visible and IR lights?

I know that titanium dioxide has high reflectance for visible and IR lights, but what is the reason behind this principle?
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Why is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) transparent to visible light and have low transmission to infrared light?

I read that Indium Tin Oxide transmits most of visible light while blocking a high percentage of infrared light. What is the principle behind this property?
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1answer
42 views

Can we make a curved mirror out of many small flat mirrors in telescopes?

Will it be possible to build a telescope using many small flat mirrors as a replacement for the prime curved telescope mirror? If the answer is yes, can you please provide a formula connecting the ...
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Deriving the reflectance equation for the four layer system [closed]

I apologize for the inconvenience, new to the forum, I am learning on using it. I have edited this question.My question is given below. I am trying to derive this equation, but in the last numerator, ...
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27 views

How does the light and energy breakdown depend on wave frequency?

How does light and light energy "breakdown" (when light is reflected, some light will be transmited, absorbed, or reflected, just like energy associated with light) depend on wave frequency? ...
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Can titanium dioxide (TiO2) be used to block IR?

I know that titanium oxide is mostly used to block UV lights, but can it be used for the blocking of near-infrared light? If yes, then what are the principles behind it? I would sincerely appreciate ...
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Why is astronomy intensity interferometry immune to atmospheric turbulence?

I have read there is renewed interest in intensity interferometry in astronomy. I read that intensity interferometry is immune to atmospheric turbulence, which plagues astronomy and regular (amplitude)...
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Dipole source in lithography [closed]

What type of source is the dipole radiation?Is it coherent? I studied that using dipole source increases the image contrast in lithography,How is it possible?
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24 views

Diffraction of a dipole source through $N$ equally spaced slits

For $N$ equally spaced slits, what does the diffraction pattern look like for a dipole source?
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How does moth eye grating block/reflect infrared light?

I know that moth-eye gratings are usually used for its anti-reflective properties, but I saw a few research papers that use moth-eye grating to develop a panel that blocks near-infrared light. How is ...
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Time Response of Nonlinear Optical Materials

When reading about optical nonlinearities (and the nonlinear materials), a response time is often reported. I have been reading to try and understand the response time what these times mean. I ...
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55 views

If the sea surface were absolutely calm should the Sun reflection be the area of a circle instead a ribbon?

Although waves produced on the sea can cause different points of the sea surface to reflect sunlight towards the same observer, how is that kind of ribbon image produced? Why isn't the reflection ...
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1answer
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Are multiple images an exclusive propertiy of gravitational lenses?

Strong gravitational lensing produces multiple images if the object lens and observer are in a specific alignment. This is due to there being multiple stationary points in the time arrival surface for ...
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14 views

Why is the optical path equal for conjugate points?

For any optical system, Let A be an object and B it's image. How can we prove that the optical path between A and B is constant? (Using Malus's theorem?)
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What will happen to the image if a concave mirror is cut into half? [duplicate]

I know that the answer is that the intensity will be reduced, but I just don't exactly understand how and why doesn't the same happen for a plane mirror. Doesn't the image depend upon the size of the ...
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How to interpret s amd p polarisation in terms of circular or elliptical polarisation?

I am confused between s,p polaroised light and circular polarisation. Does circular polarisation mean a phase difference of 90 between s and p components ? Do help.
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Why can no commercial laser products achieve a frequency stability of $< 1 \ \text{Hz}$?

I am currently studying the textbook Laser Systems Engineering by Keith Kasunic. Chapter 1.2.1 Temporal coherence says the following: Even a frequency-stabilized SLM laser has a linewidth – an ...
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1answer
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How to derive spectral resolution from the grating equation?

Assuming the incident beam is perpendicular, the grating equation is as follows: $$n\lambda = d \sin \theta$$ where $n$ is the order, lambda is the wavelength, $d$ is the spacing, and $\theta$ is the ...
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Metasurface holography as a principle behind volumetric displays?

Disclaimer: By no means am I a physicist of any kind so complete inability to grasp complex physical concepts without spending ridiculously unreasonable amounts of time on corresponding research is a ...
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1answer
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Why do mountains disappear into the distance?

Traveling south on CA 99 we noticed that atmospheric conditions were exceptionally clear and played a little game attempting to determine how far away we could identify Shasta. As we got further and ...
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Can you see a photon from the side?

I'm trying to understand the shape and size of individual quantum particles. According to the book Tales of the Quantum the quantum wave of a photon in the visible range is a few centimetres wide. The ...
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23 views

Why are hyperbolic fringes of minimum order and circular of maximum at the centre

In young's double slit experiment why is it that hyperbolic fringes formed at$y=0$ are off minimum order, while circular fringes (that are formed when line connecting the two slits is perpendicular on ...
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15 views

Transmission through a smoothly varying medium

I'm looking for references regarding the transmission of EM waves through objects whose optical parameters vary smoothly. I know how to solve the equations, but I'm looking for physical intuition ...
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2answers
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Why can we observe thin-film interference or optical fringes when a film is illuminated by broadband radiation?

To observe thin-film interference (optical fringes), the time that a beam of radiation spends in the film should be less than the coherence time of the beam so the emerging waves can interfere with ...
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27 views

Convex Lens forming plane wavefront

As we can see in the above diagram, as we move along the symmetric axis of the convex lens, D varies. Therefore the rays coming out of the point source hitting different points of the lens surface ...
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36 views

Collect (almost) all light from a point source

If I have a point source of light which I can surround with a curved mirror/lens. Is there a well known technique to try to collect all the light from the point source and direct it onto a ...
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All photons incident upon an object are ultimately scattered somewhere, right? Either elastically or inelastically?

From Wikipedia: Light has a certain probability of being scattered by a material. When photons are scattered, most of them are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered ...
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How to find resulting intensity in 3 beam interference?

Suppose we have three incident light beams coming from slits S¹, S², S³ with some initial phase differences $Φ¹²,Φ²³,Φ³¹$ between them interfering at a point and we want to calculate resulting ...
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The mechanism behind the second order non-linear injection current

In this paper the mechanism of second order non-linear injection current is defined as Injection currents are produced by quantum interference between different polarization components or between one ...
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What characterises a rapid delay line?

When reading into Adaptive Sampling for Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Imaging, it is stated: "In general, the advantage of a rapid delay line is high repetition rate, and the SNR can be ...

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