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Material that Increases Angle of Incoming Light

Snell's law states that light refracts when entering a substance and refracts back to its original angle upon exit. This is shown in the diagram below from this webpage. I was wondering if there are ...
user109474's user avatar
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Deriving dispersion relation of hyperbolic material

I am trying to derive the following form of the dispersion relation for hyperbolic material: From the literature, this dispersion relation is achieved by setting the determinant of the below matrix ...
photonica's user avatar
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6 votes
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Could a transparent frequency-altering material be possible?

I would imagine a material that is transparent but a electromagnetic wave going out will have a lower frequency than when going in (and maintaining it's direction). You could build glasses to see UV-...
Walter's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can an optical medium be lossless and dispersive?

Occasionally, I come across the phrase "lossless dispersive linear optical medium". How can such a medium be possible mathematically? I mean the real and imaginary parts of the electric ...
apadana's user avatar
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Second Harmonic Generation on chiral surfaces

I try to recreate a fit in this paper on SHG on chiral surfaces. I guess the question itself is too specific to get an answer, so I state these questions that are a bit more to the point (and leave my ...
Martin 's user avatar
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11 votes
2 answers
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What percentage of light gets scattered by a mirror?

Sunlight strikes a mirror at a 45 degree angle. The vast majority of light will be reflected about the normal. Some light will be absorbed by the mirror. Some light will be transmitted through the ...
causative's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Light splitting plastic film in phone display screen

I was recently taking apart a button-press phone (like this one) and right under the glass protective screen was a thin plastic film. This is what happens when I place it over a single dot: As far ...
Soham Saha's user avatar
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Mixed configuration of magneto-optical kerr effect

Typically there are three types of magneto-optical Kerr effect experiments: Polar, longitudinal, and transverse. These three geometries yield very different results regarding what is measured (...
ABetheGammow's user avatar
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How are 3 Principle Sections possible in a crystal even when there is only one optical axis and all must contain it?

While studying polarization in calcite crystals, I came across that there are 3 possible principle sections in the rhombohedral crystal. But the conditions are that each section must be perpendicular ...
Gauransh 21HPH2625's user avatar
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How can a greater than 1 reflectance coefficient be explained in $\rm SiC$-$\rm SiO_2$ interface?

I ran a simulation using the Transfer Matrix Method to plot the R,T and A curves for a SiC->SiO2 interface. There's a region of incident energies where the |r|^2 I get is higher than 1 and the ...
Daniel's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why can you not create a LED equivalent by illuminating a colored plastic casing?

I would first like to apologize if this is a dumb question. I understand the physics of color sufficiently well. You have an incoming photon that intercepts an electron on the atom, the electron gets ...
Leibniz's Alien's user avatar
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Imaginary part of permittivity tensor

For a general permittivity tensor, why is the imaginary part of the off-diagonal component, e.g.: $$\epsilon_{xy}$$ equal to: $$\frac{\epsilon_{xy} + \epsilon_{yx}^*}{2i}$$ instead of: $$(\epsilon_{xy}...
photonica's user avatar
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Refraction and Snell's law at $\rm SiN$ inverse taper facet

For an optical inverse taper, for example, for a $\rm SiN$ taper, material of core is $\rm Si_3N_4$ while cladding is oxide. At the facet, there is a polish angle theta to reduce the backreflection. ...
Allen's user avatar
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1 answer
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$\rm InP$ Mach-Zender modulator

I know how a Mach-Zender electro-optical modulator (MZM) works when based on non-linear crystals like LN. On-chip realization of MZMs is often done with $\rm InP$ that is a semiconductor. What is the ...
Ang's user avatar
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Knowing the optical path difference, how do I calculate the resulting image?

Let's say I'm taking a picture through a cube of some material where the index of refraction varies in a known way, such as a GRIN lens. I can calculate the optical path difference as a function of ...
na48's user avatar
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1 answer
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Exactly which objects should we considered as colorless? [duplicate]

My question is which objects are considered as colorless? In chemistry we sometimes consider white object as colorless,Many times we use the word colorless for transparent substances like water, glass,...
kl kick's user avatar
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Understanding the differences in dielectric functions derived from various methods

I am currently investigating the response of a specific system to an external electric field and have encountered a question that has puzzled me for a long time. Consider a system subjected to ...
Liang's user avatar
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1 answer
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Transmittance of one material through a multilayer

Good morning, I have the transmittance and the reflectance spectrum of PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) and I also have the transmittance and the reflectance spectrum of PET + Copper (50 nm). I would ...
Brising's user avatar
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Why does this toy color mixing cube exhibit asymmetrical behavior?

I have this "color mixing cube" desk toy; when looked through, each axis filters a different primary color of light. It seems to be made of a cube of transparent material (refraction index ...
b0fh's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
43 views

Do there exist materials whose Opacity varies with temperature?

Do there exist materials whose Opacity varies with temperature? E.g a Material that becomes more Opaque as it gets hotter?
blademan9999's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is a true delay line and is there possibly a false delay line?

I'm reading "Silicon nitride passive and active photonic integrated circuits: trends and prospects" and one of discussed application of $\rm SiN$ is "true delay line". All the ...
user46147's user avatar
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Why are the total and free EM fields mixed together?

For calculating the work done on a medium by an electric field: $đW = \vec{E} \cdot d\vec{P}$ but for magnetic fields: $đW = \mu_0 \vec{H} \cdot d\vec{M}$. For impedance, $Z = \frac{E}{H}$. Why is the ...
Liam Clink's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

Do mirrors (with metal surfaces) show TIR (Total Internal Reflection)?

[Not a duplicate! Also, the answer to a similar question was unsatisfactory] I was digging into why we don't use mirrors in place of fibre optics cables. Majorly, the answers were as follows: It's ...
Maddy's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
676 views

How do optical fibres work with high critical angles?

The critical angle is given by: c = arcsin(n2 - n1) For a typical optical fibre, it says on the web that refractive index (n2) for cladding is higher than that of the glass core (n1) but it's only a ...
Maddy's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
145 views

What are some liquids with high ranges of refractive index with change in temperature?

I need to run an experiment on the effect of temperature on refractive index of a liquid, and in order to make the change most visible and have the lowest percent uncertainty I need the change in ...
PP Epic's user avatar
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In a uniaxial crystal, what determines the optical axis, extraordinary axis, and ordinary axis?

In a uniaxial crystal there is an optic axis, an extraordinary axis, and an ordinary axis. The optic axis is not the direction in which we plan to propagate light. The light is propagating in a ...
Benzene enthusiast's user avatar
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1 answer
59 views

What happens when screen is not placed where Image is focused but elsewhere?

When we try to form a real image on a screen by a convex lens, we place the screen at a distance where the image is focused. But if we try to place the screen at a distance less than the distance ...
Garv Chaudha's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
56 views

Why are things reflective, absorbent, transparent etc? [duplicate]

What determines whether a material reflects, absorbs or transmits a certain wavelength of light? Just a layman's question.
GrimmReaper18B's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
74 views

Why can't we create a laser with wavelength of 13.5nm?

I was reading about EUV and the extraordinary process of firing two different lasers as tin droplet to collect 13.5nm wavelength light and I was wondering why this is required and we can't just create ...
nickponline's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
231 views

Why does light either get reflected, absorbed, or passes through a surface or obstacle?

For each of these 3 cases, I'm having trouble understanding... If light is reflected, does that mean that there was not sufficient energy by the photons to excite the electrons of the surface to ...
imagineerThat's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
43 views

Why does (oxidized) aluminum have a diffuse optical appearance?

Unoxidized aluminum has a shiny appearance like typical metals. However in air aluminum rapidly oxidizes, giving it a more diffuse appearance (or bidirectional reflectance distribution function). ...
Museful's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What difference between metallic reflection and polished/mirror reflection [closed]

At the moment I am studying materials in raytracing (I am writing my own personal project) I found out that there are several types of reflections. I read this article from wikipedia: https://en....
LINUX_ADMIN's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
49 views

Laser confocal microscope filter

I wanted to mount a narrow bandpass filter which allows to transmit 405 nm wave, i. e. the laser wavelength. I wanted to cut off other light, cause my detector is also sensitive to other wavelengths. ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
35 views

Recording Analog Data in Optical Disc Using Laser Beam Mechanism [closed]

Is it possible to storing/writing any Analog Audio Signal (i.e. Vinyl Record & etc) into a little bigger and thicker Optical Disc as compared to the other conventional Compact Disc while using the ...
Shankar Majumder's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
44 views

Are there everyday materials that change color, depending on illumination spectrum?

Initially I wanted to ask this exact question about color change due to "white" light source spectrum change, and the accepted answer satisfies me fully. However the answer says that most of ...
user46147's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
154 views

Why do non-linear optical effects occur?

Why do non-linear optical effects occur? Why do the materials respond differently at high intensities and at some resonant frequencies?
SHD's user avatar
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1 answer
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Classical EM wave: Wavelength dependence of modelling material as Lorentz oscillator vs Bragg diffraction?

For convenience, consider a classical EM wave within a perfect crystal. The Lorentz oscillator seems a good way to model material characteristics. Yet in introductions to eg. X-Ray Crystallography, we ...
antimony's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Size of metal domain needed to reflect light ; are small graphene sheets shiny?

I remembered that shininess of a material is because of reflection, ie surface current responding to light. Mathematically, one can solve Maxwell equations under a relevant boundary condition, with ...
Bohan Xu's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
134 views

What is difference between Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Coherent population trapping (CPT)?

EIT: Electromagnetically induced transparency CPT: Coherent population trapping When two resonant light fields (probe field and strong coupling field) are incident on an opaque material whose atoms ...
김상배's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
146 views

Difference between seed and pump in chirped pulse amplifier

What is the difference between to seed an optical amplifier (such as Chirped Pulse Amplifier) and to pump it with a laser source?
Soun's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
360 views

Ideal surface for a perfect lens

in this physics lecture, on slide 15-16, it is found that the ideal surface for a perfect lens (which maps a plane wavefront into a perfect spherical wavefront, i.e. which makes focus all input ...
Kinka-Byo's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
458 views

Brewster's angle for Metal?

As metal has a high refraction index, it is possible to have Brewster's Angle for Metal when the light incident from the air? Is it possible to derive from any formula?
XEON's user avatar
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0 answers
34 views

Why does non-linearity come into picture only at a large intensity of optical fields?

I have read that for sufficiently large intensities of optical fields (of the order of $10^8$), we can actually observe a non-linear relationship between the polarization and the field, given as $$\...
Abhinav Tahlani's user avatar
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0 answers
408 views

What are good materials to diffuse/scatter 850nm infrared light?

I want to properly light up a room with an IR Illuminator, but most illuminators lack diffusion, therefore shadows are especially sharp and bold. Since IR rays don't behave like visible light rays, it'...
URSkrub's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
119 views

Why do efficient blue emitters (LEDs,OLEDs, quantum dots) take much longer to discover than red and green emitters?

For example, it took over 3 decades to create efficient blue LEDs in the lab after the red and green leds were discovered. For OLED displays as well, the red and green pixels are phosphorescent oleds ...
Aqua Neon's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
174 views

Does the front of a light wave always propagate at $c$ in media

Consider light moving along one dimension at the classical level. I am interested in the situation where a wave front impacts a material with some generic index of refraction $n(\omega)$, and ...
Ophelia Evelyn Sommer's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
213 views

How does reflectance change with wavelength? [duplicate]

Sorry if this is an easy question, I am new to physics and this field. I have a question about reflectance which i believe to be "effectiveness of reflecting radiating energy" My goal is to ...
Taylor's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
62 views

How to figure out TM and TE modes based on dispersion relation?

According to this paper (https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5128679), the dispersion relation of hyperbolic materials is as follows: then it is said, that he first term in brackets in the equation describes a ...
Kalixin KA's user avatar
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1 answer
65 views

Why do some anti-reflective (or anti-glare) lenses use layers of materials with alternately very high and very low refractive indices?

Some specials lenses like this (or coatings on them) try to minimize the refractive index, or the change thereof, or at least make the change very gradual. But others apparently do the exact opposite, ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Non-dispersive mediums for light

Apart from the vacuum are there other mediums for which light velocity does not depend on frequency?
ramon vazquez's user avatar

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