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Questions tagged [observers]

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Relativity Confusion

In the time dilation formula $\Delta t=\gamma\Delta t_0$, I am confused about what $\Delta t$ and $\Delta t_0$ measure. If we have two people, Tom and Bob, moving at constant velocity relative to ...
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2answers
157 views

Solving the ladder paradox: Minkowski distance leads to a contradiction

Consider the ladder paradox; Let the length of the barn in its fixed frame be $80m$, and consider the ladder's reference frame which is moving toward the barn with a speed $v$, and in ladder's frame ...
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4answers
87 views

Present vs Past in Cosmological time

My question is in regard to “seeing back in time” when observing objects in space. I understand the concept that light takes a certain amount of time to reach the earth and we can determine the ...
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1answer
63 views

Recordings of journey traveling near speed of light

If you had two identical video cameras and started recording synchronized atomic clocks recording at the same speed and you put one on the spaceship and sent it out traveling at 99% of the speed of ...
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9answers
12k views

Special Relativity - two beams of light in opposite direction

I just want to first say that I'm aware I am asking a question due to my own confusion and ignorance and not because of anything to do with special relativity. I hope that's alright. What I'm ...
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1answer
139 views

Are quantum measurement of a system only occurring with human interaction?

In quantum physics, any functional interaction like measurement/observation forces particles down to a single state. Yet when plants do their photosynthesis it's been discovered that they actual ...
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1answer
41 views

Train and lightning bolts: why the time difference does not depend on the position of the moving person?

So imagine two lightning bolts hit the ground, simultaneously to a stationary observer. There is also a person on a train traveling to the right at a constant velocity. I know that if he started in ...
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3answers
3k views

What will the universe look like for anyone falling into a black hole?

I've heard that, from the perspective of an external observer, something falling into a black hole will eventually look "frozen": light waves will move to the infrared and further into lower ...
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1answer
145 views

To an observer in a black hole, would light be stationary? Would it be as if the black hole is accelerating faster than the speed of light?

Taking into account that we know that gravity and acceleration are fundamentally indistinguishable from each other, Would an observer in a black hole believe that he's accelerating upwards faster than ...
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4answers
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Is there a frame of reference in which I was born before I was conceived?

I'm struggling to understand the relativity of simultaneity and position. If my conception and birth are separated by time but not space, a frame of reference in which my birth and conception are ...
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2answers
1k views

So Black Holes Actually Merge! In 1/5th of a Second - How?

I've read a lot of conflicting answers in these forums. However, today saw the awesome announcement of gravitational waves. Two black holes merged: http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2016/02/11/...
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1answer
45 views

Why do external observers see LIGO results if an object falling into a black hole never reaches the event horizon? [duplicate]

If I throw a clock towards a black hole, its time slows down, it is redshifted, and according to many theories it never reaches the event horizon from my point of view. How is it then, that a star can ...
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2answers
77 views

Would a human age faster if these certain conditions are met?

So, a human would travel in a rocket in outer space. There is little to no gravity, and the pressure may or may not have an affect (?) on what i'm about to ask. It has been proven that when a human ...
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1answer
58 views

Do gravitational waves affect the flow rate of time?

Since LIGO has been able to detect the presence of gravitational waves, this implies that there is a density wave traveling through space with a high potential front and a low potential back side. ...
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14answers
8k views

How could quantum effects occur in the early universe without an observer?

In inflationary cosmology, primordial quantum fluctuations in the process of inflation are considered responsible for the asymmetry and lumpiness of the universe that was shaped. However, according to ...
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2answers
89 views

Wormholes and Time Machines

According this paper: Morris, Michael S. and Thorne, Kip S. and Yurtsever, Ulvi (1988) Wormholes, time machines, and the weak energy condition. Physical Review Letters, 61 (13). pp. 1446-1449. ...
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2answers
144 views

Clarification of proper time and inertial frame of reference

“Standing beside railroad tracks, we are suddenly startled by a relativistic boxcar traveling past us as shown in the figure. Inside, a well-equipped hobo fires a laser pulse from the front of the ...
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0answers
50 views

Does absolute motion/stillness exist?

I am not a physicist :) I (think I) understand the idea that motion can be relative in the sense that, I'm standing still inside a moving train in regards to the moving train itself, but I'm moving ...
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2answers
1k views

Relativity of simultaneity - An example

I am trying to understand the relativity of simultaneity in different frames, and I am trying to work out an example. Suppose along the x-axis there are two points 2000m apart. Event A happens at t=0 ...
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0answers
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What is the definition of coordinates of an observer? [duplicate]

I am confused about coordinates of an observer. Suppose we have an observer $A$ whose world line $\gamma$ is a geodesic and another observer whose world-line $\gamma$ is not. Since coordinates is just ...
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3answers
108 views

What exactly does the observer's coordinate system mean in special relativity?

This seems like a very basic question but I'm having a hard time understanding it, more precisely hard time visualizing it. Let say there is an observer, and we wish to somewhat formalize his ...
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1answer
158 views

Special Relativity pothole paradox

Consider a man who is 1 metre in width and is running (at relativistic speeds) towards a pothole in the ground which is also 1 meter in width. In the reference frame of the man it appears as though ...
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14answers
20k views

How can anything ever fall into a black hole as seen from an outside observer?

The event horizon of a black hole is where gravity is such that not even light can escape. This is also the point I understand that according to Einstein time dilation will be infinite for a far-away-...
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0answers
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How are the predictions of the Schwarzschild solution consistent with our observations of black holes? [duplicate]

I am fully aware that there may be many misunderstandings in the following. However, in recent lectures we covered the Schwarzschild solution, and after some interesting mathematics we reached ...
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1answer
156 views

Can the fact that the vacuum energy in curved spacetime is not boost invariant be explained without mathematics?

I read in an answer to a question if Hawking radiation can be explained without too much mathematics that this is impossible insofar the vacuum energy is not boost invariant in a curved spacetime. ...
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2answers
174 views

Time dilation. Does time dilatation affect physiological processes?

In time dilation, does the "aging" referenced include biological/ physiological aging? for example, in the identical twin concept, is it possible for the twin who travels to space and back to have ...
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5answers
176 views

Is Relativity of simultaneity just a flaw in perception?

So I went through a couple of different books on special relativity ( including Einstein's own book) and I just can't seem to accept relativity of simultaneity as a real thing. I'll explain my ...
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2answers
3k views

How can one prove that the number of images formed by the reflecting surfaces of two plane mirrors at right angles to each other is 3?

How can one prove that the number of images formed by two plane mirrors at right angles to each other is 3? Is there a mathematical proof for the same?
4
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1answer
193 views

Doppler effect differs when the entity moving is different

Why is the doppler shift different when whether the source is moving or the observer? Although they are traveling at the same speed. Noticing that the difference can't be neglected when the speed is a ...
34
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9answers
8k views

Does any particle ever reach any singularity inside the black hole?

I am not a professional physicist, so I may say something rubbish in here, but this question has always popped in my mind every time I read or hear anyone speak of particles hitting singularities and "...
0
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2answers
174 views

Does a particle falling into a black hole ever reach the center? [duplicate]

Once an object or particle passes the event horizon, will it ever reach the center of the blackhole. I ask this from my elementary understand of relativity. This is my understanding: if an object ...
0
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1answer
51 views

Do Events Conditional to Simultaneity Occur in Every Reference Frame?

Imagine a train with a table that contains a light on both ends (so that the line between the two sources of light is parallel with the line of motion of the train) and a light sensor in the perfect ...
1
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1answer
71 views

Einstein's Simultaneous Lighning and the Lorentz Transformation

I am reading Einstein's book, "Relativity: the Special and General Theory" translated by Robert W. Lawson, and I have some questions concerning Special Relativity -- specifically, the thought ...
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4answers
109 views

Time of flashlight crossing the event horizon as seen from an external observer

This is a follow-up to my previous question: Can something (again) ever fall through the event horizon? Consider the following thought experiment: I am again on my rocket at height $h$ over a black-...
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2answers
187 views

Help understanding why can't we measure absolute velocity?

(This is probably a clone of some other question, but I haven't been able to find a satisfactory answer, so I hope this is okay.) So, I know that in special relativity, there's no such thing as a ...
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1answer
45 views

Biological aging interval equals Proper Time interval?

In special relativity does proper time interval equal biological aging interval in every inertial reference frame?
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3answers
67 views

Method to observe clocks on spaceships moving near $c$?

I have read the explanation for clocks slowing down on a spaceship moving relative to a stationary observer -- something like a beam of light between two mirrors taking longer for the observer to ...
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4answers
4k views

How does a photon experience space and time?

To an an external observer it appears that time has stopped for photon. But this relation is reflexive, so for an observer travelling with the photon it appears the universe has stopped everywhere. ...
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2answers
65 views

Relativity from a basic assumption

Is it possible to derive Lorentz transformations just by assuming that if two spaceships are moving away from each other with a constant speed, it is impossible for them to tell who is moving, even if ...
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0answers
37 views

Equivalence in all inertial frames

Suppose there is a train moving to the right. and inside the train there is an observer, A. Outside the track, there is another observer B. When the train passes in front of B, right at the instant ...
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2answers
742 views

Perceived direction of light emitted in moving reference frame

I was thinking the other day about the simple example used to demonstrate time dilation effects and to derive the Lorrentz factor - where the time it takes for a light pulse to be emitted, bounce of a ...
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0answers
70 views

Is there any change in temperature due to special relativity? [duplicate]

Say I am travelling in a spaceship very close to the speed of light. Would there be any change in temperature in the spaceship relative to outside the spaceship? Please explain in detail.
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2answers
84 views

Is there a connection between the energy distribution and time dilation?

Can anyone please help me understand what is descibed bellow? Scenario 1. We have a pair of atomic clocks. Let's call them clock A and clock B. We switch both of them on at the same time. Clock A ...
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2answers
47 views

How do we observe an electron? [duplicate]

When an electron is observed it acts like a particle and its wave function collapse. This statement is very famous in quantum mechanics, but what is meant by observing an electron? Which devices are ...
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0answers
49 views

Apparent FTL speeds seen by observer

MY guestion is if I was in a ship orbiting a black hole (not very close to the event horizon) I am orbiting pretty far and I am experiencing that my time is slowing down realitive to people on earth. ...
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2answers
84 views

Clock in a sealed box at half the speed of light. How would it know it is moving?

Consider a clock enclosed in a sealed box here on earth syncronized with my wrist watch. I send the boxed clock around the galaxy a couple of times at half the speed of light (or the full speed of ...
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2answers
80 views

Double slit experiment record but not look at it

I am having a tough tough stressful week trying to write an article about quantum mechanics. I know there was a question asked the same thing before, but I didn't understand nor I did not want to wake ...
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1answer
74 views

How can I go and also not go faster than light?

Suppose I am in a spaceship. In this spaceship there is also my friend. So my friend and my relative velocity is zero. So no matter how fast my ship goes my friend's velocity relative to me is zero($0$...
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5answers
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What is physically different about a moving vs still object in space?

If I have two asteroids. One dead still in space and one whizzing by at 10,000mph. What is the difference between the two, physically? If I freeze time and look at the two of them - what differences ...
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5answers
290 views

Does an expanding event horizon “swallow” nearby objects?

In a view of a remote observer, an object falling into a black hole is "hanging" at the horizon (slowly falling with a deceleration). Around this moment, the event horizon expands for some reason that ...