Questions tagged [nucleation]

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Why tap water doesn' instantly form crystals when you shake it after cooling it?

For the science fair I am doing the experiment about nucleation in which I put a bottle of water in the freezer and after one hour and a half I take it out and it is supposed to instantly freeze when ...
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1answer
98 views

Where do the air bubbles inside the pool come from?

Here's a pic of my legs in the pool water. There are tiny air bubbles on them. I thought this is the result of air coming out of my leg, but I learnt that this is not the case. Also, there seem to be ...
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Is Smoluchowski equation for aggregation conservative?

The Smoluchowski equation for the aggregation with no breakage can be written as $$\frac{dn_k}{dt}=\frac{1}{2}\Big(\sum_{i+j=k} n_i \beta_{ij}n_j\Big) - n_k \sum_{i=1}^N \beta_{ki} n_i$$ where $n_k$ ...
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16 views

Heterogeneous nucleation theory books or articles

I'm looking for books or fundamental articles about the heterogeneous nucleation theory. I'd like to understand the main effects driving it, with concrete examples. If you have any idea plz tell me.
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1answer
43 views

Why Gibbs energy for nucleation theory?

In nucleation theory, the free energy is given by (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_nucleation_theory but in many other places also): $$\Delta G=\frac{4\pi }{3}r^3\Delta g +4\pi r^2\sigma,$$ ...
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simple models for nucleation theory

Where can I find simple dyamical models for nucleation theory. I'm particularly interested in the time dependance of the number of aggregates of different size. I've read about Smoluchowski theory ...
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1answer
40 views

Variation/Differential in Critical Radius of Homogeneous Nucleation

Getting the critical radius during nucleation from G(r) is straightforward - but in our lecture notes, a notation is used that I cannot quite wrap my head around: The molar Gibbs Free Energy $G(r)$ ...
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2answers
403 views

Bubble formation in long plastic tube with glass windows sealing the ends

Suppose you have a plastic tube that's length is much longer than its inner diameter sealed with glass on both ends. Inside the tube is high purity water with no bubbles i.e. all gases that remain in ...
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1answer
168 views

Explanation of the effect of nucleation sites on various processes

It is common knowledge that water can be cooled and superheated in the absence of nucleation sites. Similarly, the well-known explosion of carbonated drinks due to the dropping of mentos is also ...
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2answers
98 views

Nucleation - Internal energy of a droplet

From K. Huang's Statistical Mechanics, par. 2.2: Suppose a droplet of liquid is placed in an external medium that exerts a pressure $P$ on the droplet. Then the work done by the droplet on ...
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366 views

Understanding the ice-water phase transition in order to apply it on solid-solid phase transitions

Background I'm trying to understand a solid-solid phase transition. In this transition, a crystalline material changes from one phase to the other. An example would be the alpha iron / gamma iron ...
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1answer
414 views

Determination of the critical homogeneous nucleation radius

Situation Consider a supercooled liquid. If a spherical solid crystal appears, the variation of the free Gibbs energy is given by $\Delta G = -\frac{4}{3}\pi\Delta g r^3 + 4\pi\gamma r^2$ where $\...
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1answer
55 views

Why does a bubble arise on an unevenness of a glass? [duplicate]

When you put champaign in a glass, or any other CO2 containing liquid, than often there arise bubble mostly from the same spot. Bow it is said that the cause for that is that bubbles of CO2 'like to ...
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69 views

Calculation of charged sphere distribution near a wall in Cartesian coordinates

I am following a similar derivation as found in the beginning of this paper "Quantitative aspects of the growth of (charged) silica spheres" by A.P. Philipse. This paper calculates the growth of a ...
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2answers
789 views

Why rough surfaces promote nucleation of CO2 in carbonated drinks?

Glassware with scratched/etched surfaces generate more bubbles (video 1, video 2). Why these rough surfaces allow easier heterogeneous nucleation?
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366 views

Material preventing nucleation, why is it not used for soda container?

I would like to know the answer to the question "why do materials preventing heterogeneous nucleation of $CO_2$ aren't used for soda bottles and glasses?". Two possible answers so far that I thought ...
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1answer
73 views

Does nucleation depend on the rate of change in pressure in a carbonated liquid?

Carbonated beer flowing from a keg through a short length of tubing results in large quantities of foam. Unintuitively (at least to me), increasing the length of tubing results in a less frothy drink. ...
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1answer
681 views

A Proposed Improvement to the Diet Coke and Mentos Experiment

I am sure most of you are aware of the Diet Coke and Mentos craze - put a few mentos in a bottle of diet coke and whoosh! Equally, I am sure most of you are aware that this occurs because the gas is ...
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1answer
154 views

Does Nucleation Occur during Phase Equilibrium?

I understand that during phase transition nucleation must occur. I'm wondering, once phase equilibrium is established, does nucleation still occur? For instance, in liquid-vapour equilibrium, does ...
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1answer
874 views

Difference in chemical potential in supersaturated solutions

I have been more or less struggeling to understand an equation that is apparently used in almost all books covering crystals in any way. Basically every book that I have found explains the following: ...
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1answer
151 views

Bubbling metal vapor through liquid Helium?

When a metal cools from its liquid state, part of the nucleation happens from pre-existing clusters (a group of unit cells of the crystal lattice) already present in the liquid. In the case of a ...
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1answer
797 views

Do superheating and supercooling only occur from liquid?

Superheating of a liquid past its boiling point (retarded boiling) is a well-known phenomenon. However, is there such a thing as supercooling of gas past its condensation point? Conversely, ...