Questions tagged [non-locality]

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A Venn diagram for: (non-)locality, (non-)realism, (non-)contextuality, (non-)signalling, (dis-)entanglement

I recently asked a (yet-unanswered) question about the relationship between state-dependence and violations of realism. The more I read on the subject, the more I find myself digging deeper in a ...
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Can disentangled states violate local realism?

I (re-)learned about Bell tests from the ground up based on this very intuitive lecture by Spekkens. In a nutshell, realism is violated whenever measurement statistics cannot be reproduced by ...
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What does it mean for an extended operator to possess “local excitations”?

In the context of defect conformal field theory, we consider in operator product expansions "local excitations" of the defect (see e.g. text between eq. $(1.1)$ and $(1.2)$ in the paper ...
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Decomposition of rank-2 field and local interactions

Any rank-2 tensor can be decomposed in the following way $$ \phi_{\mu\nu} =\phi_{\mu\nu}^{TT} + \partial_{(\mu}\xi_{\nu)} +\frac{1}{4}T_{\mu\nu}s+\frac{1}{4}L_{\mu\nu}(w-3s) $$ where $\phi_{\mu\nu}^{...
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Are all instances of quantum non-locality problem artifacts of the use of classical concepts in quantum physics?

Consider experiments involving entangled spins, say two-spin 1/2 particles in the singlet state: $$\left|\psi\right> =\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\left[\left|\uparrow\downarrow\right> - \left|\downarrow\...
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241 views

Difference between PR correlations and entanglement correlations?

(As pointed out by helpful users, one of the bolded claims is interpretation dependent. Therefore, unless otherwise specified, Copenhagen interpretation is used throughout) Recall that for classical ...
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83 views

Pseudo-randomness of observables

There is a somewhat recent paper by Colbeck and Renner that, given the assumptions — 1) QM accurately predicts the correct statistical results in experiment (which so far has always been found to be ...
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81 views

Does a pilot-wave theory need to be stochastic in a discrete space-time?

I have found an article about Bohmian mechanics on a lattice with discrete space and time, the link of which is given below: https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.02883 Here the motion of quantum particles is ...
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129 views

Non-local field theory (of Jaffe type) vs strings

As it is well known expectation values of fields are distributions. One usually works with tempered distributions or even with Jaffe fields (https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.158.1454), all defining ...
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192 views

Amplitude for a string to propagate from one point to another

In Zwiebach’s book sections 12.6 and 12.7 interesting aspects of the wave function of the string are discussed. In order to introduce my question first recall what happens with the relativistic ...
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1answer
158 views

Seeking clarification about a discussion of the Holographic Principle in Sean Carroll's book

I am reading Sean Carroll's pop-science book 'From Eternity to Here' and am having trouble connecting the links in his discussion of the Holographic Principle. At the outset, I would ask that you try ...
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Concrete Example of Quantum Entanglement, Quantum Steering and Bell Nonlocality

I was reading the wikipedia page for quantum steering. The following is the mathematical way they have described the three notions: Is there any concrete example of these three concepts? Like, any ...
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82 views

How is Mermin's magic square computed?

BACKGROUND The Peres-Mermin magic square consists of different combinations of tensor products of Pauli operators being applied on an arbitrary bipartite state. Suppose we're considering the entry in ...
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Non-locality of the Madelung equations?

As far as I understand, the Madelung equations $$ \frac{\partial \rho}{\partial t} + \nabla \cdot \rho \mathbf{u} = 0 \\ \frac{\partial \mathbf{u}}{\partial t} + \mathbf{u} \cdot \nabla \mathbf{u} = -\...
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56 views

Have fractional order differential models been explored as an alternative to standard gravitational field theory?

Since Einstein introduced his field equations and general theory of relativity, experimental evidence, at least on the cosmic scale has repeatedly supported the theory. Nevertheless, many seeking to ...
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1answer
47 views

Recharacterizing spooky action at a distance as a time loop invariant?

Caveat: I'm not a physicist and am a little fuzzy on what exactly what I'm asking here. But I'm hoping someone smarter than me can at least clarify (or dismiss) the question as stupid... :) This ...
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341 views

Local determinism vs. Local realism vs. Local causality

I found the following definitions for the three different terms. Do you find these definitions exhaustive, or can you suggest more precise formulations? Quoting the wikipedia page on Local realism: ...
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54 views

Can local hidden variables models be ruled out without invoking expectation values?

Bell's inequalities, in their standard form, are a statement about the limitations faced by a probability distribution that can be written as $$p(a,b|x,y)=\sum_\lambda p(\lambda) p(a,b|x,y,\lambda)=\...
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80 views

Intuition behind non-local stress tensor

Starting from the following Reisz Fractional Integro-differential formula (see for example https://www.amazon.com/Fractional-Integrals-Derivatives-Theory-Applications/dp/2881248640, chapter 25) $$ I^{...
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Is there any basis in stating there are different levels of 'locality' or 'reality', within physics or physical theories?

EPR’s reality criterion and quantum realism has this paragraph (the paper has 0 citations, and I'm personally happy to call this metaphysics, but still!): A popular interpretation of Bell’s theorem ...
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1answer
96 views

Are contextual theories non-local and vice-versa?

I am wondering if every contextual theory that reproduces QM is NON-local and reciprocally. Otherwise, when is contextuality equivalent to non-locality? And moreover, how much nonlocality is encoded ...
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What's a comprehensive review of the implications of Bell-nonlocality on our notion of reality / Weltanschauung?

I am looking for a (preferably peer-reviewed) article that summarizes: the historic debates surrounding Bell-nonlocality, how nonlocality can/not be reconciled with our notation of reality, and ...
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1answer
50 views

Dimension of joint probability space in the Bell Scenario

In the Bell(CHSH) scenario with the normal two qubits+two measurement settings, how does the dimension of the joint probability space $ P(ab|xy)$ drops from 16 to 8? In general, for two d-dimensional ...
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82 views

Non-linear bell's inequality?

Consider the Bell setting, where Alice and Bob get inputs $x,y$ and they perform measurements $\{M^x_a\}_a,\{N^y_b\}_b$ respectively on their shared pure state $\Psi_{AB}$ to obtain outputs $a,b$. ...
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Non-local cosmology

Does anyone know what exactly non-local cosmology mean? Does it have anything to do with the scale we are dealing with or is it just the idea of objects interacting with each other despite having very ...
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254 views

The link between non-locality and Heisenberg's uncertainty relations

I have recently found out1 that the concepts of non-locality and Heisenberg's uncertainty do not live independently of one another in Quantum Mechanics. In other words, roughly the idea goes as: the ...
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129 views

What does “nonlocal in time” mean?

I am studying MOND theory. At some point Milgrom says the theory needs to be nonlocal in time in order to enjoy Galilei invariance, but I don't understand the meaning. Which are the major ...
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What is an “optimal ensemble” used to demonstrate quantum steering?

I am reading Wiseman et al. (2007) and Jones et al. (2007) papers on quantum steering. They relied on the existence of "optimal ensembles" for a Local Hidden State theory. They make use of ...
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Locality & Effective field theories

I know that in general locality is a much desired/needed feature of a field theory, e.g. Standard Model. What I would like to know is which principle forbids non-local terms in a Lagrangian density. ...
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24 views

How to deal with integral operators in the action, in the path integral of a field theory?

One could imagine adding to the free action of a scalar field theory some non-local operators given as integrals over the base manifold (or over the boundary) of some smooth function of the scalar ...
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Light in action-at-a-distance formulation of Electromagnetism

If it is possible to use Jefimenko's equations to formulate Electromagnetism as a non-instantaneous action-at-a-distance theory, what would electromagnetic radiation be in such a theory? Would it be a ...
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37 views

What is the difference between non-local optical response and local optical response?

Does anyone knows what is the difference between non-local optical response and local optical response in metal-dielectric-metal?
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What is recessional nonlocality?

In laymen’s terms, what is recessional nonlocality? I understand recessional means to recede or retract away, and (correct me if I’m wrong) I understand locality has something to do with quantum ...
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606 views

Local and Non-Local Potentials

Can anybody explain the difference and concepts between local and non-local potentials in light of quantum mechanics?
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93 views

“Logical Conclusions” arising from hypothetical wormholes

EDIT In eternal (time independent) Schwarzschild black hole contains a wormhole called an Einstein-Rosen bridge. But since no real black hole is eternal, real black holes do not contain any ...
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206 views

Quantum Mechanics Vs nonlocal causality

There is an article in Physics world.com dated August 18, 2016, titled "Quantum Mechanics Trumps Nonlocal Causality. The author of the article Philip Ball quotes one of the experimenters ( i.e. ...
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103 views

Particle picture in position space in quantum field theory

When I operate $a^{\dagger}_k$ on vacuum, $|0\rangle$, I get a particle created in momentum space with a 4-momentum equal to $(\omega_k, \vec{k})$ where $\omega_k=\sqrt{m^2+\vec{k}^2}$ here I'm only ...
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178 views

Entanglement = Steering = Non-Locality?

For a simple case of two party system. What I understand by Entanglement(please correct me if I am wrong) is that if some property of the two systems is entangled, then knowing one, provides the ...