Questions tagged [microscopy]

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34 views

When using a microscope, why do we need to send waves through a specimen to see it?

I was curious about microscopes and I looked up how they work. The article I read(https://www.explainthatstuff.com/electronmicroscopes.html)mentioned that waves are passed through a specimen to see it....
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How to minimize the aberration by aligning the objective and the eyepiece when setting up a microscopic system

I set up a microscopic system, which consists of a 1-micron pinhole as the target, an objective, an eyepiece lens and a CCD camera. However, the image I obtained contains some kind of aberration. The ...
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25 views

Parfocal length extender

How a parfocal extender works? What are component parts of a parfocal extender? Is it a simple tube or other things such as lens are used in it?
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59 views

Infinity Corrected Microscope vs. $4f$ imaging system

This questions concerns three types of microscope systems and the differences between them. Let me lay out my understanding of these three types of systems. I am imagining imaging with a camera so ...
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10 views

Magnification of a compound micrscope

What is the formula to find the magnification of a compund microscope if the focal lengths of the two lenses and the distance between them are given.
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What magnification would an optical microscope need to see the 1000-200μm scale?

I would like to see the actual crystals in silicon and germanium wafers when I etch them, is this feasible with an optical microscope and if so what magnification would I need?
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How can I determine the optics needed for a desk microscope?

As an noob to microscopy, photography, and optics in general, I'm trying to figure out if I can use the KPPACE KP-2100 camera as a desk electronics microscope. I want something I can mount to the ...
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1answer
35 views

Atomic Force Microscopy - Lateral vs. Depth Resolution

I'm trying to gain a better understanding of Atomic Force Microscopy, specifically the relationship between its lateral and depth resolution. I've seen a variety of metrics on the two, but in general,...
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1answer
24 views

Average power and power density in microscopy

In a microscopy experiment, usually the power density at sample is reported like XX MW/cm^2 . Is this the power at the objective focal spot. Can it be calculated if we have the info like objective ...
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23 views

spot size in a microscopy experiment

How does a laser spot looks like under a high Numerical Aperture objective. I am attaching the profile I am getting in my case. Just wondering how can I calculate my spot diameter or point spread ...
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1answer
7 views

Ways to limit interaction volume in a SEM without changing e-beam energy (spot size)

All I can find online is that the interaction volume of a scanning electron microscope is affected by e-beam energy, angle of penetration, and sample composition. Are those really the only things that ...
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1answer
211 views

Determining the refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope

In this practical video of finding the refractive index, the reading is being taken by placing the travelling microscope perpendicular to the slab. But I've learned in another video(Frame Shot) if you ...
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1answer
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TIRF mycroscopy with intermediate layer of different refraction index

I`m currently experimenting with through the lens TIRF microscopy in which an additional layer is used between the glass and the sample. This 10-30 μm layer has a higher refraction index than my ...
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1answer
39 views

Is there a resolution limit to electron microscopes?

Is resolution limited only by the wavelength of the electron? Because then I would presume there is no limit to resolution as you could lower the wavelength of an electron by increasing the voltage of ...
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Question about the integrity of a TEM analysis result

I have a question concerning the integrity of a particular TEM analysis that was done. The specimen was household dust that may or may not have contained asbestos, and was sampled with Ghost Wipes, ...
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139 views

contrast in confocal microscopy

I observed fixed cells from mice tissue, thanks to confocal microscopy monochromatic 488nm. (without fluorescence staining) In some slices, cells appear in black, and in other slices in white (...
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Calculate thickness of curved membrane from confocal slices

I am imaging a thin, curvy, biological membrane using confocal microscopy. I would like to estimate the thickness of the membrane (assuming it is constant throughout). At every z-slice, I can see the ...
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1answer
62 views

How wave functions overlap in STM

In STM(Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy), as distance between tip and sample decrease tunnelling current increases. I know that when it cross barrier wave function decay exponentially. Measured current ...
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1answer
94 views

Should the working distance of an infinity-corrected objective always be smaller than the focal length?

I'm building a homebrew imaging system with a 5X infinity-corrected apochromatic objective with the following relevant specs: Working distance: $W = 45\,\mathrm{mm}$ Magnification: $M = 5\times$ ...
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1answer
63 views

Can telescope have dual purpose? [duplicate]

Astronomical telescope has a small eye piece and a large objective lens. Whereas a compound microscope has a large eye piece and small objective lens. Therefore can we use astronomical telescope as ...
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239 views

Universal curve of inelastic mean free path - why large at low energy?

I have seen the "universal" curve of inelastic mean free path (MFP) of electrons in many places (both experimental data, and just sketches of the curve) e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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2answers
64 views

How can I focus an optical device at infinity, inside a room with limited space?

I have a custom coupled camera/spectrograph imaging system that I need to focus at infinity for a microscope setup. I can't move the device outside, where I would be able to use some distant object to ...
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1answer
25 views

Holographic magnification and the requirement of single wavelength coherent reference wave

How is holographic magnification for different wavelength reference beams consistent with the requirement of illuminating the hologram with light with wavelength same as the reference beam? If we ...
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1answer
23 views

Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope

Is it possible to study chemistry of a material (Like chemical composition) using Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope? Is it possible to go below 10nm in NSOM/SNOM?
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1answer
897 views

Focal length vs working distance in an infinity corrected objective

Consider the following microscope objective (infinity corrected): Magnification $= 50 \times$ Glass Thickness $= 3.5$mm NA $= 0.50$ WD $= 13.89$mm Focal Length $= 4$mm I'm confused about the ...
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2answers
173 views

How to interpret and calculate scattering in a dark-field microscopy?

Dark-field microscopy setup from wikipedia, which says the images in dark-field microscopy are scattering lights from the sample. My questions: When the sample is illuminated, is it correct to ...
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1answer
53 views

How does the coating work when using an electron microscope?

When a non-conductive sample is viewed with an electron microscope, it can happen that some electrons from the beam can be trapped (absorbed) by the sample so it acquires a charge. This is called "...
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1answer
262 views

Derive resolving power of Heisenberg Microscope

Heisenberg's microscope used to demonstrate the Observer Effect/Uncertainty Principle begins by stating that the resolving power of any microscope is $$\Delta x=\frac{\lambda}{\sin \epsilon}$$ Being $\...
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2answers
278 views

why do we use a microscope to observe newton's ring? Can short focal distance telescope be used instead?

In newtons ring experiment we place the lens setup below a microscope which is then moved vertically until the fringes can be seen. In case of Determination of Cauchy's constants, we use a ...
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1answer
361 views

What's the difference between the function of draw tube, coarse adjustment screws and fine adjustment screws? [closed]

I am having trouble with taking in the particular functions of draw tube, coarse and fine adjustment screws. The book that I read says: The Draw tube can be drawn up or down to focus the image. The ...
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1answer
122 views

Electron Microscopy: Are photons smaller than electrons?

So, I'm told that electron microscopy provides greater resolution than traditional photo/optical (i.e. visible light) microscopy, due to the (ahem) "fact" that "electrons are physically smaller than ...
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1answer
48 views

Probe forming angle and resolution of a Scanning Electron Microscope

A SEM operates at $30keV$ and uses an objective lens with spherical aberration constant, $C_s=2mm$. Calculate the optimal probe forming angle for this system. Calculate the resolution of ...
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19 views

Generate oscillation (approx. f=50 HZ, Ampl=20 MikroMeter )

I want to adapt the height of a sample under a microscope. I have an x-y-positioner but no z-positioner. As a x-y-z-positioner is too expensive (about 16 k €) I want to build an own solution. First ...
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1answer
57 views

Characterization of graphene using optical microscopy

Number of layers of mechanically exfoliated graphite on silicon wafer can be estimated by observing through optical microscope. This is possible due to fact that huge colour contrast between different ...
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1answer
30 views

What, precisely and clearly, is the difference between scanning-tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy?

Is there a clearer description of the difference(s) between STM and STS than that on Wikipedia? I also found one other site which gave an equally contradictory, overlapping 'explanation'.
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96 views

Structured Illumination Microscopy Diffraction Grating Spacing How It Scales From SLM To Object Plane

I'm trying to understand better how to scale the pattern one generates on the Structured Light Modulator (SLM) into the object plane. I've been viewing various papers like the following one, but I ...
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1answer
29 views

STtimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy theory

I am recently reading STED microscopy. In the Wiki, STED is described to be a process that the atoms of the flurophore in the periphery of the focal point is stimulated to emit light of wavelength ...
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0answers
59 views

How is the needle/tip of an STM actually made?

I was wondering how the needle/tip of an STM is made. Any links would be also great, I couldn't find any.
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64 views

magnification of objective lens of microscope

The magnification of objective lens of microscope is tube length divided by focal length of the objective lense. But Serway and Halliday give different definitions of tube length. One says the tube ...
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25 views

Will a condenser lens improve contrast under low magnification bright field imaging (10x)?

I have a 10x 0.28NA air lens that I am using to image inhomogeneities a semi-opaque gel cylinder - 500um in length and 100um in thickness, using white bright field light. Will a condenser lens have a ...
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1answer
48 views

Which interaction is responsible for secondary electron emission?

When imaging with SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) an incident electron ejects an electron from the surface of the sample, which is then detected in order to create an image. In that case I guess ...
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What is the pixel size of Hitachi SU8230 SEM at 100k magnification?

I have a publication showing an SEM micrograph taken by Hitachi SU8230 model. Is there anyway to learn the pixel sizes?
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1answer
27 views

Magnifying glasses

In very simple terms, I understand that magnification occurs when light refracts through a biconvex lense producing a larger image on our retinas. But why is there no magnification if the object is ...
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1answer
129 views

How do electron microscopes not get obstructed by atoms in the air? [closed]

How do different electron microscopes avoid just scanning the atoms between the probe and the surface of the object that is actually being scanned?
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1answer
116 views

Magnification in Holographic Microscopy

The book "Introduction to Optics" by Frank, Leno, and Leno Pedrotti, Ed 3, makes the claim that It can be shown that if the reconstructing light of wavelength $\lambda_r$ is longer than the ...
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1answer
163 views

Thermonic Electron Gun

On the first figure, you can see schematic diagram of typical thermionic electron gun from Wiki.with filament voltage(1-2) electrons are emitted and with bias(1-3) - focused. and here is filament ...
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What is the bright spot in reflective digital holographic microscopy and how to remove it?

We are working on reflective DHM and the system looks like the setup in figure 1. We are facing a severe problem of reflection in the system. Apart from the reference beam and object beam, there is ...
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0answers
37 views

Brillouin Peak Localisation - Brillouin Imaging/Spectro-microscopy

I'm currently looking at ways of identifying the Stokes and anti-Stokes peaks in a Brillouin spectrum in the absence of Rayleigh peaks. The spectrum sort of looks like the shown below, but lacks the ...
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2answers
78 views

Why does and object need to be in focus when taking a picture? [closed]

As we know from junior high school physics, when an object is at twice of focal length f, it could form a same size real image. When an object is placed far from the lens, it would form a smaller ...
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1answer
184 views

Rayleigh Criterion for the Lateral Resolution of the AFM

I was reviewing my labnotes and got stuck on one question: The finite dimension and size of the cantilever tip has an effect on the appearance and size of the images. Tip broadening will occur when ...