Questions tagged [microscopy]

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Is there a phase contrast method for SEM?

I was searching in the literature, and I did not find any phase contrast method for SEM microscopy. I would like to to if there is any, and if it not why?
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How microscopy could be considered as convolution?

I just read here that "The process of how a lens, or objective, forms an image of any object is called convolution." When we are talking about convolution, I expect something like this: $$(f*...
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106 views

Why does magnification work?

I have read the question How do telescopes work as magnifiers? but it doesn't quite address, as far as I can tell, my question. I'm trying to wrap my head around why magnification works rather than ...
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How do electromagnetic lenses magnify the image?

In optical microscope both objective and eyepiece are used to magnify the sample image. Magnification is determined by laws of geometrical optics (intersection of optical beams from the same point of ...
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Does the inelstic mean free path change with the doping concentration?

Does the bulk plasmon cross section depend on the doping concentration? I measured EELS for three different doping concentrations of silicon and the inelstic mean free path seems to increase ...
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14 views

In-line holographic imaging: phase retrieval vs image reconstruction

I'm trying to understand holographic microscopy but I am getting very confused with the terms and methods involved. From what I understand in holographic imaging is that we can use the below integrals ...
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3answers
66 views

Microscope and dual nature of light

Does a light microscope also prove the particle nature of light? As in electron microscope there is either transmission or absorbance of electrons to create an image, hence the question above!
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38 views

Why a mode-locked reduce the integration time in microscopy?

Why a mode-locked (laser) reduce the "integration time" in two-photon fluorescence microscopy?
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51 views

What is integration time in microscopy?

What is the "integration time" in Two-photon excitation microscopy?
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Whats "integration time" in two photon microscopy?

What is the meaning "integration time" in Two-photon excitation microscopy? Why a mode-locked signal (laser) can reduce the "integration time" in Two-photon excitation microscopy?
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Selected Area Diffraction in TEM

Why will Selected Area Diffraction in Transmission electron microscopy not distinguish 2 patterns with 180 degree rotation ?
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22 views

Focal length of Abbe condenser

I am looking for the focal length of a Abbe condenser, i.e. Olympus U-AC2. I cannot find this number at microscope specification sheets nor anywhere else on the internet. Is there a similar way of ...
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41 views

Measuring temperature at submicron resolution

Do we have any microscopic technique/protocol to measure temperature at sub-micron resolution?
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Force of adhesion of polystyrene microspheres to glass surfaces

I am currently working on determining the force with which polystyrene microspheres suspended in water would adhere to a glass surface. To ensure that my methods would give correct results, I would ...
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14 views

How to image liquid droplets using AFM?

I'm trying to image nanometer-sized (50~500 nm) liquid droplets on a rough surface (~500 nm Ra) in attractive mode. I'm being able to image the smaller droplets; however, when the droplets become ...
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32 views

Scanning tunneling microscopy effect (contrast from bottom of 100 Å thick metal layer) analogous to thin-film interference and Newton's rings?

I haven't used a Green's function in 30 years and need some help understanding the use in this context. I. B. Altfeder, D. M. Chen, and K. A. Matveev 1998 Imaging Buried Interfacial Lattices with ...
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21 views

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images without Conductive Samples

The traditional understanding for obtaining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images is that one first needs to coat the specimen in gold (or similar). This is supposedly necessary because biological ...
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1answer
34 views

Magnification of a system of lenses

I have a lens system consisting of 7 elements. However, I cannot take the system apart to measure the distance between them or their focal lengths. I do, however, know the effective focal length of ...
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19 views

Practical to measure topography of a large area (mm-scale) with scanning probe microscopy (SPM)?

I'm currently very new to nanotechnology. I do understand that it is possible to achieve an excellent topography image of a sample by SPM. However, is it possible to do SPM over a large area (for ...
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Does it makes sense to interpret the Point Spread Function as a volumetric density of energy?

The Point Spread Function (PSF) of an imaging system is its impulse response. Therefore $$ I(x,y,z) = \left[O \star PSF\right](x,y,z) $$ where $I$ is the image, $O$ is the object, and $\star$ is the ...
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1answer
80 views

Why do we observe ripples in Quantum corrals and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), if the wavefunction isn't physically realizable?

I recently landed upon an image of Quantum corral and observed ripples around the atoms. Such pattern of ripples were also observed in a movie by IBM - A Boy and his Atom. Upon some research, I found ...
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Calculate or measure illuminated area thru microscope objective when light source is imaged into back focal plane? epifluorescence imaging with an LED

Let me start with a detour into epifluorescence imaging and even sample illumination, before coming back to the main questions. Bear with me please. For epifluorescence imaging, one desires even ...
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Removing collected charges in a IC CMOS circuit exposed under a 30keV electron beam source

I would like to know if there is any mechanism (for example UV light exposition) to remove charges collected in an IC CMOS circuit that was exposed under a 30keV electron beam source. Presumably, ...
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51 views

White light interferometer, how much precise must be?

I am trying to build a small interferometer, but after many attempt, I still can't see any fringes or interference effect. How much precise need to be the surfaces and the angles to see interference ...
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1answer
40 views

Magnification of a compound microscope

Whilst finding the magnification of a compound microscope, we multiply the linear magnification of the objective with the angular magnification of the eyepiece. This gives us the angular magnification ...
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Glow around objects in AFM image (amplitude modulation mode)

I have made an AFM scan (Amplitude modulation mode) of a sample consisting of polyethylene in a matrix of polystyrene. I have tried to figure out why there appears a 'glow' around the domes of ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the wavelength of a signal with a continuously increasing frequency?

What is the wavelength of a signal continuously decreasing in power (and seemingly decreasing in wavelength)? This question comes as a consequence of trying to find the correct value for the ...
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1answer
17 views

Regarding measurements on traveling microscope

In a experiment with traveling microscope to determine thickness of a glass slab , what is the physical significance of the readings that we get from the vertical scale ?, Means What are two points ...
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Whta's are the defferences between conventional transmission electron tomography and scanning electron microscope Focused ion beam?

I'm begining in Electronic microscopy ( Transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) i was reading an article related to this and i found this information: Since the twisted ...
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60 views

What is a "half-convergence angle"?

What is the definition of the half-convergence angle of an incident electron beam? I have been asked the value for a half-convergence angle for an electron beam of diameter 381 pixels and on the [$000$...
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If ordinary electron microscopes have wavelengths 5,000 times or more shorter than visible light, why can't they see atoms?

Electron microscopes can easily 'see' down to .1 nanometers (1 ångstrom) or less, correct? And a single hydrogen atom, in its ground state, is about .106 nanometers (Bohr diameter) wide, right? So ...
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2answers
34 views

How can an electron's de Broglie wavelength be LONGER than .0024264 nanometers?

If the rest mass of an electron is about 510,998.5 ev, or .5109985 Mev, doesn't that mean that even the slowest-moving electron has a wavelength of no more than .0024264 nanons? That is the wavelength ...
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18 views

Is tunnel microscope destruct a bit the material, by extracting electrons from the probed material?

The tunnel microscope probes the electrons of a material by quantum tunneling effect. As a consequence of the migration of electrons, is the tunnel microscope "destroying" a bit the material,...
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80 views

Larger aperture for objective lens in a compound microscope

A telescope has a large aperture to collect more light and hence improve the visibility (brightness) of the image. It also helps in improving the resolution as $\theta_{\text{min}}=\frac{1.22\lambda}{...
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In atomic force microscopy, when would I use a cantilever-based probe over a tuning fork one?

I am learning atomic force microscopy. I notice that one can use a cantilever-based probe or a tuning fork-based probe. When would one use one of these probes over the other? Thank you
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Why does Kelvin Probe Force Microscope apply a DC bias?

I am trying to learn how Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) works. I understand how to drive a probe on-resonance and scan it over a sample to analyze topography. However, the AFM that I have ...
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In AFM, is "phase imaging" a type of "phase-modulation based AFM"?

I am reading up on the techniques used in atomic force microscopy (AFM). On the website, nanosurf.com https://www.nanosurf.com/en/support/afm-modes-overview/dynamic-modes#dynamic , phase modulation is ...
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41 views

What's the difference between "optical amplification" and "magnifying"?

Optical amplification used widely in astronomical observatories and "magnifying" used in microscopes. What's the difference between "optical amplification" and "magnifying&...
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51 views

Does Köhler epi-illumination for fluorescence microscopy (with an LED source) benefit from a condenser diaphragm?

I'm reading about Köhler illumination for a fluorescence epi-illumination task in biological microscopy. With "traditional" trans-illumination as described in the Wikipedia article on Köhler ...
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1answer
32 views

Why does a repulsive force increase the resonance frequency of a resonator?

I have an atomic force microscope with a tuning fork-based sensor. This tuning fork has a probe tip on it that feels a force from the sample that it scans over. Since the tuning fork and probe tip are ...
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29 views

Does a tuning fork's resonance frequency increase with a repulsive force on it in AFM?

I have a tuning fork sensor with a probe tip that would be used in atomic force microscopy. Am I correct that the quartz tuning fork's resonance frequency increases with a repulsive force on it and ...
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36 views

Scale bars (SEM-Zeiss)

I am using ImageJ to measure distances in an SEM image. The scale bar I'm using looks like this What is the correct distance represented by the scale bar? Is it line 1 or 2?
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In what scenario could two particles cause fluorescence to each other?

Ni $K$ X-rays have higher energies than Fe $K$ X-rays, thus, Ni $K$ X-rays cause Fe $K$ X-ray fluorescence, meaning that there are more Fe $K$ X-rays than expected and the Fe concentration appears ...
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What qualifies an x-ray line as "useful for quantification" in a material's x-ray analysis?

Original question: Knowing the energy values for the different X-ray lines for Mo and for S in the analysis of bulk MoS$_2$ ($K_{\alpha 1}$, $K_{\alpha 2}$$K_{\beta1}$, $L_{\alpha 1}$, $L_{\beta1}$, ...
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How can I track the resonance of a tuning fork through a PLL if my phase lag graph is discontinuous?

I am programming a phase-locked loop to track the resonance of a tuning fork so that the tuning fork is always on resonance. This will be used in condensed matter physics through atomic force ...
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How to ease/reduce surface roughness caused by ion sputtering?

I want to investigate the electron emission of samples under electron bombardment. Experts will know that surface condition plays a huge role in the emission rate and some other properties (e.g. max ...
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Range of magnification outside plane of focus in a microscope

This should be a simple question, but somehow it's stumping me due to the way microscope objectives are, necessarily, built and classified (compared to, e.g., ideal thin lenses and photographic lenses)...
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28 views

Focal length of telephoto lens

I am trying to use the 16mm CGL Telephoto Lens for Raspberry High Quality Camera for a microscope project and I am confused by its back focal length being 17.53 i.e longer than the 16mm focal length ...
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In a conventional microscope, when the spot size of a light (say Red) from 60X 0.85 NA objective is about 1 um

In a conventional microscope, when the spot size of the light from a 60X, 0.85 NA objective is about 1 $\mu m$ $\left(\frac{1.22\lambda}{NA}\right)$, why the area illuminated (as seen on the eyepiece) ...
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How to draw ray diagrams for a compound microscope

I am trying to draw the ray diagram of a compound microscope. Here is my attempt (sorry if the image is kind of blurry): I believe that I understand how the objective lens creates a real image (I ...

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