Questions tagged [microscopy]

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Could a reflective beam expander deteriorate the lateral symmetry of a beam collimated from a single-mode optical fiber?

Background: I am currently concerned with getting a confocal time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) setup ready for autocorrelation spectroscopy (fundamentally: fluorescence autocorrelation (...
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How exactly can you "grab" a single atom with a scanning tunneling microscope?

I have read many questions on this site and elsewhere about STM's but none of them specifically talk about how they actually "grab" and move the single atoms. The best I found, is saying ...
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Coherent and incoherent electron diffraction

I am learning about electron diffraction in a transmission electron microscope and was wondering about following topic: A single crystalline material will exhibit a diffraction pattern with discrete ...
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Why is the resolution of a tunneling microscope not limited by the wavelength of the electrons?

Why is the resolution of a tunneling microscope not limited by the wavelength of the electrons? Is it impossible for the electrons that are tunneling across the gap to appear somewhere in the gap, ...
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Minimum Tube length distance between objective lens to tube lens

The maximum tube length between objective lens → tube lens (reference here) MaxTubeLength = (TubeLensPupilDia-ObjectiveExitPupilDia) x (TubeLens_FL/SensorDiagonal) You can use the calculator here. ...
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Objective lens and Eyepiece of a compound microscope

Why is the objective lens always powerful than Eyepiece of a compound microscope? Will it not work if Eyepiece is more powerful? In a book it is given that Eyepiece has larger focal length.
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Is energy not conserved in a microscope?

The Point Spread Function (PSF) of an imaging system is its impulse response and defines how a single point on the sample plane is spreaded on the image plane. The simplest model is the one calculated ...
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Magnetic detector for electron beam

I want to create a mathematical model for a magnetic electron beam detector. It is composed by an air gap inductor with inductance $L$ and distance $d$. An electron beam with Energy $E_b$ and number ...
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What's the voltage accuracy of tip electrode of modern SEMs (Scanning Electrode Microscope)?

I want to know with what accuracy the potential(or the voltage) of a tip electrode (of a SEM) can be adjusted?
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Why should dichroic mirrors be placed observing a certain orientation, and what happens otherwise?

I am getting very confused about the reason why dichroic mirrors should be placed observing a certain orientation. I read everywhere that you should place the mirror with the coated side facing the ...
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Is there a phase contrast method for SEM?

I was searching in the literature, and I did not find any phase contrast method for SEM microscopy. I would like to to if there is any, and if it not why?
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How microscopy could be considered as convolution?

I just read here that "The process of how a lens, or objective, forms an image of any object is called convolution." When we are talking about convolution, I expect something like this: $$(f*...
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Why does magnification work?

I have read the question How do telescopes work as magnifiers? but it doesn't quite address, as far as I can tell, my question. I'm trying to wrap my head around why magnification works rather than ...
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How do electromagnetic lenses magnify the image?

In optical microscope both objective and eyepiece are used to magnify the sample image. Magnification is determined by laws of geometrical optics (intersection of optical beams from the same point of ...
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Does the inelstic mean free path change with the doping concentration?

Does the bulk plasmon cross section depend on the doping concentration? I measured EELS for three different doping concentrations of silicon and the inelstic mean free path seems to increase ...
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In-line holographic imaging: phase retrieval vs image reconstruction

I'm trying to understand holographic microscopy but I am getting very confused with the terms and methods involved. From what I understand in holographic imaging is that we can use the below integrals ...
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Microscope and dual nature of light

Does a light microscope also prove the particle nature of light? As in electron microscope there is either transmission or absorbance of electrons to create an image, hence the question above!
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Why a mode-locked reduce the integration time in microscopy?

Why a mode-locked (laser) reduce the "integration time" in two-photon fluorescence microscopy?
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What is integration time in microscopy?

What is the "integration time" in Two-photon excitation microscopy?
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Whats "integration time" in two photon microscopy?

What is the meaning "integration time" in Two-photon excitation microscopy? Why a mode-locked signal (laser) can reduce the "integration time" in Two-photon excitation microscopy?
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Selected Area Diffraction in TEM

Why will Selected Area Diffraction in Transmission electron microscopy not distinguish 2 patterns with 180 degree rotation ?
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Focal length of Abbe condenser

I am looking for the focal length of a Abbe condenser, i.e. Olympus U-AC2. I cannot find this number at microscope specification sheets nor anywhere else on the internet. Is there a similar way of ...
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Measuring temperature at submicron resolution

Do we have any microscopic technique/protocol to measure temperature at sub-micron resolution?
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Force of adhesion of polystyrene microspheres to glass surfaces

I am currently working on determining the force with which polystyrene microspheres suspended in water would adhere to a glass surface. To ensure that my methods would give correct results, I would ...
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How to image liquid droplets using AFM?

I'm trying to image nanometer-sized (50~500 nm) liquid droplets on a rough surface (~500 nm Ra) in attractive mode. I'm being able to image the smaller droplets; however, when the droplets become ...
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Scanning tunneling microscopy effect (contrast from bottom of 100 Å thick metal layer) analogous to thin-film interference and Newton's rings?

I haven't used a Green's function in 30 years and need some help understanding the use in this context. I. B. Altfeder, D. M. Chen, and K. A. Matveev 1998 Imaging Buried Interfacial Lattices with ...
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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images without Conductive Samples

The traditional understanding for obtaining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images is that one first needs to coat the specimen in gold (or similar). This is supposedly necessary because biological ...
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Magnification of a system of lenses

I have a lens system consisting of 7 elements. However, I cannot take the system apart to measure the distance between them or their focal lengths. I do, however, know the effective focal length of ...
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Practical to measure topography of a large area (mm-scale) with scanning probe microscopy (SPM)?

I'm currently very new to nanotechnology. I do understand that it is possible to achieve an excellent topography image of a sample by SPM. However, is it possible to do SPM over a large area (for ...
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Does it makes sense to interpret the Point Spread Function as a volumetric density of energy?

The Point Spread Function (PSF) of an imaging system is its impulse response. Therefore $$ I(x,y,z) = \left[O \star PSF\right](x,y,z) $$ where $I$ is the image, $O$ is the object, and $\star$ is the ...
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Why do we observe ripples in Quantum corrals and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), if the wavefunction isn't physically realizable?

I recently landed upon an image of Quantum corral and observed ripples around the atoms. Such pattern of ripples were also observed in a movie by IBM - A Boy and his Atom. Upon some research, I found ...
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Removing collected charges in a IC CMOS circuit exposed under a 30keV electron beam source

I would like to know if there is any mechanism (for example UV light exposition) to remove charges collected in an IC CMOS circuit that was exposed under a 30keV electron beam source. Presumably, ...
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White light interferometer, how much precise must be?

I am trying to build a small interferometer, but after many attempt, I still can't see any fringes or interference effect. How much precise need to be the surfaces and the angles to see interference ...
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Magnification of a compound microscope

Whilst finding the magnification of a compound microscope, we multiply the linear magnification of the objective with the angular magnification of the eyepiece. This gives us the angular magnification ...
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Glow around objects in AFM image (amplitude modulation mode)

I have made an AFM scan (Amplitude modulation mode) of a sample consisting of polyethylene in a matrix of polystyrene. I have tried to figure out why there appears a 'glow' around the domes of ...
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What is the wavelength of a signal with a continuously increasing frequency?

What is the wavelength of a signal continuously decreasing in power (and seemingly decreasing in wavelength)? This question comes as a consequence of trying to find the correct value for the ...
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1 answer
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Regarding measurements on traveling microscope

In a experiment with traveling microscope to determine thickness of a glass slab , what is the physical significance of the readings that we get from the vertical scale ?, Means What are two points ...
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1 answer
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If ordinary electron microscopes have wavelengths 5,000 times or more shorter than visible light, why can't they see atoms?

Electron microscopes can easily 'see' down to .1 nanometers (1 ångstrom) or less, correct? And a single hydrogen atom, in its ground state, is about .106 nanometers (Bohr diameter) wide, right? So ...
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How can an electron's de Broglie wavelength be LONGER than .0024264 nanometers?

If the rest mass of an electron is about 510,998.5 ev, or .5109985 Mev, doesn't that mean that even the slowest-moving electron has a wavelength of no more than .0024264 nanons? That is the wavelength ...
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Is tunnel microscope destruct a bit the material, by extracting electrons from the probed material?

The tunnel microscope probes the electrons of a material by quantum tunneling effect. As a consequence of the migration of electrons, is the tunnel microscope "destroying" a bit the material,...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Larger aperture for objective lens in a compound microscope

A telescope has a large aperture to collect more light and hence improve the visibility (brightness) of the image. It also helps in improving the resolution as $\theta_{\text{min}}=\frac{1.22\lambda}{...
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What's the difference between "optical amplification" and "magnifying"?

Optical amplification used widely in astronomical observatories and "magnifying" used in microscopes. What's the difference between "optical amplification" and "magnifying&...
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Why does a repulsive force increase the resonance frequency of a resonator?

I have an atomic force microscope with a tuning fork-based sensor. This tuning fork has a probe tip on it that feels a force from the sample that it scans over. Since the tuning fork and probe tip are ...
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Does a tuning fork's resonance frequency increase with a repulsive force on it in AFM?

I have a tuning fork sensor with a probe tip that would be used in atomic force microscopy. Am I correct that the quartz tuning fork's resonance frequency increases with a repulsive force on it and ...
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Scale bars (SEM-Zeiss)

I am using ImageJ to measure distances in an SEM image. The scale bar I'm using looks like this What is the correct distance represented by the scale bar? Is it line 1 or 2?
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In what scenario could two particles cause fluorescence to each other?

Ni $K$ X-rays have higher energies than Fe $K$ X-rays, thus, Ni $K$ X-rays cause Fe $K$ X-ray fluorescence, meaning that there are more Fe $K$ X-rays than expected and the Fe concentration appears ...
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What qualifies an x-ray line as "useful for quantification" in a material's x-ray analysis?

Original question: Knowing the energy values for the different X-ray lines for Mo and for S in the analysis of bulk MoS$_2$ ($K_{\alpha 1}$, $K_{\alpha 2}$$K_{\beta1}$, $L_{\alpha 1}$, $L_{\beta1}$, ...
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How to ease/reduce surface roughness caused by ion sputtering?

I want to investigate the electron emission of samples under electron bombardment. Experts will know that surface condition plays a huge role in the emission rate and some other properties (e.g. max ...
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Range of magnification outside plane of focus in a microscope

This should be a simple question, but somehow it's stumping me due to the way microscope objectives are, necessarily, built and classified (compared to, e.g., ideal thin lenses and photographic lenses)...
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Focal length of telephoto lens

I am trying to use the 16mm CGL Telephoto Lens for Raspberry High Quality Camera for a microscope project and I am confused by its back focal length being 17.53 i.e longer than the 16mm focal length ...
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