Questions tagged [microscopy]

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Removing collected charges in a IC CMOS circuit exposed under a 30keV electron beam source

I would like to know if there is any mechanism (for example UV light exposition) to remove charges collected in an IC CMOS circuit that was exposed under a 30keV electron beam source. Presumably, ...
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White light interferometer, how much precise must be?

I am trying to build a small interferometer, but after many attempt, I still can't see any fringes or interference effect. How much precise need to be the surfaces and the angles to see interference ...
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Magnification of a compound microscope

Whilst finding the magnification of a compound microscope, we multiply the linear magnification of the objective with the angular magnification of the eyepiece. This gives us the angular magnification ...
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Glow around objects in AFM image (amplitude modulation mode)

I have made an AFM scan (Amplitude modulation mode) of a sample consisting of polyethylene in a matrix of polystyrene. I have tried to figure out why there appears a 'glow' around the domes of ...
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31 views

What is the wavelength of a signal with a continuously increasing frequency?

What is the wavelength of a signal continuously decreasing in power (and seemingly decreasing in wavelength)? This question comes as a consequence of trying to find the correct value for the ...
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Regarding measurements on traveling microscope

In a experiment with traveling microscope to determine thickness of a glass slab , what is the physical significance of the readings that we get from the vertical scale ?, Means What are two points ...
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Whta's are the defferences between conventional transmission electron tomography and scanning electron microscope Focused ion beam?

I'm begining in Electronic microscopy ( Transmission electronic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) i was reading an article related to this and i found this information: Since the twisted ...
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36 views

What is a “half-convergence angle”?

What is the definition of the half-convergence angle of an incident electron beam? I have been asked the value for a half-convergence angle for an electron beam of diameter 381 pixels and on the [$000$...
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32 views

If ordinary electron microscopes have wavelengths 5,000 times or more shorter than visible light, why can't they see atoms?

Electron microscopes can easily 'see' down to .1 nanometers (1 ångstrom) or less, correct? And a single hydrogen atom, in its ground state, is about .106 nanometers (Bohr diameter) wide, right? So ...
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31 views

How can an electron's de Broglie wavelength be LONGER than .0024264 nanometers?

If the rest mass of an electron is about 510,998.5 ev, or .5109985 Mev, doesn't that mean that even the slowest-moving electron has a wavelength of no more than .0024264 nanons? That is the wavelength ...
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1answer
18 views

Is tunnel microscope destruct a bit the material, by extracting electrons from the probed material?

The tunnel microscope probes the electrons of a material by quantum tunneling effect. As a consequence of the migration of electrons, is the tunnel microscope "destroying" a bit the material,...
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1answer
36 views

Larger aperture for objective lens in a compound microscope

A telescope has a large aperture to collect more light and hence improve the visibility (brightness) of the image. It also helps in improving the resolution as $\theta_{\text{min}}=\frac{1.22\lambda}{...
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In atomic force microscopy, when would I use a cantilever-based probe over a tuning fork one?

I am learning atomic force microscopy. I notice that one can use a cantilever-based probe or a tuning fork-based probe. When would one use one of these probes over the other? Thank you
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Why does Kelvin Probe Force Microscope apply a DC bias?

I am trying to learn how Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) works. I understand how to drive a probe on-resonance and scan it over a sample to analyze topography. However, the AFM that I have ...
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5 views

In AFM, is “phase imaging” a type of “phase-modulation based AFM”?

I am reading up on the techniques used in atomic force microscopy (AFM). On the website, nanosurf.com https://www.nanosurf.com/en/support/afm-modes-overview/dynamic-modes#dynamic , phase modulation is ...
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29 views

What's the difference between “optical amplification” and “magnifying”?

Optical amplification used widely in astronomical observatories and "magnifying" used in microscopes. What's the difference between "optical amplification" and "magnifying&...
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Does Köhler epi-illumination for fluorescence microscopy (with an LED source) benefit from a condenser diaphragm?

I'm reading about Köhler illumination for a fluorescence epi-illumination task in biological microscopy. With "traditional" trans-illumination as described in the Wikipedia article on Köhler ...
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1answer
23 views

Why does a repulsive force increase the resonance frequency of a resonator?

I have an atomic force microscope with a tuning fork-based sensor. This tuning fork has a probe tip on it that feels a force from the sample that it scans over. Since the tuning fork and probe tip are ...
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1answer
16 views

Does a tuning fork's resonance frequency increase with a repulsive force on it in AFM?

I have a tuning fork sensor with a probe tip that would be used in atomic force microscopy. Am I correct that the quartz tuning fork's resonance frequency increases with a repulsive force on it and ...
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16 views

Scale bars (SEM-Zeiss)

I am using ImageJ to measure distances in an SEM image. The scale bar I'm using looks like this What is the correct distance represented by the scale bar? Is it line 1 or 2?
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24 views

In what scenario could two particles cause fluorescence to each other?

Ni $K$ X-rays have higher energies than Fe $K$ X-rays, thus, Ni $K$ X-rays cause Fe $K$ X-ray fluorescence, meaning that there are more Fe $K$ X-rays than expected and the Fe concentration appears ...
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What qualifies an x-ray line as “useful for quantification” in a material's x-ray analysis?

Original question: Knowing the energy values for the different X-ray lines for Mo and for S in the analysis of bulk MoS$_2$ ($K_{\alpha 1}$, $K_{\alpha 2}$$K_{\beta1}$, $L_{\alpha 1}$, $L_{\beta1}$, ...
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How can I track the resonance of a tuning fork through a PLL if my phase lag graph is discontinuous?

I am programming a phase-locked loop to track the resonance of a tuning fork so that the tuning fork is always on resonance. This will be used in condensed matter physics through atomic force ...
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15 views

How to ease/reduce surface roughness caused by ion sputtering?

I want to investigate the electron emission of samples under electron bombardment. Experts will know that surface condition plays a huge role in the emission rate and some other properties (e.g. max ...
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22 views

Range of magnification outside plane of focus in a microscope

This should be a simple question, but somehow it's stumping me due to the way microscope objectives are, necessarily, built and classified (compared to, e.g., ideal thin lenses and photographic lenses)...
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26 views

Focal length of telephoto lens

I am trying to use the 16mm CGL Telephoto Lens for Raspberry High Quality Camera for a microscope project and I am confused by its back focal length being 17.53 i.e longer than the 16mm focal length ...
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In a conventional microscope, when the spot size of a light (say Red) from 60X 0.85 NA objective is about 1 um

In a conventional microscope, when the spot size of the light from a 60X, 0.85 NA objective is about 1 $\mu m$ $\left(\frac{1.22\lambda}{NA}\right)$, why the area illuminated (as seen on the eyepiece) ...
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1answer
84 views

How to draw ray diagrams for a compound microscope

I am trying to draw the ray diagram of a compound microscope. Here is my attempt (sorry if the image is kind of blurry): I believe that I understand how the objective lens creates a real image (I ...
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32 views

Look of steel under a microscope

Short question: Why is it that steel looks grey/silver on a macroscopic scale, whereas under a light microscope it appears white, yellow or brownish? (C. f. https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perlit_(Stahl)...
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Refraction at perpendicular incidence in Normaski prism?

my question pertains to this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomarski_prism In the diagram shown in the wiki page as well as the diagrams used in the slides for our course, the incident light ray is ...
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Calculating the lateral resolution of scanning tunnel microscope

I'm sorry in advance for this post, because I know that homework type questions are not allowed here. I have to calcualte the radial distribution of the tunnel current $j(r)$ from the surface of a ...
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Microscopes magnification clarification

Why is the linear magnification $m_{obj}$ defined as $\frac{-d_i^{obj}}{d_o^{obj}}$?
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Conjugation relation of an oil immersion objective

I can not find out the right conjugation relation for an oil immersion objective (oil in the object space, air in the image space). If I send an incident plane wave in air with angle $\alpha_{air}$ ...
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How to minimize beam walk off during quarter wave plate roration

I am currently building a laser scanning microscope setup. I need to focus the laser on my sample and also place a quarter-wave plate right before the sample so I can control the polarization of the ...
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142 views

Why is resolution half the wavelength?

My biology textbook says: The general rule is that the limit of resolution is about one half the wavelength of the radiation used to view the specimen. This means anything smaller than half the ...
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Can microscope lenses be non-spherical?

Most lenses are spherical, but... Are there elliptical, parabolic or hyperbolic microscope lenses? (I asked a similar question, about telescopes, on Astronomy S.E.; I hope this is not considered '...
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Question about time-resolved Kerr rotation microscopy

I think i have a dumb question. In the experiment mentioned above and depicted in the picture bellow (i'm studying it theoretically), they use two light beans one called pump and the other probe . My ...
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Why no proton microscopes? Proton diffraction; or proton scattering experiments? Proton crystallography?

I am asking a (relatively) 'low-energy' question here, not about things like the Large Hadron Collider... There are tons of articles everywhere, including such places as Wikipedia and ScienceDirect, ...
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Measurement of particle thickness on Scanning Electron Microscopy

I have a material (powder) that is likely to be crystalline and forms plate-like particles. Observed by SEM, I can clearly see the plates stacked on each other. It seems that during sample preparation,...
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54 views

Reflected light microscope semi-transparent mirror

When a light microscope is used in the reflected mode there is a semi-transparent mirror angled at 45 degrees that reflects a portion of the light onto the sample. The sample in turn reflects the ...
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What is the relationship of inelastic mean free paths and EPES?

In the literature, they calculate inelastic mean free path of electrons by EPES (elastic peak electron spectroscopy) measurements? How these two are related? Why one can calculate inelastic ...
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1answer
38 views

Why can't we image an insulating meterial with an SEM?

I know that insulating materials are difficult to measure for insulating materials because there are charging. The effect is a drift or a moving micrograph. Why does charging cause a drift in the ...
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1answer
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Position dependent $y$ channel reading in lock-in in a photocurrent microscope setup

I am currently building a scanning photocurrent measurement setup. It basically focuses a CW laser down to $50\ um$ size on the sample and scan the laser beam over the sample (a metal) and record the ...
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Resolution of microscopy techniques

I am writing a popular physics article about microscopy techniques, where I would like to rank the techniques by their resolution, which also necessitates explaining why we do not always use the ...
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1answer
23 views

Applications of nanomechanics

What are applications of nanomechanics beyond its use in atomic force microscopy? The question is specifically about the existing applications rather than the potential/future ones (which are quite a ...
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965 views

How to calculate spot size of a laser focused through a microscope objective

I am trying to figure out how to approximate the spot size of a laser beam that is focused using a microscope objective where the size of the laser beam is smaller than the diameter of the objective. ...
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1answer
76 views

Imaging with two lenses: what if the distance between the lenses is not 2f?

A $4F$-configuration is usually utilized for imaging with $2$ lenses. An object is placed in the focus of the first lens ($f_{1}$), then the second lens is located at a distance $f_{1}+f_{2}$ from the ...
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Is it possible to scan matter on an atomic level?

is it possible to develop a model of a piece of ordinary matter and scan it to develop a model of what kind of elements are in the matter? Similar to an MRI scan? If it's not possible, why? What ...
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Influence in Beaker Electroscope

In WDemtröder's book Electrodynamics and Optics there is an experiment, which involves: a) charging a conducting cup by touching the inner cup wall with a charged ball b) charging a conducting cup ...
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Optical Microscope change in color of image

Is it possible for the numerical aperture to change the color of the image of an optical microscope? The first image is an image with 50x magnification, using a .95 NA. The second image is an image ...

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