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Questions tagged [metrology]

The study of measurements

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New S.I. and the second definition standard

The new SI defines the second as the hyperfine splitting transition time associated to the frequency of that transition of caesium-133, 9192631770 Hz, that is 12 decimals precision, but...I wonder two ...
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1answer
27 views

Is there a maximum quantum advantage in sensing?

This is a rather conceptual question. Quantum sensing takes advantage of entanglement (and other quantum properties such as squeezing) to get variances that scale much better than the ones one can ...
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187 views

Why are there $1 / 1.602176634 \times 10^{-19}$ electrons in a coulomb?

Why that exact number of electrons in one coulomb? who decided it? there is nothing wrong with the number, it just seems slightly messy. Why didn't the scientific community just settle on an easier ...
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What actually is 1 coulomb? Is it number of electrons or the amount of force?

I've just started my highschool, only to land in the beautiful world of electricity and magnetism, I have many queries and dilemmas, so I want some guidance. Now on to the question. I've just read ...
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Why does the metric system use “kilogram” as a base SI unit?

SI system uses all (that I know) measurement basic units as 1 (single) instance: meter, second, ampere, etc, except the KILOgram. It already defined with 1000 multiplier (kilo). It prevents from ...
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Does the New SI spoil the nice Coulomb law in Gaussian units?

Now, after the redefinition of SI, the elementary charge $e$ and the reduced Planck constant $\hbar$ (and also $k_B$) are exact quantities in the SI units, as is the velocity of light $c$. The ...
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Will the volt, ampere, ohm or other electrical units change on May 20th, 2019? [duplicate]

When watching a video by Veritasium about the SI units redefinition (5:29), a claim that the volt and unit of resistance (presumably the ohm) will change by about 1 part in 10 million caught my ...
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SI redefinition of the kilogram - what is one measuring? [duplicate]

I have been reading about the new SI units and specifically, want to get a better understanding of the definition of a kilogram. It was written that the kilogram will be defined in terms of Planck's ...
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Definition of Ampere

On Wikipedia it says: This force is used in the formal definition of the ampere, which states that it is "the constant current that will produce an attractive force of $2 × 10^{-7}$ newton per ...
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3answers
193 views

Redefinition of everything on May 20th, 2019 [closed]

A couple of issues: So after May 20th, 2019, what exactly will be the defined value of $\hbar$? What will be the defined number of elementary charges in a Coulomb? Then $\mu_0$ and $\epsilon_0$ will ...
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Effect of variation in day length on timekeeping

I was reading about atomic clocks when I came to know that precise measurements of time have shown that the time for earth's rotation is slightly more that 24 hrs (on the order of 10^-3). I was ...
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When was Coulomb's constant made/established?

Charles-Augustin de Coulomb lived from 14 June 1736 – 23 August 1806. Coulomb's constant is $$k_{\text e}=\alpha\frac{\hbar c}{e^2},$$ a form of Planck's constant is included, but Max Planck lived ...
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Confusion on Centigrade/Celsius Scale

There came the centigrade scale. The issue was that many solid/liquid thermometric substances didn't respond to temperature linearly so different thermometers produced different results. This was ...
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4answers
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How can a day be exactly 24 hours long? [closed]

The longest solar day of year is approximately 24 hours 0 min 30 seconds (occurs at mid to late December) while the shortest solar day of year is approximately 23 hour 59min 38 seconds. If I average ...
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745 views

Why a day is divided by 12/24 hours? Why the number 12?

Why a day is divided by 12/24 hours? Why the number 12? Why not using 10 or 6 or 14, 16? Who invented this? Any physical reasons behind this?
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Significant figures in measurements, different orders of magnitude

Let's say I a have a scale that can, for example, measure a mass of some object to precision of 0.1 g. If I do some measurements of different objects I can get results like this: 9.8 g, 9.9 g, 10.1 g,...
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Why is it necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds from UT1?

Why is it necessary to keep UTC within 0.9 seconds from UT1? I thought that UTC in fact more accurate than UT1, so why should it be based on UT1 within that range? Another question would be, why isn'...
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1answer
60 views

Are constants derived or calculated?

I am currently writing up a lab report on the determination of Planck's constant using x-ray diffraction and atomic spectra. In my introduction, I am talking about the history of Planck's constant, ...
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The famous drop of $c$

In this (in my opinion) intriguing speech, Rupert Sheldrake tells the story of the drop in the measured value of $c$ between 1928 and 1945. When he goes to visit the Head of Metrology of the Physics ...
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1answer
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Is 1 liter always equal to 1 cubic decimeter, independently of temperature, pressure, etc?

I recently found this conversion table for the unit conversion $\rm mmol/m^3 \ \leftrightarrow\ \rm mmol/L$ (millimoles per cubic meter to millimoles per liter) My physics is very rusty, but just to ...
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0answers
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Faradays constant determination? [closed]

I am a bit confused on how faraday determined his constant. So I’ve been taught that he realized that if you sent a certain amount of charge (96485 C), then one mole (or some fraction of that based on ...
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1answer
225 views

Does a precise definition of the meter not involving light exist, so that variation of $c$ can be tested?

The second is defined as the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom. The metre ...
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Has the kilogram changed?

In late 2018 the kilogram's definition switched from a physical object (the International Prototype Kilogram) to Planck's Constant; a grand move in my opinion. However, I haven't heard of the ...
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About the dimension of the SI units vector space

We know that the set of fundamental and derived physical units can be structured as a vector space over the rational numbers. In the International System of Units the dimension of this space is $7$ ( ...
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1answer
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Is the triple point of water exactly 0.01 $\deg$C?

Is the triple point of water exactly $0.01 \deg$C, or is this an empirical value/is there some uncertainty to it? If so, how do we know it is exact, and why?
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Is there (or was there) a unit of electric current based on Avogadros number or Coulombs constant?

This has to do with the SI definition of the Ampere. Why the quantity $2*10^{-7} $ Newtons in particular? It would make more sense to define 1 Ampere = 1 mole of electron charge per second. Which ...
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How did Henry Kater measure distances down one part in $10^5$?

Wikipedia says that in 1817, Henry Kater was able to measure distances accurately enough to get at least five significant figures in a measurement of $g,$ suggesting that he could measure a distances ...
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What is the theoretical resolution limit of magnetometers / magnetoencephelography?

I recently read this article about a group of physicists and neurobiologists working on developing advancements to magnetoencephelography, presumably based on new quantum metrology and quantum ...
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Why is the MKS unit of time the same as the CGS unit? [closed]

There are many system of units used in physics. In the CGS, the units are, length : centimetre mass : gram time : second And in the MKS system the units are, length : metre mass : kilogram time : ...
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How to get the UT1 directly? or How to get the UT1-UTC

I have a question to consult you. Even though I know the relationship between time scales like UT1, UTC, TAI, and TT, I do not know which one is the key point for the computation. That is, from which ...
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3answers
107 views

What was wrong with the old definition of temperature scale in kelvin?

Wikipedia's article on the recent change to the definition of the SI base units states, as the reason for changing the definition of the kelvin: A report published in 2007 by the Consultative ...
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1answer
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Profile of a platinum-iridium meter bar

The former meter standard, platinum-iridium meter bar, had a specific cross section somewhat resembling mixed variant of letters "X" and "H" with serifs (Image source): What was the reasoning behind ...
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1answer
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Is there a “standard” Newton?

Basic SI units have definitions through experiments that seems to imply a pretty obvious setup. Is there a standard experiment for calibrating Newtons? The definition is the force needed to cause a ...
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1answer
121 views

How did Coulomb arrive at value of electron charge?

Charge of one electron is known to be as $1.6$ x $10^{-19}$ C or alternative 1 Coulomb contains charge of $6.24$ x $10^{18}$ electrons. I am just wondering if these numbers are arbitrarily chosen or ...
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2answers
141 views

Does the death of Kilogram ($kg$) affect us in any means in our day to day life? [closed]

Recently, the sleek cylinder of platinum-iridium metal has been discarded and the kilogram is set to be redefined along with ampere for electricity and Kelvin for temperature. Hereafter the Kilogram ...
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187 views

Will the SI units need redefining ever again?

Up until recently, there were obvious problems with the SI definitions of fundamental units, like bits rubbing off the kilogram prototypes (or mercury vapour absorption), and the water used for the ...
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1answer
59 views

Definition of a meter and Newtonian law of Gravity

Newtonian law of Gravity: $$F_g = \frac{m_1 m_2}{l^2} G$$ $$G = 6.7 * 10^{-11} \frac{m^3}{kg * s^2}$$ A meter is defined as: the length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum in $1/...
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What is the mass of $N_A$ atoms of carbon-12?

With the recent redefinition of the kilogram, what is the mass of $N_A$ (Avogadro's constant) of carbon-12 atoms? $N_A$ was defined as exactly 6.02214076×$10^{23}$ atoms. Then how close would the ...
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Uncertainty of permittivity of vacuum

Question: The value of permittivity of vacuum, $\epsilon_0$, is given with absolutely no uncertainty in NIST Why is this the case? More details: The permeability of vacuum can be given by $$\mu_0=...
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What are the proposed realizations in the New SI for the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole?

The metrology world is currently in the middle of overhauling the definitions of the SI units to reflect the recent technological advances that enable us to get much more precise values for the ...
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1answer
176 views

Is absolute zero still 0 Kelvin?

Following the recent decision to change the definition of SI units, I understand that Kelvin is no longer defined in terms of the number 1/273.16. Does that mean that absolute zero is no longer ...
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Redefining the kilogram using Planck's constant instead of the density of water among other examples

The kilogram is in the process of being redefined in terms of Planck's constant so as to eliminate its dependence on a physical artefact. Since the length and temperature units are already precisely ...
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What will happen to the International Prototype Kilogram? [closed]

The kilogram has been redefined in a way that does not refer to the International Prototype Kilogram. That kind of makes the International Prototype Kilogram useless. So what will happen to it? Can I ...
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1answer
265 views

A new definition of mass using Planck constant

Tonight in a italian television news channel well known internationally I have heard that almost certainly the definition of mass that we currently know will be obtained by means of the constant ...
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1answer
141 views

What will be the uncertainty in $\mu_0$ under the new SI scheme?

As you may be aware, a new SI system is likely to be adopted in November 2018 (see https://www.nist.gov/si-redefinition/kilogram-introduction). Whilst the speed of light remains a fixed quantity and ...
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4answers
614 views

Why was the original definition of meter abandoned?

The meter was originally intended to represent $1$ ten-millionth($10^{-7}$) of the distance from pole to equator of the Earth along a meridian of longitude. The definition was later discarded. Now, ...
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How is the division of physical quantities into base quantities and derived quantities a matter of convention?

Several physics textbooks and even the SI-The International System of Units Brochure(8th-edition) says that, ''The division of quantities into base quantities and derived quantities is a matter of ...
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Measuring the speed of light and defining the metre - absolute or relative?

If the metre is now defined as the distance light travels in vacuum in $1/299\,792\,458^{\textrm{th}}$ of a second and the speed of light is accepted to be $299\,792\,458\ \textrm{m}\,{\rm s}^{-1}$, ...
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1answer
63 views

Is quantum physics a reason for the measurement differences of the International Prototype Kilogram

I've recently learned that there is an official Kilogram (IPK) kept in Paris which is used to calibrate, directly or indirectly, all weight measurement tools. I've also learned that each time the IPK ...
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2answers
371 views

How do cesium atomic clocks measure time?

I am trying to understand cesium atomic clocks better. I am not getting HOW the cesium oscillation is actually being counted. So from my understanding of an older atomic clock: Cesium gets heated....