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Questions tagged [measurement-problem]

DO NOT USE THIS TAG just because your question involves measurements (either quantum or classical). The measurement problem asks how wave function collapse occurs during measurement in quantum mechanics, and how it can be reconciled with unitary evolution.

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95 views

An example of a nonlinear but deterministic physical transformation in Hilbert space

Supposedly all physically realisable transformations are either linear or non-deterministic (measurements are not linear transformations, but they are non-deterministic, from the perspective of the ...
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1answer
118 views

State and measurement after a sequence of measurements

Hi I just want to confirm my interpretation of the following question: Let the quantum state be given as $$|\psi_0 \rangle = [\sqrt{2}|\phi_1 \rangle + \sqrt{3}|\phi_2 \rangle + | \phi_3 \rangle + |\...
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1answer
322 views

In quantum weak measurement, what kind of theory replace Copenhagen interpretation?

Here, I denote the initial states of device and quantum system as $|\Phi_\textrm{in}\rangle$ and $|\Psi_\textrm{in}\rangle$. The measurement interval is $[t_i,t_f]$, after measurement, the device and ...
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1answer
114 views

Quantum entanglement and affecting the particles [duplicate]

I am trying to grasp some aspects of the quantum entanglement, but the existing resources (including some of the links here) seem a bit confusing. I am trying to find an answer to the following ...
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3answers
398 views

What happens when we manipulate the observer in the double slit experiment?

Consider the following alterations to the double slit experiment: turn the observer on and off rapidly move the observer further and further away, until the point at which it can no longer ...
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1answer
120 views

Different postulates and statistical interpreations of quantum mechanics

Hi I have a query about the difference of two aspects of the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics given in the popular introductory quantum mechanics books "Introduction to Quantum ...
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2answers
658 views

How can an electron's magnetic moment precess around the direction of an external magnetic field?

I am reading this article: The Nature of the Electron by Don Lincoln in The Physics Teacher, Volume 54 (2016), pg. 203, and I ran across the part where he talks about measuring the magnetic moment of ...
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1answer
361 views

Does spontaneous emission count as a measurement?

It is my understanding that in the density matrix formalism for open quantum systems the environment-induced measurements/collapses/projections are accounted for by the Lindblad superoperator (from ...
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1answer
205 views

Our choice of basis surely cannot effect possible outcomes of a measurement?

Common sense says that, of course, the outcome of a measurement on a quantum system cannot be affected by what base we choose to represent it in. However, while studying QM text, it seems like they ...
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2answers
587 views

Do conservation laws contradict quantum mechanics? [closed]

Take for example the double-slit experiment interpreted in the Copenhagen sense. The particle leaves as an object with mass, yet passes through the slits as a massless wave, only to collapse again as ...
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1answer
162 views

Is superposition state of SHO ever observed? [closed]

Feynman says, "It doesn't matter how beautiful your theory is, it doesn't matter how smart you are. If it doesn't agree with experiment, it's wrong." So, is superposition state of Simple Harmonic ...
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2answers
110 views

Variation of schrodinger cat replaced by quantum computer

In the "classical" imaginary Schrodinger's cat experiment, which seems to be no longer serious, or at least irrelevant, by many (some?) people, everything is explained away by decoherence. Now, let ...
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1answer
262 views

Implications of weak measurement on entanglement

What are the implications of weak-measurement on entangled particles, and how does that resolve the problem of non-superluminal quantum "communication"? If I understand correctly, entangled particles ...
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1answer
372 views

Does the Observer Effect define quantum behavior regardless of conscious observation?

I read the Wikipedia article about the Observer effect and I was a bit confused by the wording of the introductory section. Does the method of observation collapse the wave function (or define the ...
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1answer
88 views

Measurements in quantum mechanics

Why does measurement change things? I read that measurement changes things because we have to bounce photons off an object to 'see' it and that changes its position, momentum etc... But on the other ...
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2answers
130 views

Is the momentum of a particle both uncertain and, independently, also random?

Is momentum of a particle "random" because it is uncertain, or is it uncertain in addition to being random? Is the uncertainty principle and quantum randomness different names the same physical ...
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2answers
546 views

How can we know the state of a quantum system?

One of the postulates of QM states that given a system in a state $|\psi\rangle$ and given an observable $A$ whose eigenstates are $|\phi_i\rangle$, then the state of the system can be expressed as a ...
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1answer
196 views

Measuring compatible observables in quantum mechanics

Suppose a particle that is under a quantum oscillator potential and is, initially, in the state $\Psi(x,0)=\frac{1}{\sqrt3}\phi_1(x)+\sqrt{\frac23}\phi_2(x)$, where $\phi_1(x)$ and $\phi_2(x)$ are ...
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2answers
188 views

Wavefunction Collapse

I believe my Lecturer and the textbook have contradicted one another. My lecturer gave the example that if the spatial part of the wavefunction of a particle is given by $\psi(x) = c_1\psi_1(x) + c_2\...
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2answers
178 views

If I repeated a quantum measurement, would it be the same? [closed]

I was thinking about the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics and that if I measured the position of an electron twice in succession, the outcomes would depend on a probability. However, what if ...
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1answer
207 views

What is a weak value really?

There have been a lot of recent experiments performing weak measurements. Some of the conclusions seem to be quite surprising (e.g. this paper) and there is still debate if the weak measurement is ...
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2answers
892 views

Linear Combinations of Energy Eigenfunctions in 1D

Given that a particle is in a state defined by the wavefunction: $$\Psi (x,t) = \psi_0(x)e^{-iE_0t/\hbar}+\psi_1(x)e^{-iE_1t/\hbar}$$ where $\psi_0(x)$ and $\psi_1(x)$ are the energy eigenfunctions of ...
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1answer
39 views

Given any two quantum states and the information that the system is in one of these two states

Given any two quantum states and the information that the system is in one of these two states, one cannot reliably devise a single measurement which could determine with certainty which state the ...
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1answer
113 views

Quantum non-locality with commuting measurements?

We consider the Bell scenario, in which Alice and Bob share an entangled pure quantum state $\mid \Psi \rangle_{AB}$. Alice gets an input in the set $\{1,2\ldots X\}$ and Bob gets an input in the set ...
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2answers
595 views

“Randomness” versus “uncertainty”

Highly rated PhysicsSE contributor @CuriousOne regularly makes the following claim about quantum mechanics (e.g. here): There is no randomness in quantum mechanics, there is only uncertainty. I ...
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0answers
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How does the two slit experiment work?

Whilst going through 'A brief history of time', I faced difficulty in understanding the two slit experiment. How can an individual electron cause fringes on screen? I was unable to understand it? ...
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1answer
328 views

Quantum mechanics - measuring position

I am watching Susskind's Stanford Lectures on quantum mechanics. The eigenvectors (eigenfunctions) of the position operator are of the form $\delta(x-k)$. But $$\int\delta^{*}(x-k)\delta(x-k)\, \...
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2answers
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How does really the “wave function collapse” work? [closed]

It's usually said that "the direct observation of a process makes the wave function of the system to collapse". How does really that process happen? What exactly means for a wave function to collapse?...
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3answers
2k views

Finding the random uncertainty of a set of values [closed]

Ok, for the switch-on voltage of a red LED I have the readings as follows, all in volts: $$ 1.45, 1.46, 1.46, 1.44, 1.45 $$ The mean of these readings, in volts, is $1.45$ (I rounded up to $2$ decimal ...
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3answers
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Is it possible to determine the slit a photon went through in the double slit experiment by measuring its flight time?

In the double-slit experiment, quantum mechanics states that if you try to determine which slit the photon goes through, you won't have a resulting wave pattern. But, knowing the time it took for the ...
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4answers
3k views

Uncertainty in Uncertainty?

I was reading about how the Planck's Constant can be measured with LEDs, which made me think about this question. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that: $$\Delta x \Delta p \ge {\hbar\...
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2answers
230 views

Is this mention of the double-slit phenomenon broadly correct?

I'm reading a book of philosophy (Less Than Nothing by Slavoj Žižek) and a chapter in it (called The Ontology of Quantum Mechanics) frequently references the double-slit phenomenon. At one point it ...
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0answers
180 views

Position Measurement of Quantum Harmonic Oscillator, to a Position Eigenstate

I read that if one takes a quantum harmonic oscillator system, not externally driven, and performs a position measurement (measurement in position basis) that reduces the oscillator to an eigenstate ...
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1answer
39 views

Distinguish statistical uncertaincy from noise disturbance relation in slit gedankenexperiment

I am just reading the "Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics" from L. Ballentine. In section 3.2. he discusses the difference between the observer effect and the statistical Schrödinger-...
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3answers
329 views

Is the probability current an observable?

Is the probability current in Quantum Mechanics an observable? If so, how can it me measured (directly or indirectly)?
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1answer
95 views

Reason behind the uncertainty principle [duplicate]

I know that Heisenberg Uncertainty principles states that the momentum and position of a quantum object can not be determined at the same time. This is very strange to me. I want the basic reason ...
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1answer
375 views

Did Leggett and Caldeira solve the measurement problem?

In 1983 Leggett and Caldeira published a paper (see also here) that shows the evolution of the density matrix in a dissipative system. Follow-up work by Zurek and others shows the relevance to ...
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1answer
566 views

What does it mean that an electron's position is described by probability?

I just read an answer to a Phys.SE question about why electrons don't collide with protons where an answering user said: In quantum mechanics, an electron doesn't have a definite position or ...
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0answers
65 views

Continuous spectra and quantum decoherence

Suppose that some quantum wave function $\psi = \int a_i \,i\rangle \,\,di$ where pseudo-spanning ket "vectors" of $\psi$, $i \rangle$, are continuous. (thus the use of integral.) By normalization, $...
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2answers
591 views

Does Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle describe real uncertainty or measured uncertainty?

Some derivations of Hesenberg's Uncertainty principle are based on the momentum of light or particles used in measuring an object's position and momentum. Does this lower limit on uncertainty describe ...
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4answers
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What does it mean “not to have a definite trajectory”?

In a comment to my question someone stated the following: "photons do not travel at some definite number of oscillations per second. In fact, they do not "travel" at all, no more than electrons ...
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1answer
179 views

Quantum Measurement of Entangled Time-Varying Systems

Suppose System A has a dynamic, continuous variable $O_A(t)$, which we wish to measure via a quantum probe. Assume system A has a self-Hmiltonian, $H_{SA}$ so that the evolving wave function of ...
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2answers
193 views

Why do $\hat{X}$ and $\hat{P}$ have to correspond to position and momentum?

As far as I understand, in QM we treat observables as operators, and the eigenvalues of these operators are the possible values we can measure of the observables. It is usually simpler to work in the ...
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1answer
87 views

What exactly does the expectation value of $x$ mean in quantum mechanics?

When I learn quantum mechanics (by reading Griffith's book Introduction to quantum mechanics 2ed edition (Page 15)), I was confused by the concept of the expectation value of $x$, i.e. $\langle x\...
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1answer
268 views

Understanding the delayed choice quantum eraser from a quantum information stand point

A continuation of Understanding the quantum eraser from a quantum information stand point What quantum circuit would correspond to delayed choice? In particular, the decision of whether to not to ...
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1answer
441 views

Understanding the quantum eraser from a quantum information stand point

Is there a way to understand the quantum eraser experiment in terms of quantum information? In particular, is there a quantum circuit that would function as a quantum eraser experiment? The issue I'm ...
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4answers
423 views

Heisenberg's uncertainity principle

In the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, $$\Delta x \cdot \Delta p \geq \frac{h}{4\pi}$$ The values of $\Delta x$ and $\Delta p$ are the standard deviations which we get from the probability ...
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3answers
2k views

Meaning of “realism” in quantum mechanics

When physicists doing work in quantum measurement, decoherence, Bells' inequalities etc. use the term "realism" what exactly do they mean? I'm looking for answers targeted towards, say, someone whose ...
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2answers
124 views

Quantum mechanics of electron beam and measurement

I'm trying to understand the following phenomenon quantum mechanically: Problem statement If I'm shooting an electron beam (using a vacuum tube for example) and I have a measuring device at a ...
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1answer
114 views

Does a particle “exist” between emission and detection?

In considering a simple Young's double slit setup: The classical idea that a particle must exist with defined position and momentum between the source and detection plate leads to philosophical angst,...