Questions tagged [measurement-problem]

DO NOT USE THIS TAG just because your question involves measurements (either quantum or classical). The measurement problem asks how wave function collapse occurs during measurement in quantum mechanics, and how it can be reconciled with unitary evolution.

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Experimental test of the non-statisticality theorem?

Context: The paper On the reality of the quantum state (Nature Physics 8, 475–478 (2012) or arXiv:1111.3328) shows under suitable assumptions that the quantum state cannot be interpreted as a ...
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Simultaneous measurements in Quantum Mechanics

In the notes I am using, it states that if two observables A and B are measured simultaneously, then the measurement of A does not affect the measurement of B, and vice versa. However, why does the ...
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How to think of matrices as observables?

I'm reading Nielsen and Chuang. In one of the early chapters, they introduce some matrices such as $$X = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 \end{bmatrix}.$$ They interperet this as a gate that ...
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How does one compute the state of a quantum system following imperfect measurement?

Suppose I have a quantum system $S$ ("system") with Hamiltonian $H_S$ and initial density matrix $\rho_S(0)$. I allow $S$ to interact with another system $P$ ("probe"), which has Hamiltonian $H_P$ and ...
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Role of “hierarchic structure” in solving the Measurement Problem

Background Decoherence solves some aspects of the Measurement Problem by ensuring that at the end of a measurement process off diagonal terms in the density matrix are supressed. However decoherence ...
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Do restrictions on quantum mechanical measurement always just work out to avoid contradictions?

Classically it was said that measurement leads to a collapse of the wave function. However, if there wouldn't be any limit on the process on measurement itself, strange things can happen, e.g. a ...
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How can the pre-measurement be fulfilled?

In the decoherence program, the pre-measurement refers to the evolution in which the system and apparatus form a Schmidt state. In Maximilian Schlosshauer's review article(2005), I read "the linearity ...
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Measurement in the context of unitary evolution

My text describes how "projective measurements together with unitary dynamics are sufficient to implement a general measurement" and goes on (pp. 94-95) to demonstrate why this is so, but there are ...
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How are weak measurements taken into account in collapse models?

Collapse models have been introduced to solve the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. In collapse models the localization of wavefunction is not considered to be due to any kind of measurement ...
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QFT Superposition and the Higgs Ground State

In a quantum theory with zero spatial dimensions with Hamiltonian given by: $$H = \pi^\dagger \pi + \mu^2 \phi^\dagger \phi - \lambda (\phi^\dagger \phi)^2,$$ where the non hermitian field, $\phi$, is ...
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Does quantum mechanics require classical measurement apparatus?

I am trying to learn quantum mechanics and I have a question. Landau, in his quantum mechanics book says that it is in principle impossible to formulate basic concepts of quantum mechanics without ...
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How to explain Tsirelson's inequality using extended probabilities?

How to explain Tsirelson's inequality using extended probabilities? Some people have tried explaining the Bell inequalities using extended probabilities. For instance, a pair of entangled photons ...
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What is the simplest model of a quantum measurement on a 2 level system

What is the simplest physical system which can be used to model the quantum measurement of a 2 level system? For example, can the following, spin coupled to a harmonic bath, be used to model a ...
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Information Centric Interpretation of the Delayed Choice Experiment

The photon travels from the emmitter to the detector. Along the way it bounces off a few mirrors and off or through a beam splitter or two. This journey takes time, but only from OUR perspective/frame....
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Quantum Observation

Bear with me if I present a lack of knowledge - QM is not my field. There's a common notion in QM that until a particle is observed (measured), its properties are not definite, but rather are spread ...
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Reconstruct quantum state from probabilities

Given a quantum state, the Born rule lets us compute probabilities. Conversely, given probabilities, can we reconstruct the quantum state? I think the answer is almost trivially positive but how ...
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What does “contextuality” mean in the context of partial rather than complete quantum measurements?

The Kochen-Specker theorem is often described as ruling out "noncontextual" classical hidden variable theories. I understand the math behind the theorem, but I'm a little unclear on the exact, ...
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Are all kind of measurements of properties in the two slit-experiment destroying interference?

Usually when by measurement is found out through which slit the particle went then there is no interference. But suppose you don’t measure through which slit it went but for example his spin, will it ...
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Is an interaction-free measurement an irreversible process?

From what I've understood from reading different online sources including PSE*, measurements in quantum mechanics are generally argued to be irreversible (at least, when a macroscopic measuring device ...
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Weak measurement and weak value

The concept of weak measurements (and weak values) have become popular in Quantum information community, as I can see quite a few papers in arXiv. Since I am from Mathematical background (and the ...
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Uncertainty Principle - measuring momentum on one entangled particle, position on the other

If two entangled particles are sent far apart and then at exactly the same time the position of one, and the momentum of the other, is measured, won't this mean that, because the corresponding values ...
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Are universally valid possibilistic theories possible?

This is a spin-off of the following question: Are Thomas Breuer's subjective decoherence and Scott Aaronson's freebits with Knightian freedom the same things in essence? Given that Thomas ...
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What are you studying when you study a Harmonic Oscillator in QM?

This probably is a naive question - so please forgive a self-studier. In the text I am studying, one builds a HO by placing a particle in a potential that increases quadratically from the origin. The ...
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Quantum Eraser under Lorentz Boost

Suppose I am conducting the Quantum Eraser experiment. The results of this experiment are easy to understand with the traditional quantum mechanical interpretation of a pair of entangled photons. ...
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How does linearity of a measurement imply that the commutator of all measured observables are $c$-numbers?

I really don't understand with the linearity conditions I have where this comes from.
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Measurement and probability

In the $\left\{\left|j_1j_2;jm\right\rangle=\left|ls;jm\right\rangle\right\}$ basis, I've got the state ket $$\left|\alpha\right\rangle=\frac{1}{2\sqrt{2}}\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}\left|11;20\right\...
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Indeterminacy in Quantum Mechanics

Heisenberg's uncertainty principle tells us that there is a lower limit on the accuracy with which we can determine both the momentum and the position of a particle simultaneously. $\Delta$$x$ $\...
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How to measure a qubit state?

I'm trying to work out how to do a non-demolition measurement on a qubit using an ancilla photon. I start with an entangled electron and nucleus in the state $$ \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\alpha|\uparrow\...
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Can two entangled electrons can get disentagled in Nature, withous us making a measurement?

Imagine we have two free, entangled [by their spins, which are in this case non-separable, while $x$ (or $p$) electrons are clearly separable]. In an experimental setup, we can measure (and observe) ...
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Can we measure without collapsing (too much) the wave function, according to decoherence theory?

According to decoherence theory, the collapse of the wave function is a continuous process due to interaction with environment. In a measure, there are interactions with photons (for example). Can we ...
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Decoherence time of quantum decoherence and appearance of wavefunction collapse

If decoherence time of quantum decoherence is zero, or if off-diagonal elements of density matrix of quantum system (without environment considered) vanished immediately after interaction with ...
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single Observer iterpretation, experiment design

I am thinking of an interpretation of QM in which there is a single Observer (O). That is, its mind's history is marking a special path on the many-world graph, which we identify with reality. This ...
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How does the two slit experiment work?

Whilst going through 'A brief history of time', I faced difficulty in understanding the two slit experiment. How can an individual electron cause fringes on screen? I was unable to understand it? ...
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Continuous spectra and quantum decoherence

Suppose that some quantum wave function $\psi = \int a_i \,i\rangle \,\,di$ where pseudo-spanning ket "vectors" of $\psi$, $i \rangle$, are continuous. (thus the use of integral.) By normalization, $...
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Can I measure distance with sound through soil?

Can you measure distance (cca. with precision 0.1m-1m) with sound through soil. I know this is really crazy think to do, but I have this idea quite for a while. Basically I will set speakers on fix ...
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Would it be possible to Loschmidt reverse Wigner's friend using future technology?

Would it be possible to Loschmidt reverse Wigner's friend using future technology? Why or why not? Can a human be isolated in a decoherence shielded box? Can we have fine control over every single ...
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Compatibility of effects implies compatibility of POVM's?

Let $A = \{A_1 ,\ldots , A_n\}$ and $B = \{B_1 \ldots , B_n\}$ be two POVM's. Suppose every pair $(A_1, B_1)$ is jointly measurable as a couple of effects. Does this imply the joint-measurability of $...
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Why are cosmic conspiracies considered undesirable in quantum interpretations?

Quantum interpretations like superdeterminism, nonlocal hidden variables, etc. are regularly dismissed by the vast majority of physicists because they require "cosmic conspiracies" which can ...
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The status of unobservable quantum mechanical predictions

Orthodox quantum mechanics intrinsically requires an observer - since the only connection from the mathematical formalism to physical reality is through the measurement axiom (probability of observing ...
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Measurement problem: Origin of probabilities in Many-Worlds Interpretation

As far as I can tell there appears to be an active group of academics (including the likes of Sean Carrol) who believe in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics, but feel that the origin ...
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Can wave collapse during measurement be avoided with a better experiment / measurement apparatus?

Or to restate the question, does quantum mechanics or the quantum field theory state or imply that we can only observe the wave in a collapsed state? And if they don't, do we have any promising ...
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Hilbert space of an ensemble of identically prepared systems

In order to verify experimentally the quantum mechanical predictions when we measure observable $\hat O$ on a given system A, it is usual to prepare an ensemble of identically prepared systems ($N$ ...
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Does the first part of the measurement postulate imply the second?

Common formulations of the general measurement postulate of quantum mechanics have two parts, one establishing the probability of the outcome $m$ corresponding to an observable $M_m$ for a system in ...
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Position Measurement of Quantum Harmonic Oscillator, to a Position Eigenstate

I read that if one takes a quantum harmonic oscillator system, not externally driven, and performs a position measurement (measurement in position basis) that reduces the oscillator to an eigenstate ...
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Wave function: what does “1% chance of finding the particle in this area” mean

Say I have 1 electron in some quantum state Defined by some wave function, and it's doing its thing fluctuating the probabilities of where it might be. What if I put a measuring device in an area ...
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Why position and momenta are fluctuating quantities?

In a coordinate basis we have $$\langle \Psi \mid \Psi \rangle = \int \prod_{i=1}^N d^3q_i |\Psi(\textbf{q}_1,\dots,\textbf{q}_N)|^2=1$$ This means that for any quantum state $\mid \Psi \...
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finetuned quantum experiments by Murch lab, do any have dynamics outside of basic QM formalism/ axioms?

a series of very finetuned quantum experiments have been reported by the Murch lab eg in 2 articles in Nature & analysis there,[1][2][3] some leading to dramatic accounts in the media.[4] do ...
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Interesting (new to me) things in the exposition of Landau's book on QM

In section I.1 (The uncertainty principle), a principle I already know, the author suggests a "relaxing" picture (Unusual): "We have defined "apparatus" as a physical object which is governed, with ...
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Collision of 2 neutrons

If two neutrons collide in 3D space and we want to determine the final velocities of both nuetrons (3 components for each neutrons), we can use the conservation of momentum equations and the ...
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How Do We Know That It Is Measurement

How do we know that it is measurement that collapses wave functions, and not just the other forces at play in all of the different measurement devices that collapse wave functions? Thanks