Questions tagged [mathematical-physics]

DO NOT USE THIS TAG just because your question involves math! If your question is on simplification of a mathematical expression, please ask it at math.stackexchange.com. Mathematical physics is the mathematically rigorous study of the foundations of physics, and the application of advanced mathematical methods to problems in physics. Examples include partial differential equations (PDEs), variational calculus, functional analysis, and potential theory.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
9
votes
2answers
216 views

Spontaneous symmetry breaking: proving the equivalence of two definitions

This question can be posed for both quantum and classical set-ups. For concreteness, let me consider a local, classical Hamiltonian $H$. The expectation values I consider are with respect to the usual ...
3
votes
3answers
132 views

Rigorous procedure of gluing together two spacetimes

There seems to exist a procedure of "gluing two spacetimes together". In particular I've seem this mentioned in the context of gravitational collapse. The examples I've seem where that of gluing ...
0
votes
1answer
192 views

Finding the maximum value of electric field

Suppose you have a surface of finite area with a fixed surface charge distribution. Does a maximum electric field magnitude $|\vec{E}|_{max}$ exist for each and every possible surface area? If yes, ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Can an arbitrary spin state be written uniquely in a Dicke state basis?

Consider a system of e.g. $N=3$ spin-1/2 particles. The state of the system $\vert\psi\rangle$ lives in a Hilbert space of dimension $2^N=8$. Now, consider the collective spin operator $$\mathbf{J} = ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Source suggestions and research topics about Mathematical foundations of QFT [closed]

i am really interested in the mathematical foundations of quantum field theory and i want to write my master thesis on some topic of this subject. However, i did a little research and found that ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

List of Replica Symmetry results for different models?

Does anyone know of a good source that might have a list of problems or models along with what kind of replica symmetry they are conjectured to have? I am aware of some of the more famous results, e....
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Value of a discontinuous function at the discontinuity

Although this is a maths related question, it is important that the answer physically makes sense, so I'm posting it here. (Btw. the problem is related to stochastic thermodynamics, and I'm using ...
3
votes
2answers
156 views

Rigorously why there should be an operator product expansion in conformal field theory?

This is probably something quite trivial I'm not getting. I'm studying CFT (conformal field theory) through David Tong's lecture notes and on page 9 he says: We now define the operator product ...
2
votes
2answers
93 views

Infinite sum: Renormalisation

Trying to do the calculation made in a physics article Real-time Feynman path integral with Picard--Lefschetz theory and its applications to quantum tunneling (page 10 to go from equation 56 to 57), I ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Physical interpretation of Dirichlet energy for a membrane

In the following model of a membrane with a mass particle in it, why does the integral represents the elastic energy of the system? Let $\Omega$ be an open connected region (the membrane) in $\Re^2$,$...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

What is meant by surface divergence of a vector function?

My book says: If there is a surface discontinuity in a vector field $\vec{E}$, we enclose it in a thin transitional layer (of width $h$) and apply divergence theorem. If $\hat{n}_1$ and $\hat{n}_2$ ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

What are Grassmann numbers in field theory?

I've been struggling with the use of Grassmann numbers in QFT e.g. Peskin and Schroeder. They are introduced as "numbers" whose product is antisymmetric, and associative (this isn't said, but used in ...
2
votes
2answers
115 views

Does it make sense to speak in a total derivative of a functional? Part III

In this third part of the series, I will continue the deduction of Noether's theorem initiated in the previous post - Does it make sense to speak in a total derivative of a functional? Part II. ...
2
votes
2answers
183 views

Does it make sense to speak in a total derivative of a functional? Part II

I am trying to derive the Noether theorem from the following integral action: \begin{equation} S=\int_{\mathbb{\Omega}}d^{D}x~\mathcal{L}\left( \phi_{r},\partial_{\nu}% \phi_{r},x\right) , \tag{II.1}\...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Defining a metric on the space of paths

Imagine the following path integral $$\int_{x(0)=x_i}^{x(T)=x_f} \mathcal{D}x \, e^{\frac{i}{\hbar}S[x]}.$$ This integral is defined over the space of all paths that satisfy the boundary conditions ...
1
vote
0answers
106 views

Transient solution system of differential equations obtained from master equation

I have to solve the following equation (or at least obtain an approximate estimate) for the diagonal terms of the density matrix. We consider that the initial state is a coherent state $\rho_{n,n}(0)=...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Domain of the infinite square well hamiltonian

I am reading the book by Gitman et al. 'self-adjoint extensions in quantum mechanics'. In the book, they give a precise definition of the domain of the hamiltonian of an infinite square well. For ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Dirac delta function mathematical expression proof

In a discussion of the second order transitions in graphene this mathematical expression is used. $$ \left|\frac{1}{\varepsilon + i \Gamma/2}\right|^2 = \frac{2\pi}{\Gamma}\delta(\epsilon) $$ And I'm ...
7
votes
1answer
204 views

What Lie group structure is used for infinite-dimensional Unitary Groups in Quantum Mechanics?

Given an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space $H$, the set $U(H)$ of all unitary operators on $H$ forms a group, known as the unitary group. Now several subgroups of this group play an important role ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

For the torus to rotate 180 degrees around the East-West symmetry axis, what happens?

(Suppose to ignore the deformed friction and torus when rotating)
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Is there a useful relationship between connection on space coordinates and material derivative?

I am referring to an important part of the question Relationship between Connection and Material Derivative. Here is a paste and cut of the relevant part. That is the directional derivative along $...
2
votes
1answer
107 views

What is a coordinate-free version of Noethers theorem? [closed]

What are some examples and derivations of some basic symmetries (not coordinate symmetries)? For example I remember a sufficient condition for being a symmetry of the lagrangian system is being an ...
1
vote
0answers
49 views

Can real numbers dimensions exist?

This title may not explain my question right but I could not think of any better short explanation. My question is, if there is a possibility of a structure (or space) with the dimension $Dim = 3,5$, $...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

Complete positivity with infinite dimensional “auxillary spaces” [closed]

The usual definition of complete positivity (e.g. Stinespring (1955)) is that a linear map between the bounded operators on some Hilbert spaces $\phi:\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{H})\to\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{K})...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

How to prove that the limit of surface integral exists?

My book "Electromagnetic Fields" says in $\text{Section}\ 3.4$: Question Why does the limit in equation $(3.42)$ exist (convergent)? Why is the contribution from $(S-S_{\delta})$ remains ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Existence of a strictly a timelike curve on Lorentzian manifold

I encountered online the following exercise: Let $M$ be a Lorentz manifold of $\dim(M)=n$, and let $\psi:\Sigma\to M$ be a spacelike submanifold of dimension $n-2$ embedded into $M$. We will ...
0
votes
3answers
99 views

Calculus of Variations commutes with Integrals

I have a question about the variational calculus. Assume a function $q(t,x)$ gives rise for another function $$f(x) := \int dt q(t,x)$$ My question is why the variation $\delta$ commutes with the ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

Functional derivative commutes with total derivative

I have a question about a rule from the calculus of variations. Assume we consider the space of differentiable functions on $C^1(\mathbb{R})$ (or for the sake of simplicity the smooth functions $C^{\...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Facing a paradox: Earnshaw's theorem in one dimension

Consider a one-dimensional situation on a straight line (say, $x$-axis). Let a charge of magnitude $q$ be located at $x=x_0$, the potential satisfies the Poisson's equation $$\frac{d^2V}{dx^2}=-\frac{\...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

Exact solution for the perturbation of the inverse metric

So when we usually linearize general relativity with respect to metric perturbations $g_{\mu\nu}\rightarrow g_{\mu\nu}+h_{\mu\nu}$, we compute the correction to the inverse of the metric to first ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Size of quantum corrections at infinity

Suppose we have a one dimensional field theory for the field $\phi(r)\;r\in[0,\infty]$ and that the solution for the background (Euler Lagrange equations) give a function $\phi_0$ that goes to a ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Piecewise solution to Euler-Lagrange equations in effective field theory

I would like to consider a background for a quantum field theory made up by connecting continuously two different solutions of the Euler Lagrange equations. The problem is one dimensional (let's call ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What is the best book to read for optimal mass transportation theory for students with physics background?

I need to read optimal mass transportation theory for my research. What is the best book to read. I am from physics background. How much mathematics and what sort of mathematics required prior to ...
0
votes
0answers
113 views

Does anyone know how to symmetrize $\gamma$-matrices?

I'm trying to construct the SO(5, 5) $\gamma$-matrices which are real and symmetric. Recently, I have 6 symmetric and 4 antisymmetric $\gamma$-matrices ($6_S + 4_A$ representation). How can I ...
2
votes
2answers
69 views

Domain of a Hamiltonian

In a recent paper (on an exactly solvable toy model and its dynamics), we studied such a toy model: $$ H = \sum_{n\in \mathbb{Z}} n |n \rangle \langle n | + g \sum_{n_1,n_2 \in \mathbb{Z}} |n_1 \...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Is a dichotomic basis possible for 3-dimensional space?

We know that the Pauli basis for the 2-dimensional space is a dichotomic basis in the sense that every Pauli matrix has two distinct eigenvalues. Is it possible to express a 3-dimensional matrix $\...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Perturbative series in physics: why are coeffcieints of Gevrey-1 type (i.e. bounded by $\alpha C^n(n!)^1$

I have only been able to find this explicitly mentioned in this paper on resurgence techniques in physics. And have chased up the hints it gives, but they are not very explanatory. Essentially, the ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Does uncertainty principle truly represent the “lower bound” of the information we can obtained from a pair of noncommunicable operator?

Background I: Suppose the commonly used non commuting operator $\hat p$ and $\hat x$. The uncertainty principle told us that $\sigma_p\sigma_x\geq \frac{\hbar}{2}$. In standard quantum mechanic ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Book on tetrads formalism and tetradic formulation of General Relativity [duplicate]

Could anyone give me some references for mathematicians (coordinates free notation, formalism of fiber bundles etc.) about tetrads, Palatini-Cartan theory, stuff about formulation of GR with tetrads? ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Functions constant on boundary and topology of underlying manifold

Here are my thoughts: Say I have two manifolds $M$ (one dimensional in my thoughts) and $\mathbb{R}$. Thinking in physical terms; $M$ I imagine as my space of states: of possible configurations of my ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

What is the difference between real and complex instantons (mathemtically, and their physical significance), and connection to Wick rotation

I am struggling to understand the difference and physical significance between real and complex instantons- I think these are also sometimes called ghost instantons? There are also anti-instantons. ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Finding approximate eigenfunctions solutions with small eigenvalues

This question is about an appendix to chapter 7 of Aspects of Symmetry Erice lectures by Sidney Coleman. We have a SE for a 1-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator with $\omega = 1$, describing the ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Prove that the electric field produce by a punctual charge is isotropic and radial

I would like to prove mathematically that the electric field produced by a punctual charge is isotropic and radial, i.e. $$\vec{E}(r,\phi,\theta)=E(r)\vec{e}_r\tag{1}$$ I think that this statement ...
2
votes
2answers
151 views

Curl and circulation of a vector field that is ill-defined at the origin: any interesting physical effects?

In the cylindrical polar $(\rho,\phi,z)$ coordinate, suppose the velocity field in a liquid is given by $$\vec{v}=\frac{K}{\rho}\hat{e}_{\phi}, \qquad K=\text{constant}.\tag{1}$$ It can be easily ...
0
votes
2answers
82 views

Gauss divergence theorem (GDT) in physics

Some of the statements for $GDT$ which I find in modern textbooks (both electromagnetism and multivariable calculus textbooks) are: (1) Calculus: Several variables Adams Let $D$ be a regular, ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Equivalence Picard-Lefschetz path integrals and “Feynman's” path integrals

I have just seen the Picard lefschetz method applied to path integrals in order to make these more convergent. I understand how we could modify the contour of integration for a real integral but what ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Doubt in application of $GDT$ in electrostatics

Consider a volume charge distribution with continuous density $\rho({\bf r'})$. The electric field at ${\bf r}$ is: $${\bf E}({\bf r})=k\int_V \frac{\rho({\bf r'})}{R^2}\hat{\bf R}\, \mathrm dV$$ ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Arbitrary function on the Faddev-Kulish dressing

On this paper the authors review the Faddev-Kulish dressing in QED which is a solution to the IR divergence problem. Given one electron momentum $\mathbf{p}$, They define the soft factor by $$F_\ell(...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

Positive frequency definition in general spacetime for general fields

In Quantum Field Theory the positive frequency solutions to the classical field equations are quite important since they are the basis of the definition of particles. In Minkowski spacetime we have a ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Path integrals and fourier series

I am currently reading the Feynman and Hibbs about Quantum mechanics and path integrals and I found something pretty confusing ( for me ) at page 72. At this page, they are replacing an integration on ...