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Questions tagged [material-science]

The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

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Are there physical properties that can be used to differentiate stainless steel from copper in a home environment?

So the backstory is that I purchased a reusable drinking straw that is copper coloured, but is advertised to be stainless steel. That got me thinking about whether I could be sure it was one or the ...
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Is this a simple fracture mechanics model

If I use the interatomic potential $V(x_i-x_j)= \frac{1}{2}k(x_i-x_j-a)^2$ for $|x_i-x_j-a|<b$ $V(x_i-x_j) = V_0$ for $|x_i-x_j-a|\geq b$ for the critical displacement $b$ and Equilibrium ...
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Viscosity table or diagram for melts of oxides

Is there a table or diagram to relatively determine which oxides have low 'melt-viscosity' (i.e relatively flow readily when melted)? Is it possible to determine such property based on phase diagrams ...
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26 views

What is the difference between metallicity and semimetallicity?

I am looking for a definition of semimetallicity from an experimental point of view ( $\rho(T)$, carrier density, mean free path, scattering time, etc.) and from a theoretical point of view. Can ...
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14 views

How are fluid membranes stretchable?

The Poisson's ratio of fluid lipid membranes is exactly $\nu=0.5$, because fluids can flow. As answered in this question, under the assumption of a finite bulk modulus $K$, this is the value of $\nu$ ...
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61 views

How much harder is a proton theoretically speaking than a diamond? [on hold]

It's generally said that a diamond is the hardest substance known to man (apparently there are a few materials known to be harder). However, one ought to expect that a proton or neutron should be ...
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23 views

How can I beforehand determine whether a material is a good candidate for a microwave sensor?

Is there a table of some sort or formula where I can determine before I test the material under a microwave sensor whether it will allow the microwaves to pass through and if so at what depth. for ...
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5 views

What is plasmonic trapping?

I am going through a research paper (DOI: 10.1039/c4fd00224e).I could not understand what plasmonic trapping is in it. Can you make it clear for a beginner in Plasmonics ?
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40 views

Are 2D materials really two dimensional?

I am learning more about 2D materials. Does anyone have any reference, literature, videos, lecuters for basics? Main question for start is that why called 2d? Because even if it one layer of atom, it ...
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8 views

How does a super current affect ductility, maleability and the mechanical properties of a superconductor?

In metals, the ductility, malleability, tensile strength and strain are all determined in part by their free electrons. I am wondering what would happen to all of these properties of a superconductor ...
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11 views

Derive Porosity from Stiffness Value

I have the Young's modulus (stiffness) values of a hydro-gel scaffolds, and I need to know the porosity of those scaffolds. I read about Nielsen Equation, which is this: $$ E = \frac{E_0 (1 - P) ^ 2}...
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How are the orientations and cuts of crystal substrates determined?

I have been looking at piezoelectric crystals, LiNbO3 primarily, so piezoelectric devices. But I have had trouble understanding the cuts and orientations that are referred to with the rotated cuts. ...
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39 views

Material with discontinous conductivity

Is there a material whose thermal conductivity can be modeled by the function $$k(T) = \begin{cases}k_1, & T<T_0 \\ k_2, & T\geq T_0\end{cases}$$ where $k_1$, $k_2$ are constants. I ...
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2answers
73 views

Why don't insulators conduct electricity? [closed]

I have been taught in school that because of the high energy band gap (approx. $9~\text{eV}$ or more) of an insulator, electrons can't jump to the conduction band. But also $1~\text{eV} = 1.6 \cdot ...
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23 views

Stable bubbles in a vacuum

I want to make space bubbles that hold some gaseous stuff - at very low pressure - for a long time and through nothing but surface tension. I can't use soap water as the water will evaporate quickly. ...
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62 views

Is there a theoretical upper limit for how hard something can be? Harder than diamonds?

Is there a theoretical upper limit for how hard something can be under "normal circumstances" (i.e., on the surface of Earth or similar or in the empty space)? Something like absolute zero/infinity on ...
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1answer
31 views

Is a solid slab of rolled steel the strongest form? [closed]

Is a solid slab of rolled steel its strongest form? Or can it be made stronger, in another form (layered, foam, mesh, braided etc)? (Its weight is not a factor, and no alloys/additives) Also, ...
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22 views

Determine whether a body breaks due to mechanical stress

How to determine if a body breaks if I know ultimate tensile stress of that body, other mechanical properties of the material and Cauchy stress tensor applied to the body? It is simple if only one ...
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1answer
36 views

What limits how hot can a macroscopic object be heated by conventional means?

What I mean by conventional, is that chemical, mechanical and electromagnetic heating are in bounds, but not nuclear. And I assume that there a limit to how much a material can be heated due to: The ...
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37 views

Why are diamonds formed under high pressure? (use entropy)

My book asks how can diamond ever be more stable than graphite, when it has less entropy. I have to explain how at high pressures the conversion of graphite to diamond can increase the total entropy ...
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22 views

Teflon (PTFE) against another teflon [closed]

Would teflon sleeve spinning againts teflon bushing create so much friction that it would just break? I have a teflon bushing spinning againts metal sleeve, and it is the original design, which works. ...
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47 views

which give higher cooling rate , strong circulated water or thick copper plate? [duplicate]

imagine if I have hot metal piece I want to cool it as fast as possiple, should I put it in strong circulated water bath or just stick it between 2 thick copper plates ? the calculated heat ...
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23 views

which is more effective chilling for metal casting, thick copper die or water-cooled thin copper mold? [closed]

It is will known that increasing cooling of a metal casting will lead to finer micro-structure which mean higher mechanical properties. If I have 2 molds one is thick copper die ,& second is just ...
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1answer
43 views

Relation between Young's modulus and density?

Can I calculate Young's modulus from density? Is there any mathematical relation between Young's modulus and density?
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29 views

Hollow cylinder pressure tolerance [closed]

I have a physics\material science problem. We have a hollow cylinder with length L, inner diameter d and outer D made of a material with known mechanical properties(whatever constants are needed). ...
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72 views

How to calculate materials ability to resist penetration

I would like to ask you this question which I struggle to answer. If I have a plate of some material X to which I am shooting at with a tank main gun with ammunition parameters: weight $= 10\text{kg}...
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How can a single particle hit many pixels in Large Hadron Collider?

In the Large Hadron Collider, the way particles are detected (specifically in ATLAS) is analogous to detecting photons using a photodiode(analogous is an exaggeration, but will suffice for the ...
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2answers
33 views

How to determine at which temperature does iron in stainless steel undergoes spontaneous oxidation?

It is my understanding that iron oxidation in stainless steel is prevented by adding chromium, which creates chromium oxides at the surface that shield the bulk of the material from further oxidation. ...
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21 views

Can a pressure wave travel faster than a material breaks?

Consider a shock wave travels through a solid (M) which causes a 4g acceleration. Down below there is an elastic spring (K1) which suppose to support the mass in case K2 will fail. K2 is a rigid body ...
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3answers
25 views

What is the sound absorbing characteristic of a material called?

I understand that lead is one of the best acoustic barriers because it absorbs sound very well; in other words, it converts sound to heat. By comparison, other materials tend to either transmit the ...
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0answers
38 views

Stress Tensor decomposition into Compression & Tensile forces

this might be a little more of an engineering question that physics but physics is my background so asking here... I'm working on a project that does a finite element simulation of a mesh. I can ...
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1answer
32 views

Negative Miller indices and parallel planes

The integers are usually written in lowest terms, i.e. their greatest common divisor should be 1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller_index Does this mean, that parallel planes are generally ...
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38 views

How can we theoretically calculate the dependence of torsion constant of a wire on it's length and radius?

Is there a way to calculate how the torsion constant depends on the length and radius of a uniform wire without doing the experiments? Also do mention if we require value of any kind of property of ...
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24 views

Material Strength on Mars [closed]

Apologies if this is on the wrong site, I was bouncing between here, Space Exploration and even considered Worldbuilding. Currently NASA among others is looking at automated systems that could take ...
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1answer
30 views

Why does the stress strain curve depend upon strain rate?

I was going through this website :https://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/iss/index.html where it answered a question: Why is the maximum of the (nominal) stress-strain curve and the beginning of ...
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2answers
53 views

Can a diamond pipe prevent water from freezing and bursting the pipe?

I know a diamond vacuum blimp is not possible because it will implode under air pressure. Is it possible for a diamond pipe to keep from bursting with frozen water? I found nothing online except ...
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1answer
70 views

How to calculate the max load a metal bar can hold?

How would one calculate the amount of weight a steel bar could hold before breaking? Apologies for the terrible diagram. So if I had a steel bar of the length 18in, and the cross-section with a ...
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Tourmaline-Laden Ceramics in Hair-Care Products

I have seen a great deal of hype for hair care products in which the ceramic of any part of the product (barrels of hairbrushes (particularly the cylindrical blowdrying brushes), heating elements of ...
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1answer
40 views

Definition of Brinell hardness

I'm trying to understand the concept of Brinell scale. In Brinell test, a steel ball is pressed against the material under examination and the diameter of the indentation left by the ball is measured. ...
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1answer
66 views

Why don't sand get deformed when someone walks on it?

My question is about the structure of sand. Namely, when we walk on the beach sand seems to be very hard to deform, since we push on it from 'above'. But if from another perspective it is also very ...
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Why does flame doesnot have a shadow? What is the actual reason behind this? [duplicate]

I have read somewhere that flames doesnot cast a shadow. What is the actual reason behind this even a flame is physical in nature and we can see it.
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2answers
82 views

If EM waves of radio range can pass through large obstacles, why antennas do receive them? [closed]

For example a tiny antenna in the phone, why em wave do not pass through it, but pass through concrete walls?
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How can I draw the energy bands for the first and second zones of Brillouin? Is it conductor or insulator?

I want to draw the energy ($E$) diagrams for a simple cubic cell of parameter $a$, where each atom provides two electrons for the almost free electron levels for planes [100], [110] and [111]. I ...
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1answer
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How do multiple start screw threads have higher advance per revolution (lead)?

Single-start means that there is only one "ridge" wrapped around the cylinder of the screw's body. Each time that the screw's body rotates one turn (360°), it has advanced axially by the width of one ...
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18 views

Soft question about deposition through Spin Coating.

I'm working developing an experimental procedeure for depositing nano particles on glass substrates, and I have a soft, or really dumb question rather, to ask before I feel comfortable in proceeding ...
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27 views

How to obtain stress-strain curve from torque-angle of twist curve?

If a shaft, fixed at one end is acted on by a torque, shear strain and stress develops within the shaft. If we are in the linear region (hooke’s law applies), the stress and strain can be deduced by ...
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69 views

How to explain a strength of the sphere in simple terms?

In our high school's physics book (in Turkish), a strength of the material is discussed in simple terms given by Galileo: The strength of the material is proportional to its cross-section area divided ...
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Why human knowledge about small scale physics is growing much faster than knowledge about big scale phenomena? [closed]

According to Kardashev scale there are subzero types civilizations according to their expertise in small scale physics (e.g. nanotechnology), which are classified according to Wikipedia as: Type ...
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Stress-Strain behavior of ceramics at high temperatures

Can someone explain to me why do we observe the peak in the stress strain behavior at 1400 C and then a sudden decline followed by gradual increase? What does it signify? Does it have anything to do ...
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166 views

Points of symmetry in $k$-space

Can you relate a point in the reciprocal space with a vector in real space? How do I find the family of planes that represent a point of symmetry in the Brillouin zone? For example, germanium has ...