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Questions tagged [material-science]

The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

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Why does the strength of a sheet of material under strain increase with thickness?

For instance, why is a thick plywood table able to bear heavier loads than a thin plywood table? I am aware of the concept of tensile strength but, seeing as that only says things about the strength ...
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3answers
65 views

Ray sun heating

I recently got a curious question about the sun rays. Is there a material that can absorbs most of them and turn it into pure heat? For example, we all know that dark material (black t-shirts) get ...
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29 views

What are some hydrogenous materials that can withstand high temperatures >400C? Preferably thick solids, not powders [on hold]

Plastics have a lot of H, but even the best ones melt at way below 400C, if I remember correctly. LiH can withstand high temp, but is a powder. I'm looking for a H-rich material that also can be ...
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27 views

How do I find pressure change in an expandable bottle/tank? [on hold]

I have a $200$-liter sealed tank full of water at standard room condition. I push 2 liters of water into it, which expand the volume of the tank at a rate $0.01\%$ per $atm$ of increased pressure. How ...
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2answers
64 views

Why do we use wool for insulation? [closed]

I'm really struggling to understand the science behind wool, and why it's a good insulator. I'm doing an investigation about heat transfer, and the topic I chose is insulators.
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LEFM displacement near crack tip [closed]

What is significance of sine and cosine terms in the displacement near crack tip as given here - last 3 equations at the end of section 9.3.1 ? When we say $u_2$, how this $\theta$ is measured in the ...
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5answers
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Why does paper cut through things so well?

Paper is an extremely flexible material, at least when it is in sheet form. It will deform significantly according to the pressure applied and it is easy to fold. Therefore, it's extremely ...
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0answers
36 views

Issues with Miller indices

I have read that to find the intercepts of a plane represented by Miller indices is to take the reciprocal of each index. However, I noticed that does not give the original plane if we had to reduce ...
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1answer
112 views

Can I uncut a piece of paper?

I've inadvertently cut a piece of paper that I wasn't meant to. I've repaired it pretty well using single sided sticky tape and I think, so long as no-one looks at it too closely, I'll get away with ...
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1answer
38 views

Cast metal vs. machined metal

Why is it, that machined metals, milled out of a primitive shape, tend to bend upon impact rather than crack or shatter? Why do they behave differently to stresses when they are cast into the final ...
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0answers
12 views

How severe is the damage of surface contamination on Quartz Glass?

During a vacuum PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) process I use tubular resistive heaters with a Quartz Glass shell around it (around 1.5m long) to heat up my organic material. During the process my ...
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3answers
76 views

Can a glass screen protector reduce the impact on a phone?

Glass screen protectors supposedly protect your phone from impact. A youtube comment by McZidanne sums up this idea pretty clearly: The thing about tempered glass cover isn't the protection they ...
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1answer
13 views

Difference between phase and grain in a material

I couldnt get a good explanation differentiating phase and grain.From what I understood, a collection of unit cells arranged in the same orientation is called grain.A collection of grains with similar ...
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0answers
12 views

In what direction is electrorheological fluid weak?

I think I read somewhere that electrorheological fluids are easier to deform in one direction,what direction is it? If we look at typical scenario with fluid between two electrodes where the solid ...
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0answers
5 views

Does magnetostriction change volume?

Does magnetostrictive material like terfenol D change volume,or does it just increase in one dimension and decrease in another keeping the volume constant?
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1answer
41 views

Is there a material that allows light to pass perpendicular to the surface, but reflects at an angle?

This is inspired by Michael Steven's new video about optics. He shows off Selenite, which has the property that light entering on one side travels perpendicularly down the crystal until it exits the ...
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1answer
17 views

Does the impact location of small stones on car windshields significantly affect the likelihood and extent of a break?

Is the center of the windshield much less stable than the locations closer to the edges in this regard? Is there a negible difference? Does it result in different types of damage? Any info is ...
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1answer
31 views

Super speed human to bird survival [closed]

Assuming I would be a superhuman going 500km/h, but keeping my human reflexes and without taking into account the air friction. Now, assuming I would encounter a Pidgeon going my way at about 20km/h. ...
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2answers
195 views

Only sea water appears blue in color, why this is not happening in river water?

Is the salt in the water the reason for scattering sunlight into blue?
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0answers
25 views

Repulsive Casimir Lifshitz force experiments

There is an experiment published 2014, measuring the theoretically predicted Casimir-Lifshitz force: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4169270/ As often the case for measuring the Casimir ...
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0answers
27 views

Why isn't the number of free electrons per atom included when calculating the free electron density?

The free electron density of copper is $8.49 \times 10^{28}\,{\rm m}^{-3}$. It is calculated as: $N_{A}\left(\frac{d}{M}\right) = 6.02 \times 10^{23} \left(\frac{8960}{0.0635}\right)$. Why isn't the ...
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0answers
89 views

Reference guide for standard descriptions of materials

Is there any reference that has a coherent list of materials and what type of approximate Hamiltonian to best describe them with (where it is known). Particularily I am looking for the following bits ...
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2answers
61 views

Life around a different element from Carbon [closed]

On Earth, life developed around Carbon (and Hydrogen and Oxygen). I guess this depends on the availability of those elements, but also on the spectrum of radiation and Temperature and Pressure. Under ...
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1answer
42 views

What solid elements, if formed into their thinnest possible 'sheet', would be translucent?

Would this have to be experimentally done or is there some manner to estimate translucency based on molecular properties?
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2answers
89 views

Deviation from Linear response in metals and Ohm's law

In metals, Ohm's law is an example of a linear response i.e., $I\propto V$ where $I$ is the current (response) due to the applied voltage $V$ (external force). For metals, can we have a breakdown of ...
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1answer
29 views

What physical properties determine the sound of a drum head?

I am working on a rubber substitute for a leather-membrane drum. The objective is to replicate to reasonable extent the "sound" or timbre that the leather drum head makes with a rubber drum head as ...
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1answer
54 views

Why is fused silica superior to N-BK7 in terms of thermal lensing?

In optics lab, the two commonly used types of glasses are N-BK7 and fused silica. The lab wisdom has been that fused silica is superior to N-BK7 in terms of thermal lensing. And indeed it seems so. ...
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1answer
39 views

What effect would a supernova have on an orbiting planet?

(Not sure if this is a better fit for worldbuilding.SE...) Suppose we have an earth-like planet orbiting comfortably far from a red giant of ~10 solar masses. If the star explodes in a supernova, what ...
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1answer
9 views

What is a hybrid 'improper' ferroelectric? What is improper about it?

I'm coming across articles on 'phys.let's and Nature that talk about an exciting new class of materials called hybrid improper ferroelectric. Yet nowhere have I found an explanation or even a hint as ...
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2answers
92 views

Why is sound produced when we hit a metal? [duplicate]

We all know that metal are sonorous and produce sound on hitting but why is sound produced I thought that it might be a way of energy released on inelastic collision but then why not heat as heat is ...
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1answer
237 views

How to calculate thin film interference when the incident medium is absorbing?

Edit: I found a text that mentions that when the incident medium is absorbing, the usual equations for interference don't apply, so I have refined my question in the title. I have been working on ...
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1answer
53 views

Definition of Shear strain

From Wikipedia article on deformation, the shear strain is defined as the angle of the deformation. I had always thought of it as the limiting ratio of the difference in perpendicular displacement of ...
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2answers
49 views

Why Optical Microscope can not be used for higher magnification [duplicate]

Why optical microscope can not be used for higher magnification? Enlist different microscope used for higher magnification (> 2000 x).
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1answer
32 views

How to stack padding materials to pad an edge [closed]

This is about how to combine materials of various elastic and deformation properties as a stack to show different properties as a stack. A cardboard box has two holes punched in the side of the box ...
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2answers
48 views

Why is optical contact called optical contact?

Why is optical contact called optical contact? whats the meaning of the 'optical', when the concept of optical contact bonding has nothing to do with optics.
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1answer
40 views

Poisson's ratio for incompressible materials makes stress undefined in Hooke's Law

According to efunda, But if the Poisson's ratio is 0.5 for incompressible materials, the stress tensor (vector here) cannot be determined for an arbitrary strain, which does not make any sense, since ...
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1answer
27 views

Heating a monolayer atop a substrate with a laser

This problem is briefly mentioned in various research papers I'm reading, but it's never addressed in detail. The monolayer is attached atop a substrate as shown below The centre of the monolayer ...
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1answer
41 views

Is there a material emitting light when changing phase?

I think a substance which emits light when it gets vaporized could have numerous applications, for example in display technology or in leakage detection. The only problem is: I'm struggling to find a ...
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46 views

How to map a (virtual) truss deformation to a surrounding object

I am trying to craft a way of simulating deformable objects without using finite element method (despite it is the goldstar method for such purpose). The goal is to rapidly get an estimate of how a ...
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0answers
18 views

Linear Damping of charged particles in a constant magnetic field

I am an undergraduate mathematician working on a problem which involves two identical charged particles in a constant external magnetic field (directed orthogonally to the plane that the particles lie ...
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2answers
68 views

What happens to the chlorine in epichlorohydrin when a two-part epoxy is air-cured?

Where does the chlorine go? Does it evaporate as a by-product or does it remain in the epoxy? I'm using a two-part resin and hardener and curing them at room temp. The resin is bisphenol-A-...
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0answers
37 views

Why do black bodies or black colored bodies cool down faster than white ones? [duplicate]

Recently, I found an exercise in which a graph was shown with the variation of temperature of two painted cans as they received sunlight. One of the questions was "Which of these two bodies will ...
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0answers
35 views

Bulk lens material for NIR & MWIR, cheap, non-toxic, thermally resistant

I'm looking for a material to make big (30cm diameter) lenses for most of the IR spectrum beginning at 800nm upwards, at least to 8um. The material should be easy to come by (as in: cheap and non-...
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1answer
43 views

How reflectivity of metals depends on the condition of the surface?

Does it depends on the flatness and pureness of surface. does it change when dust or oxides settle on it.
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0answers
24 views

What are upper reflectivity bounds of materials

I know that if i take metal-coated fiber i can send light signals to large distance, because signal would reflect inside fiber, lowering attenuation. Just like in optical fiber communication network. ...
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23 views

A Good Book for Solid Material properties

I want to know a book which provides all solid material properties: Linear/Non-Linear Stress-Strain Data, Thermo-Elastic data (with specific heat function of temperature)... I will need them for ...
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0answers
58 views

Expansion or contraction of locally heated steel [duplicate]

I have a large block of steel, 3 foot cube . centered on one face is a 3 inch diameter drilled hole 10 inches deep . this hole receives a 3 inch diameter steel pin 20 inches long. Will the diameter ...
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0answers
44 views

How to model the impact time for a collision between two bodies? [duplicate]

In case there are two bodies that are to collide, what measure can be used to calculate the time of interaction? The basic problem I am trying to solve here is finding the maximum force that will be ...
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1answer
18 views

What construction materials could enable a capillary effect to raise water?

Are there materials (possibly in research stage) which are investigated as replacement for piping and pumping systems in construction work to transport water from the ground to elevated floors in ...
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1answer
112 views

Moving faster than speed of sound in material

Throughout my schooling this year, one thing that came up was that materials have a speed of sound. That concept makes sense to me. To my understanding it's the speed at which force can propagate ...