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Questions tagged [material-science]

The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

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How can I determine the element with the lowest atomic number by WDS with the 2d spacings known

I have a 2d spacing values. How can I determine the element with the lowest atomic number by WDS?
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15 views

What is meant by cubic symmetry with regard to thin films growth?

I am reading a paper on epitaxial thin film growth of an alloy and it mentions that for one conditions the films grow with a cubic symmetry and for another they have an in-plane anisotropy. I would ...
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Solid to Solid Vs Liquid to Solid Phase Transition [duplicate]

If we want to achieve Solid phase transition(means a solid transfer to another solid) and Liquid phase transition(means transformation of liquid into solid like water turned into ice..) then which one ...
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51 views

Solid to Solid Phase Transition and Liquid to Solid Phase Transition [on hold]

If we want to achieve Solid phase transition(means a solid transfer to another solid) and Liquid phase transition(means transformation of liquid into solid like water turned into ice..) then which one ...
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2answers
69 views

Why are fridge doors magnetic?

Why do fridge magnets stick to fridges? What purpose does a magnet have in a fridge? Why do the magnets stick so well to the fridge doors but not so well to keys or nails?
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14 views

For the high-frequency permittivity of a material, do I need to look beyond its value in the optical energies region?

I was trying to find $\varepsilon_\infty$ for InSb, and the value I found on Kittel p. 416 was 15.6. But in the literature, even at 6 eV, $\varepsilon (\omega )$ is still in the negative (at -3.835) ...
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1answer
44 views

What are the differences between a slow moving and fast moving blade cutting through a material?

Examples could be an axe cutting through a wooden branch, a kitchen knife cutting through a carrot or a hydraulic sheer cutting through steel. Specifically I would like to know: Will the energy ...
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23 views

Relationship between Material type and Acoustic Reflection Degree

I have a 1.8mm and a 1.5mm thick surface of polypropylene and I'm beaming a pressure wave at it, what percentage of the wave's intensity/pressure (in decibels) gets through and what percentage is ...
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32 views

Can graphite be imaged through plaster?

There is a historical building near where I live where the walls are covered in pencil writing. The notes were taken over centuries by multiple generations of the family that lived there. There are ...
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2answers
49 views

How are atoms supported on each other in a material?

Suppose we have a ball made up of iron. There are a "lot" of atoms in the ball. My question is "how" are the atoms supported on top of each other? And, is it due to the repulsion of electrons the ...
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1answer
70 views

Grooves on water tank

Why are there grooves on almost every water tank? Just typing water tank in Google images would reveal what I am talking about. And here is a sample picture! I think it would mostly be regarding ...
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1answer
134 views

Cut in two but still alive? [closed]

Suppose we have an indestructible and sharpest knife ever made, which can cut through everything at ease. If it cuts you in half, you're more likely to be dead. As the knife begins to be thinner and ...
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1answer
80 views

What should be the speed of my bullet be to punch a nice round hole through a paper sheet?

If my bullet travels faster will the amount of damage done to the paper be lesser? Due to inertia of the paper can the bullet make bullet shaped holes instead of making a big hole as the speed ...
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1answer
33 views

Rubber-Rubber friction

We all know rubber is known to have a high friction coefficient, and it's quite difficult to drag a block of it across a surface. What happens when two blocks of flexible rubber are dragged against ...
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1answer
52 views

Why do the black balls floating on top of the water surface form lattice strctures?

The phenomenon I'm asking about can be seen in this veritusium video. The balls were just dumped in randomly, and they are buffeted by wind and currents, so how do they settle into clean lattice-like ...
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1answer
25 views

What would be a correct/natural approximation for the curve of bended materials?

Would it be a cubic/quadratic Bezier curve? Or perhaps (part of an) ellipse? I am a computer science student who is working on a physics engine using realistic materials, meaning I would like for ...
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1answer
36 views

How to measure the mechanical vibration when a hammer hits a nail? [closed]

I want to know the exact location of the vibration sensor that can be placed to measure the vibrations created by a hammer hits the nail.
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2answers
73 views

Why I can't find a value for the resistivity of plastic? [closed]

I'm working to a relation about resistence of various materials. I haven't found a table of resistivity wich includes Plastic. Is searching plastic too general? Does a table in which there is at least ...
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Building the Penrose Unilluminable Room [closed]

As an architect with an interest in the natural sciences I was intrigued when I first learned of the illumination problem and its proposed solutions, specifically the one proposed by Roger Penrose in ...
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1answer
46 views

How could skin be made as hard as diamond or graphene, whilst retaining it's current flexibility? [closed]

I want to understand what exactly the difference is between skin, on a molecular, atomic and quantum level, and materials like diamond and graphene. Then I wish to understand the changes that would ...
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1answer
105 views

Why is paper not used as a vegetable cutter?

Since $p=F/A$, sharp blades with smaller areas exert higher pressure and can cut vegetables easily whereas paper can't although it has a smaller area. I tried to cut a vegetable using newspaper (which ...
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2answers
26 views

What material property determines susceptibility to the type of “damage”?

I'm a watch collector with a lot of interest in material science. Most of the watches I own are frequently worn and wear marks over time. These "marks" can be categorized into 2: 1. Scratches - look ...
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1answer
23 views

A one-dimensional periodic structure is the simplest type of photonics crystal and any such one-dimensional system has a band-gap?

My textbook says the following: A one-dimensional periodic structure, such as a multilayer film (a Bragg mirror), is the simplest type of photonics crystal, and Lord Rayleigh showed that any such ...
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27 views

Dielectric equivalents of diamagnetics

Is there a dielectric material that would oppose an electric field such that field lines never enter in the material? An electric analog of diamagnetism
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15 views

What is a disordered alloy?

I would like some clarification on what is meant by a "disordered alloy." Is this a description of the crystal structure? Is it the same as describing the alloy as amorphous, without a set uniform ...
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26 views

Is there any material for which, on increasing surface roughness, changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic or vice versa?

It is known that on increasing the surface roughness a hydrophilic material becomes more hydrophilic, i.e., it's contact angle decreases on increasing the roughness. Same is true for hydrophobic ...
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Pole - breaking point calculation

I guess my problem would be easy solved by any mechanical engineer, but i'm not that one :-). Ok i have 3 m long pole fixed on 2 points, at 50cm and 1m from bottom of pole. At top of pole is pulling ...
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3answers
231 views

Theoretical physics for better batteries?

It is Earth day, so I started thinking about the theoretical physics problems that could help reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and fight climate change. We actually have a reasonable range of ways to ...
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1answer
15 views

Equilibrium concentration of point defects in solids at sufficiently elevated temperature

Equilibrium concentration of point defects in solids is defined as $\chi=\exp(\frac{\Delta s}{k_B})\exp(\frac{-\Delta h}{k_BT})$. At high temperatures, may be even higher than melting temperature of ...
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1answer
48 views

Materials with good thermal insulating properties

I'm doing a research for a university project. In particular I'm looking for a "commercial" material (so a material that is available on the market or can be home made) that has good thermal ...
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1answer
71 views

Effect of length and area on Young's modulus?

I have this question. A sample of wire has a Young modulus E. A second sample of wire made from an identical material has three times the length and half the diameter of the first sample. What ...
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0answers
21 views

Is gradual cooling and reheating better than abrupt cooling then re-heating for material durability?

So, I heated some bread on a pan (medium flame). Then, I turned the flame off knowing full well that I would put another bread on it within 10-15 seconds and heat it on medium flame again. I reasoned ...
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1answer
54 views

Why is the law of Hooke valid only for small displacements?

What changes when displacement exceeds a certain limit?
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2answers
43 views

What makes quartz oscillators vibrate?

I understand that the principle behind it is piezoelectricity and electrostriction (inverse piezoelectricity), but how does one make the crystal vibrate? The only thing I can think of is using an ...
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Number of atoms in a cubic crystal structure

I'm reading through Callister's textbook on materials science and I am confused with the part on linear/planar densities. To compute the linear density along the [110] direction vector for FCC he ...
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Why would a magnetostrictive measurement be given as (3/2)λ100?

I have been looking into magnetostriction, and I have found the measurement of the magnetostrictive strains is typically given as λ100, λ111 and λs. My understanding is that these are the saturation ...
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0answers
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Piezoelectric strain curves and magnetostrictive strain curves

I am trying to understand the differences in the strains produced in piezoelectric materials and magnetostrictive materials. Magnetostrictive materials will tend to strain the same way along the ...
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2answers
43 views

Why is it important to measure permittivity and permeability complex of materials?

I know that in general, $\epsilon(r,\omega)$ and $\mu(r,\omega)$ are complex tensors, so now how do you resolve maxwell equations? I don't understand why there are techniques to measure them if you ...
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1answer
43 views

Would graphene as a bulk material act the same as the single layer

Graphite is supposed to be layers of graphene so the first natural question when thinking about how to use graphene is, why doesn't graphite have such amazing properties, however.. I think graphite ...
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2answers
70 views

How to prove that shadows in the cave aren't talking? [closed]

If a physicist (who have never seen people) is constantly watching on shadows and hear voices behind, will he make a statement that shadows are talking? I'm talking about physical experiment in terms ...
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1answer
97 views

QM explanation (electrons and lattice structure) why aluminum does not get hot in an oven?

I have read this question: Why can I touch aluminum foil in the oven and not get burned? But the answers therein only explain on a classical level why aluminum foil being a very good conductor and ...
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2answers
77 views

What do bulk modulus values actually mean?

I am trying to understand what bulk modulus is, but it is quite hard for me to understand it. I get that it is the resistance of material to compression from all directions, but what actually happens ...
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Doubts in understanding the elastic property of matter

Here the graph of potential energy and force produced due to interaction between two atoms are given . And at a particular separation between the atoms, they have their minimum potential energy. And ...
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1answer
60 views

Calculating electrical resistivity of a material

If I plan to measure the resistivity of a high resistivity material, would it not make sense to alter the geometry of the sensor to make A/l as small as possible and reduce the voltage to get a low ...
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1answer
84 views

How isthe transparency of glass explained in physics? [closed]

I would like a rigorous explanation: a theory and model which describes glass as well as iron, and see why one of them is transparent; a detailed mathematical computation or a detailed reference. And,...
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1answer
49 views

What would you call shelves failing after being bumped by a forklift?

From the video in this question, you can see a bunch of stable shelves that are bumped by a forklift. This causes a domino effect, but unlike a regular domino falling over, there is clearly a buckling ...
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0answers
7 views

Is positive and negative magnetostriction attributed to the shape of the domains?

I have been reading up on magnetostriction, and noted that some materials expand while other contract in the direction of an applied magnetic field, and that it is attributed to the rotation of the ...
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0answers
29 views

How does acoustic impedance change with frequency of the wave and thickness of the medium?

I read in many posts that the acoustic impedance of a material is usually defined as Z = p*c, where "p" is the density of the material under consideration and "c" is the speed of sound in that ...
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1answer
62 views

Wood: A Naturally Occurring Composite Material?

In materials science texts, I see wood used an example of a naturally occurring composite material. One of the main components of wood is cellulose, which is a polymer. But what other component makes ...
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Semiconductors with low thermal conductivity (lattice matched to GaAs)

What are the semiconductors with lowest thermal conductivity that can be grown on GaAs with the least possible incorporated strain (i.e. lattice-matched or close to it)? GaAs has thermal conductivity ...