Questions tagged [material-science]

The study of how the properties of matter arise from its structure at all scales and of how processing can be used to modify those properties (often in pursuit of a specific application).

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What makes silicone sticky?

I've read from 3M's Adhesion Science articles and this StackExchange question that there are three types of adhesion: chemical, physical, and electrostatic. I'm curious about what makes silicone ...
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How do we justify that potential energy in a spring is Galilean invariant (to the extent that Newtonian mechanics holds)?

A spring can store elastic potential energy by elastically deforming and moving its atoms out of their minima potentials. The atoms themselves can be modeled as balls connected by Hooke-like springs ...
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Terminology: does this situation correspond to an anisotropic but linear dielectric?

Let us assume that for a dielectric the relation $${\vec D}=\epsilon\vec E$$ holds where $\epsilon$ is independent of $\vec E$. However, let $\epsilon$ is not a scalar number but a tensor (or a $3\...
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Can I dip Stainless Steel Heat Exchangers in Milk?

I am heating milk using hot water through a coil heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is made of stainless steel 316. It is dipped in the milk. Is there any risk of contamination of milk from the setup? ...
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Confusion in Derivation of Excess Pressure in a Cylindrical Drop

I have recently learnt about surface tension and have developed a list of key points to solve problems:- Surface tension acts on the surface where a surface is defined as the interface(flat or curved)...
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What is the largest hollow structure that could be made before gravity becomes a problem?

Assume realistic strength of materials, like that of steel or stone, or even something with "good" properties like carbon fiber, or advanced ceramics. If one was to put together a hollow ...
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Do have same stopping potential means same metal has been used

in this 1 and 2 have same stopping potential does it mean that it is made of same material 1and 2
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What are some reputable databases for the measured values of the physical properties of materials?

I am looking for a trustworthy source for the measured physical properties of materials. For example I may want to find the thermal conductivity, resistivity, density etc of Gold. I don't know where ...
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About Volterra's displacement equation on dislocation: cancellation of a surface integral on stress

In the theory of dislocations, the displacement induced by a dislocation in an anisotropic solid media can be expressed by Volterra's displacement equation as follows: $$ u_j(\mathbf{x}) = \int\int\...
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Shouldn't length contraction cause friction under certain circumstances?

I was thinking about the ladder paradox, which if I understand correctly involves a combination of length contraction and relativity of simultaneity. And with that it is resolved. But there's this ...
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Energy transfer and electromagntism

How is kinetic energy from one moving macroscopic object to a stationary object is transferred at a particle level? Is all energy transfer that exists an effect of electromagntism at the particle ...
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Calculating bulk modulus from interatomic potential on cubic lattice

How do I account for the lattice structure of a solid when computing the bulk modulus, given an interatomic potential? The bulk modulus, $B$, can be expressed as the second derivative of the ...
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How does the shape of an object affect the coefficient of restitution?

I can understand how elasticity of an object plays a role in determining the coefficient of restitution, but various sources say that the shape of the object is important as well (and in particular I ...
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Damage Equations for Projectiles with Small Velocities

I'm working on a personal project that happens to involve projectiles impacting an aluminum surfaces. The projectile velocities I am dealing with are relatively small compared with meteoroid ...
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Brinell Hardness Testing

I want to find the diameter of the indenter with Ultimate Tensile Strength and Yield Strength given. Do i use UTS or Yield Strength, and why so? Thank you
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Models for n-p junction

Sorry if my question is too basic, but I have little knowledge in solid state physics. I would like to know what are the best theoretical models to describe what's going on doped semiconductors. More ...
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What makes carbon atomic structures stand out from other elements in terms of their properties?

Since lots of materials with some remarkable properties are some form of carbon structures: Incredible strength of graphene is often explained by it having a hexagonal atomic lattice. Hardness of a ...
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Transparency Changing Material

Is there a material that when exposed to spesific wavelengths of light changes from transparent to opaque in very short time (nanoseconds)? For example 400nm blue light would change it to transparent ...
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Using abrasive lapping, is it possible to make a perfectly round cylinder starting with imperfect cylinder(s)?

Centerless cylindrical lapping is a technique used to create a smooth and round cylinder through the use of microscopic abrasive compounds. My question is a chicken and egg problem, because it seems ...
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How to get the binodal and spinodal from an equation of state?

We know that the Flory-Huggins polymer solution theory predicts a upper critical solution temperature. In their approach, FH find out the free energy of mixing, $F(\phi)$. This is done in a mean-field ...
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Does $\mu_0H_a$ represent Magnetic Anisotropy?

Whilst reading the following Chapter: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1567-2719(05)80055-1 I came across the notation $\mu_0H_a$, which I presumed was a measurement of magnetic anisotropy. However, the '...
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What is a conventional material in electromagnetism?

We have an assignment question that asks to justify $\alpha > 1$ for a conventional material, where $\alpha^2 = \left(\frac{\epsilon}{\epsilon_0} \right)^2 + \left(\frac{\sigma }{\omega \epsilon_0 }...
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Physics basics of junction termination structure (JTE)

I have come across two books that try to explain how a junction termination structure work (low doped implant of the same type as the cathode/anode depending of the substrate type). Both books explain ...
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Why is aluminium powder sticky?

Aluminium powder is used in applications like the “etch-a-sketch” toy because it tends to stick to surfaces. Also it tends to clog abrasive tools like files and grinding wheels or stones, and the ...
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How to do a fitting with the alpha model of heat capacity for a superconductor?

I am trying to do a fitting of experimental data of heat capacity of a superconductor using the alpha model (Padamsee et al 1973), I checked Johnston 2013 as well. I am trying with the following ...
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Is there a limit to the size of magnetic domains?

When reading about magnets synthesized at the nanoscale level, there is plenty of references to spontaneous magnetic order re-orientation; as these materials are too small to have a magnetic domain. ...
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How to measure the wavelength of a laser? [duplicate]

I'm building an enclosure for a laser engraver that emits light at ~455nm. I want to be able to measure the wavelength of the light that is refracting off the item being engraved. I would want to be ...
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Why don't electrons fall or collapse around atom when an object accelerates rapidly?

In laws of motion, everything has an equal and opposite reaction, and it applies to all matters in the reality. If the earth stops moving suddenly just for one second, then everything on earth will be ...
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How can carbon be simultaneously stiffer and more elastic than alloys?

The industrial world (cycling, automotive, aeronautics, ...) has long been ablaze with discussions regarding the advantages of carbon fibers. Cycling offers the most intimate human-material ...
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Is there a material with work function less than 1 eV?

There are lots of problems related to photoelectric effect, which, for example, use, or have as answer, a work function of less than 1 eV. But when I search on Google, I found out that most metals ...
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If some physical change occurs due to an increase in temperature, is the resulting entropy thermal or configurational?

When studying entropy in terms of order and disorder, we can consider the total entropy, $S$ for a material at a temperature, $T$ to consist of two components: Thermal entropy: The entropy by virtue ...
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Are reciprocal lattice basis vectors parallel to their corresponding real lattice basis vectors?

So I had a question asking to find the angle between b* and (113) plane normal in a tetragonal unit cell. I know that the angle between two plane normals are given by: My thinking was that if I know ...
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Effect of adhesive on ballistic fabrics

Adhesive is applied to "soft" ballistic fabrics (like kevlar or even fiberglass) in order to decrease bulge when being hit by a projectile. What would be the effect of gluing layers of ...
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1 vote
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How do we can calculate deposition flux in terms of monolayer per second?

In the nucleation and growth theory, I read the unit of deposition flux of atoms in a substrate in terms of monolayer per second. But could not figure it out how to calculate the flux in terms of ...
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Why a rotating body ruptures at a transverse velocity equal to the speed of sound in the body?

In this article about Ehrenfest's paradox, an introductory remark on classical rigidity is made: Any rigid object made from real materials that is rotating with a transverse velocity close to the ...
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If we heat a 1Ly long copper stick through all its length to expand 1% what will be the relative speed of its two ends?

If we heat a 1Ly long copper stick through all its length to expand 1% what will be the relative speed of its two ends? If we, for example, heat up a copper stick by 600°C it will expand 1% so my ...
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2 votes
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What can be the possible causes for variation in stress-induced birefringence in an isotropic material?

Birefringence is the phenomenon of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. When an unpolarized light passes through such a material, ...
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Does the lithosphere have a resonant frequency?

In meteorological sciences, there is an important concept known as the Schumann resonance, which are the integer values of electromagnetic resonance between the surface and ionosphere. The values ...
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How to calculate net displacement undergone by a mass under a magnetic field?

Utilizing the known values of mass, magnetic field strength of a magnet, distance and pascal constant of a specific material; what steps are needed to find the net displacement and force that the ...
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4 votes
7 answers
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Speed of heat through an object

According to the Heat equation (the PDE), heat can travel infinitely fast, which doesn't seem right to me. So I was wondering, at what speed does heat actually propogate through an object? For example,...
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What prevents us from designing material or catalysts to meet the custom requirements? [closed]

From the perspective of physics, everything is made of atoms, ions, electrons, etc. Since we know the basic interaction between elementary particles, it might be possible to design customized ...
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Do perpendicular lights interfere on a surface?

In the following experiment, we have an observer looking at a material illuminated by a light. Imagine that the lights are similar to a laser (coherent?) so that all of the photons follow the ...
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How do charges in a material behave under a sudden conductivity phase transition?

Under the following scenario, if a highly conductive material has a significant current flowing to it were to experience a phase transition due to external influence, be it pressure or any other; ...
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Why does a bimetallic strip bend when heated?

This is a bimetallic strip: When you heat the strip why doesn't this happen?(I know that the strips are somehow attached to one another and that probably has something to do with the bending. But I ...
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Experimental material impedance measurement

Imagine you have a square-shaped plate of conductive material to which you connect 3 electrodes E1, E2, and E3 (as shown in figure below). Suppose we assume for this plate a 'pi' (aka delta) two-port ...
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Can sound waves affect the regularity of crystal positions in stone as it cools?

I've long wondered if it would be possible to hear the speech of ancient peoples by scanning sequential imperfections in crystal formations of fire-side stones as they cooled down and solidified (for ...
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Relation between Youngs modulus $Y$ and Bulks modulus $B$ for a cube

lets suppose a cube of side $l$, Young's modulus $Y$, bulk's modulus $K$ under a force F across all sides. so $$Y=\frac{F*l}{\Delta l*l^2}$$ now $$\Delta v=l^3-(l-\Delta l)^3$$ now ignoring powers of $...
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Ultra-Low Temperature semiconductors

What benefits does cooling semiconductors have for technology or any other innovations? I understand semiconductors can become good conductors at high temperatures which are ideal for everyday things ...
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Why does wiggling some thin metal objects back and forth cause them to snap?

Why does wiggling some thin metal objects back and forth cause them to snap? For example, a paperclip. Is this a property shared across all metals, or only some?
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Why does inversion symmetry disallow valence band maximum (VBM) to conduction band minimum (CBM) electronic transitions?

I have somewhere read that due to inversion symmetry in the crystal structure the electronic transition occurs from some bands below VBM and therefore optical band gap comes into the picture with a ...
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