Questions tagged [liquid-state]

The liquid state of matter is characterized by short-ranged correlations, as opposed to the long-ranged correlations of crystals and the absence of correlations in an ideal gas. Use this tag for questions specifically concerning the thermodynamics and statistical-mechanics of liquids. For the dynamical and mechanical properties of liquids, use the "fluid-dynamics" and "fluid-statics" tags.

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Confusion in Derivation of Excess Pressure in a Cylindrical Drop

I have recently learnt about surface tension and have developed a list of key points to solve problems:- Surface tension acts on the surface where a surface is defined as the interface(flat or curved)...
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127 views

Why does the air pressure not increase when I shake a coke bottle?

I tried this experiment lately and this happened, I shook a coke bottle and its air pressure remained the same but the coke came squirting out when I opened the lid. How is this possible?
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1 answer
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Why is pair distribution function equal to the Boltzmann factor?

On my statistical physics book it is written that the probability of finding two molecules at distance $r$ is not influenced by the presence of the other molecules, and for this reason, without any ...
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What is the distribution on the speed of particles in a liquid? (analogous to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution)

I know, for gases, the distribution on the speed of particles is the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. What is the corresponding distribution for liquids (e.g. water)? You can assume that the liquid is ...
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What does a local maximum under 1 in a two-point correlation function mean?

Two-point correlation functions like the radial distribution function (real space) and the structure factor $S(q)$ (reciprocal space) give information about correlations in a (typically) fluid ...
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1 answer
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Does a metal evaporate as single atoms or as molecules?

If I had a liquid metal, like Al, and I begin heating it so it evaporates, would the evaporating Al be in the form of atoms or as molecules?
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1 answer
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Steam Produced by Induction Cookers

I had recently noticed that induction cookers produce much more steam than normal gas tops and when I set the setting in the induction cooker to 'steam' it produces ever more steam. I used the same ...
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28 views

Effect of the temperature dependence of $\Delta H_{vap}$ on the vapor pressure?

I am aware that the enthalpy of vaporization of a fluid ,$\Delta H_{vap}$ is temperature dependent since it must be equal to zero at the critical temperature of said fluid, $T_c$ (although this is ...
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1 answer
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Convection from rapidly evaporating liquid inside vacuum chamber?

If we have a liquid that is is being actively heated and is rapidly evaporating (let's say around 1g/s for Ag at 1500K) inside a vacuum chamber, can convection around the liquid/vapor interface occur ...
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Can you remove air bubbles from oil by heating it just like you do with water? Does oil even have dissolved air?

I have a flat bottle filled half with water and top half with oil. It has a impeller connected with motor which slowly swirls oil and water to create beautiful lava lamp like effect. However after ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Pump fluid down HPHT gas well - fluid remains at top

Working offshore on a High Pressure / High Temperature gas well. We pumped 120 barrels of organic solvent into the well. The gas density was 0.3kg/m3. The fluid was 0.8kg/m3 & a boiling point of ...
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Quantum description of water

It seems that we have quantum description of solid and gas, but there seem to be few quantum models of liquid, with the exception of Liquid Helium or perhaps Fermi Liquid. For solids, we often study ...
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On the dielectric constants of liquid and vapor phases of a material

I can find the static dielectric constant of materials on the website or in a handbook. But for some liquids, it only shows the dielectric constant at the saturation vapor pressure. I am confused that ...
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3 answers
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How deep bore well pumps works?

From highschool physics that I learned. Let density of water be $\rho = 10^3 kg/m^3 $ and acceleration due to $g = 10 m/s^2 $ and atmospheric pressure be $P{_0} = 10^5 Pa$ now as $\rho \times g \...
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In the Hertz-Knudsen Equation, why does increasing the temperature decrease the evaporation rate?

Currently I am trying to understand the form of the Hertz-Knudsen equation, describing the evaporation rate (number of particles per unit time per unit area) from a liquid: $\frac{1}{A}\frac{dN}{dt}$ =...
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Is it meaningful to compare radial distribution functions between different species?

The radial distribution function corresponding to $g_{OO}(r)$ in water is moved in a little more than the $g(r)$ for argon, and the peaks corresponding to the second, and beyond, coordination spheres ...
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Evaporation rate as a function of initial volume? [duplicate]

I had done some cursory digging online and found that at my elevation the boil evaporation loss was about 14% per hour. So to test this out I boiled 3785mL (1 gallon) of water for an hour on my ...
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How are attractive interactions important in simple liquids?

The Weeks-Chandler-Andersen theory of liquids splits the Lennard-Jones potential into repulsive and attractive components and says that the repulsive component determines the structure of the liquid. ...
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What research has been done to develop a theory of ideal fluids?

A prof mentioned that there has been a lot of research to develop a theory of ideal fluids. A subsequent literature search wasn't very illuminating. Could somebody please tell me what has been done on ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Can you wash your feet without making them temporarily adhesive?

When my feet get dirty I wash them in the shower but then when I walk around the house small particles on the floor get glued to my feet which I don't like. Boring solutions would be to use a towel or ...
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Functional derivatives in density functional theory

I am studying density functional theory and I am currently dealing with manipulating the intrinsic free energy, $\mathcal{F}$, which is defined as $$\mathcal{F} = F - \int dr \rho ^{(1)}(r)\phi (r) $$...
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How much work can be done on a liquid through compression?

Work can be done on a gas by compressing it in an adiabatic process, raising its temperature. I'm wondering if the same thing could be done on a liquid, since liquids aren't truly incompressible. If ...
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Are open liquids always colder than ambient temperature?

I recently got myself a cheap thermal camera, and amongst other things I also noticed that standing water, even if it has been out for several days, always appears ~2°C colder than ambient temperature....
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1 vote
1 answer
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Working of liquid lens

we were recently introduced to the liquid lens in school, but i havent quite understood the working of it. I realize that the curvature of the lens is changed by some process, but i dont exactly know ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What would be the color of a deep, pure and vast liquid $\rm CO_2$ ocean if viewed from space (ignoring the atmosphere's influence)?

So far I had no luck trying to find the visible absorption spectrum of $\rm CO_2$ anywhere, all I get is the far infrared absorption spectrum and stuff like that. If you just search "what color ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why can't water be liquid above 647 kelvins?

In this article about vapor, it is said that liquid water can't exist if its temperature is higher than 647 kelvins. But if we put the liquid water in a closed container and heated up the water, ...
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3 votes
3 answers
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How many water molecules should I put together before I can tell If it's liquid, gas or Solid?

How many water molecules should I put together before I can tell If it's liquid, gas, or Solid? I know, there isn't any clear boundary that says that you have to put $50$ molecules or $100$ ...
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1 vote
2 answers
112 views

Flattening of large liquid drops

I have read that liquid drops are spherical in shape due to the surface tension of the liquid which tend to minimise the $\frac{surface}{volume}$ ratio of a given volume of a liquid. But in real life, ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can hot liquid metal be magnetically entrapped?

Is it physically possible that a magnetic field be produced or exist; to contain hot, possibly electrically charged, liquid metal, from one side of the liquid metal, into a shape, at zero gravity, ...
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2 votes
3 answers
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Had the centrifugal force of the rotation of Earth in the past forced liquid, hot Pangea to be positioned near the Equator?

Had the centrifugal force of the rotation of Earth in the past forced liquid, hot Pangea to be positioned near the Equator? Maybe also a question for 'GSE' but if we deal with centrifugal forces and ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Could liquid hydrogen tank be any shape we want? [closed]

I am doing the initial design of an aircraft for my Aerospace Engineering project. I want to use liquid hydrogen as the fuel of my aircraft. However, a cylindrical fuel tank or spherical fuel tank ...
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Liquid nitrous oxide released from gas cylinder

Say you have liquid nitrous oxide in a standard gas cylinder (about 55 bar) at room temperature. Normally the cylinder sits upright and gas is released via valve. Now let's assume you released liquid ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How to specify the dimension of the simulation box to run molecular dynamics simulation

I want to study the physical properties of binary liquids, molecular dynamics simulation using gromacs software is used to simulate the liquids. To set the initial coordinate configuration, how do we ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What pressure does liquid nitrous oxide need at -45°C?

What pressure does liquid nitrous oxide need at -45°C to remain liquid? How can I calculate it's pressure required for other temperatures?
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0 votes
1 answer
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Density measurement with two components (one solid and one liquid)

Not sure if this is the right place, but here it goes. I wonder if this formula works for a mixture between a solid and a liquid: $$P_t = \frac{1}{\frac{X_a}{P_a} + \frac{X_b}{P_b}}$$ This in the ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Can you compress helium into a liquid and if so at what pressure will it liquify [closed]

I want to know if helium will liquify under a certain pressure and exactly how much pressure would it take?
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2 votes
3 answers
147 views

Why is the slope of pressure and volume almost zero below critical point for liquefaction of gas?

Image shows the Andrews isotherms regarding liquefaction of gases. Why is the $PV$ curve almost horizontal from point $B$ to $C$? I want to understand why does a small increment in pressure result in ...
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28 votes
5 answers
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Why do wet plates stick together with a relatively high force?

When I wash up plates and don't dry them right away and place on top of each other, they seem to stick together with a relatively high "force": i.e. when I try to pick the top plate hours ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Raoult's Law and Boiling Point Elevation

Raoult's Law states that vapor pressure decreases when a non-volatile solute is present. Boiling point is when vapor pressure = ambient pressure. Since vapor pressure is less, shouldn't the energy ...
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-1 votes
4 answers
454 views

Can we say that iron on heating is a fluid?

When iron is being put on fire, its forces with other atoms starts to break. We know a solid has more atoms and less spaces between them while liquids have more space as compared to solids (Also means ...
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2 votes
1 answer
65 views

When did liquid first appear?

When and where did matter in liquid state first appear in our universe? Liquid has never been a global state of the universe, but it certainly appears nowadays locally in some places. As far as I know,...
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0 votes
2 answers
1k views

A simple way to make liquid oxygen at home

I have an idea to make liquid oxygen at home, but without any calculations, I am not sure whether it will work at all. The idea is based on the fact that gases tend to liquefy easily in higher ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why does blending hot food in the Nutribullet blender create a "pressure seal"?

I have noticed that when blending cold foods in the Nutribullet, it is easy to unscrew the blender once the blending process is finished. When I blend something hot (i.e, boiled tomatoes, to create a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
134 views

Can liquids exert/be affected by normal force?

I am doing a problem in which I am drawing free-body diagrams for different objects in a system, and two of the objects which are included in my scenario are Earth and a body of water which is resting ...
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Why liquids evaporate completely when heated at their boiling points?

I'm confused about why the boiling of liquids happen. The boiling point of a liquid is defined as the temperature in which it's vapor pressure is equal to the pressure of the gas above the liquid( for ...
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3 votes
1 answer
120 views

How can Water exist in two different liquid states at the atomic scale?

We know how unique water is and this question is based on a recent discovery that water can exist in two different liquid states. The density of the two states vary by almost 20 %. Can someone explain ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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What is intermolecular distance in water?

I am wondering what is an average intermolecular distance in liquid water (say under normal pressure and room temperature). I need just order of magnitude. A reference would be helpful.
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1 vote
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First-Order Phase Transition

When the density/volume abruptly changes (isobar/isothermal) while providing a sufficient latent heat to the system, is this variation related to a high compression/expansion as it is illustrated to ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
146 views

Air bubble's weight measurement

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubble_(physics) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap_bubble https://www.instagram.com/p/CE4FSctpCdu/?utm_source=ig_web_button_share_sheet Is it possible to create air ...
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0 votes
2 answers
196 views

Laplace pressure

I'm quite confused with Laplace pressure. I know the formula is (at least considering a spherical surface) $\Delta P = P_{in}-P_{out} = \frac{4\sigma}{d}$. What exactly is the surface you have to ...
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