Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [liquid-state]

The liquid state of matter is characterized by short-ranged correlations, as opposed to the long-ranged correlations of crystals and the absence of correlations in an ideal gas. Use this tag for questions specifically concerning the thermodynamics and statistical-mechanics of liquids. For the dynamical and mechanical properties of liquids, use the "fluid-dynamics" and "fluid-statics" tags.

-1
votes
0answers
53 views

Calculation of the work of liquid thermal expansion. Carnot or fluid dynamics? [closed]

In theory, we have non-flexible tank, and it is filled up with liquid. The tank is connected to the turbine. The turbine has a load: When the pressure rises above 101 bar(abs), it starts to rotate. ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Model or theory for liquids thermodynamics?

Is there any theory or model for the thermal expansion of liquids, different pressure and temperatures? I don't know if it is right to say "liquids thermodynamics" but i can only find Phonon theory ...
23
votes
4answers
2k views

Why do ice crystals form from the top to the bottom of a bottle filled with supercooled water?

If I bang a bottle filled with supercooled water against a hard surface, the ice crystals form from the top to the bottom:$\hspace{50px}$$\hspace{75px}$–source. YouTube has videos showing this ...
0
votes
3answers
28 views

A homogeneous isotropic liquid and a perfectly periodic crystal lattice

A homogeneous and isotropic liquid or a perfectly periodic crystal lattice which one has higher symmetry. I was thinking that both have same order of symmetry as if I am at a lattice point and ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Viscosity table or diagram for melts of oxides

Is there a table or diagram to relatively determine which oxides have low 'melt-viscosity' (i.e relatively flow readily when melted)? Is it possible to determine such property based on phase diagrams ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Molecular model of liquids

The macroscopic behavior of gasses and solids follow very intuitively from the description of matter as quasi-spherical molecules interacting with each other with attractive and repulsive forces. ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation

In the Mori-Zwanzig formalism, the following identification for the generalised shear viscosity $\eta(t)$ is given: $$ \eta(t) = \frac{V}{k_B T} \langle \sigma(t) \sigma(0) \rangle, $$ identified as ...
2
votes
0answers
55 views

What is the equation of state of foam, on a macroscopic scale?

Consider a large amount of soap foam (or any other substance producing foam), of mass density $\rho$ in a gravityless environment. What is the internal pressure $p$ of that foam, viewed as a fluid on ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Estimating the inter-molecular van der Waals' force from the boiling point of water

Background: I understand that inter-molecular van der Waals' forces are responsible for maintaining water in the liquid phase. Now, if we suppose that the net van der Waals' force on a given H2O ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

If a salt solution heated under a pressure slightly lower than critical pressure will it boil?

8.8% NaCl solution for example have a critical point of 450°C under 423 bar pressure. If we heat such solution to same temperature under slightly lower pressure i.e. 420 bar should it will boil or it ...
2
votes
2answers
54 views

More efficient way to heat liquids

If we consider two processes to heat up a bucket of water as follows:- Taking one bucket and heating it to our desired temperature for V volume. Taking two buckets of half the volume and heating one ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

Movement of fluid in a container filled with that same fluid

If a cylinder with the bottom end closed and the top end open was filled with water and then dropped in a pool of water. Would the water inside the cylinder stay in the cylinder?
0
votes
1answer
37 views

What would happen to a liquid's pressure if interaction between molecules ceased to exist?

If a gas is composed of molecules who attract eachother, then its pressure would increase were the interactions to suddenly disappear. This can be quantitatively and qualitatively discussed using Van ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Growth of bubbles in supersaturated liquid

I have read the following section which I don't fully understand (I have no technical background). It's from this article which is about the formation of bubbles of CO2 in soda drinks. When a ...
0
votes
2answers
136 views

Why does a liquid exert pressure in all directions? More specifically why does a liquid exerts an upward force? [duplicate]

In a liquid, the pressure is exerted by the weight of the liquid. As the force due to it's weight acts downwards, why is there an upward force at any point in a liquid?
2
votes
0answers
51 views

What does it mean for a potential not to have a Fourier transform?

Consider an isotropic potential $\phi(r)$ corresponding to the classical force of interaction between two point-particles. The Fourier transform of this potential $$ \Phi(k) = \int \exp(-i\vec k\cdot\...
3
votes
2answers
68 views

Vapour pressure and boiling

I understand that the only reason liquids exist as liquids is because of the earth's atmospheric pressure and in vacuum they would all boil. But what is it that having an equal vapour pressure ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Best way to pour a too-carbonated beer?

I hope people have fun with this. But, for those who aren't interested in fun, here's a Tl/Dr: What is the fastest way to disperse foam from an overcabonated drink being poured. For example, is it ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Simple question about molecules leaving a liquid at a temperature below the boiling point

My textbook asks the question why a liquid cools down when partial evaporation occurs just below the surface at a temperature below the boiling point. The answer is of course that only those ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

How to analytically estimate the pressure loss through an liquid injector?

A simple orifice and a pipe have well-documented pressure loss calculation. But when an injector has complicated flow patterns, is it possible to break it down into simpler sections by which the ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Which is preferred for liquid atomization - gas & liquid shear or liquid & liquid shear?

For generating a spray of droplets, liquid need to be disintegrated/atomized through shear forces. Typical injectors in IC engines and aircraft use shear between gas & liquid at the phase ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Where does energy in osmosis come from?

So I get that work is done when a net force converts potential to heat or kinetic. But I also understand that osmosis is driven purely by entropic processes. There is no net force, only a statistical ...
3
votes
1answer
99 views

What is water pressure, really? [duplicate]

It's easy for me to imagine gas pressure on a molecular level. More pressure means that more molecule bounce against the thing you are measuring, or the molecules hit it with more speed or the ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Mechanically compressing a biological cell using solid weight vs water weight

Hope to get some fruitful information from people with physics background. I am doing some lab experiments in which i grow cancer cells on a circular surface, before placing solid weight on top of the ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Calculate pressure drop in nozzle with liquid plastic

In 3D printer liquid plastic flows with pressure through nozzle. P1 is initial pressure, maked by motors, P0 is atmospheric ...
-1
votes
1answer
139 views

Radius of water droplets

What is the radius of water droplets which are forming slowly then falling from ceiling, under the effect of gravitational force only, the other conditions are standard (293K temperature, 1 atm air ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

How does a blender manage to mill kiwi seeds in a smoothie?

I'd think, in a blend of kiwi, apple and banana and little bit orange juice kiwi seeds would rotate with the blender's knife, but they get milled. Why is that?
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Is there an inverse for surface tension?

While I was trying to understand surface tension, I read in Wikipedia that, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the ...
0
votes
2answers
279 views

Rate of evaporation/mass loss of liquid in a bowl

Say a hemispherical bowl filled with a liquid was left in a room. I was wondering how we could model the rate of mass loss of liquid as it evaporates. Will it be a quadratic relationship with time? ...
0
votes
2answers
52 views

Are their such substances (other than water) which decrease in volume when heated?

I understand why most substances expand when heated (the particles get more kinetic or vibrational energy and tend to occupy more space). The volume of water decreases between 0 degree to 4 degree ...
0
votes
0answers
121 views

Surface Tension in a liquid placed in a container

Recently I was analysing a Question given by my teacher. Q. Let a Cylindrical container of radius R be filled with water filled up to height $h_0$. Hypothetically consider the water alone ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Thermodynamics and gaseous state combination question

A water vapour filling the space under the piston of a cylinder is compressed (or expanded) so that it remain saturated all the time,being just on the verge of condensation. Find the molar heat ...
3
votes
2answers
662 views

Liquid density as a function of pressure and temperature, how to model experimental data of $\rho(p,T)$?

I’m going to ask my question, explain the problem, show what I have done, and then re-state my question. (Note, perhaps this is a question better suited for https://stats.stackexchange.com/ or https:...
1
vote
1answer
541 views

Ice floating on water [duplicate]

Why is the hydrogen bond different from other bonds that allows ice to float in water rather tan sink. I don't want the math. I want the reason that bond is different than the rest. Why, not how.
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Can material of a channel influence the hydrodynamic resistance?

I checked in two books about microfluidics, and both of them mention that the only parameters that influence $R_{hyd}$ are related to geometry (width of channel, length, depth...) but it is ...
0
votes
2answers
123 views

Why do fluids have pressure?

I am not able to understand that why fluids have pressure, in terms of newton's laws, and why do fluids have equal pressure in all directions at a point? However I know the story of weight of layer of ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Can we have an inverted liquid and gas phases?

Imagine a simple experiment - we have a high-pressure container partially filled with water, and then pump the air pressure inside to a high level, about 1000+ bar. At room temperature, air density ...
0
votes
1answer
226 views

Plasma directly to Solid or Liquid and vise versa

Let's forget how and go straight to the beef and potatoes. What do you scientifically call it when a plasma turns to liquid and skips recombination, and/or condensation? What about when a liquid turns ...
0
votes
2answers
413 views

Do molecules of liquid repel or attract each other?

Consider a liquid under the atmospheric pressure. Nonzero pressure inside the liquid means repulsion between molecules. On the other hand to explain the surface tension it is usually said that ...
-1
votes
2answers
50 views

If I add a second teabag to a cup, how much the concentration of tea increases?

If I add a second teabag to a cup, how much the concentration of tea in the cup increases?
0
votes
1answer
16 views

How to Level Measure a fluid from under/inside/below the liquid? | Level Measurement Instruments

Level Measurement in liquids. I'm aware of all direct & indirect methods of measurement in Level Measurement. However, what are some methods that enable us to measure fluids from inside, or below ...
7
votes
2answers
1k views

Can a Faraday Cage be formed by liquid or gaseous metals?

Suppose we had a metallic element that was capable of blocking a particular part of the electromagnetic spectrum in its solid state. If the metal was fully melted to its liquid state and remained ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

Fractal structure in colloidal systems

In describing the configuration of a colloidal system, one often deals with either, disordered fluid states, disordered jammed states or crystalline states (so an underlying lattice structure), but in ...
0
votes
3answers
108 views

Chilling 750 ml liquid (wine, water, etc) in 30 seconds by 20 °F?

There's a crowdfunding campaign which advertises a container like device that you can put in the freezer and after you take it you can pour in 750 ml of liquid and it decreases the temperature of it ...
-1
votes
2answers
164 views

Is the freezing of water on atomic level a gradual process or is there also a big change?

When you look at water that is going to freeze at $0$ °C once it looks totally different and it gets hard. So from our point of view it became suddenly another substance. But is this also on atomic ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Why pressure in all direction is equal in a hydrostatic? [duplicate]

In the derivation for ρgh we consider the weight above a given area to give pressure but because of it pressure should only be in vertical direction why is it found in every direction possible and in ...
1
vote
1answer
3k views

What is critical temperature exactly?

Critical temperature is the highest temperature at which a gas can be turned into liquid using pressure. Again critical temperature is the temperature at which the surface tension of a liquid reaches ...
16
votes
1answer
3k views

Why can our bodies bleed? [duplicate]

Human systolic pressure is 16 kPa and diastolic 11 kPa but Earth atmosphere pressure is 101.325 kPa. I don't understand why when we are hurt we bleed instead of air enter into our body. How can blood ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

If surface tension was reversed, what shape would a drop have?

Let's say surface tension was repulsive instead of attractive. In such a case, a drop (would it be called a drop?) would try to expose as much surface as possible. What shape would it take? What ...
5
votes
1answer
429 views

Literature recommendation for classical density functional theory (DFT) and fundamental measure theory (FMT)

I'm very much interested in properly learning about density functional theory calculations (DFT) in classical settings, for example as used in the theory of liquids. Apart from the success of DFT ...