Questions tagged [liquid-state]

The liquid state of matter is characterized by short-ranged correlations, as opposed to the long-ranged correlations of crystals and the absence of correlations in an ideal gas. Use this tag for questions specifically concerning the thermodynamics and statistical-mechanics of liquids. For the dynamical and mechanical properties of liquids, use the "fluid-dynamics" and "fluid-statics" tags.

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Air bubble's weight measurement

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubble_(physics) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap_bubble https://www.instagram.com/p/CE4FSctpCdu/?utm_source=ig_web_button_share_sheet Is it possible to create air ...
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Laplace pressure

I'm quite confused with Laplace pressure. I know the formula is (at least considering a spherical surface) $\Delta P = P_{in}-P_{out} = \frac{4\sigma}{d}$. What exactly is the surface you have to ...
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Does the Mpemba Effect affect none-water substances?

Does the Mpemba Effect work on liquids other than water? If so, what are the similarities/differences, and what contributes to it(mainly the differences)?
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Why does liquid oxygen gets suspended between magnet?

I watched a video in which liquid oxygen when passed through the poles of the magnet gets suspended or rather sticks to it. It says it is due to diamagnetic nature of oxygen but in this way I think ...
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What is the difference in heat transfer between liquid-solid and gas-solid?

As far as I know solids exchange heat energy on contact the best of the three states, due to density and etc. while gasses are worst at that. Recently I found out that, when boiling eggs, it is not ...
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Distance between molecules in liquid

How can I calculate the distance between molecules in a liquid based on the concentration?
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Intuitive description of liquids in terms of molecular interactions

Can someone recommend a good write-up, as elementary as possible, (a college-level textbook account would be ideal) of how the basic properties of liquids --- liquid flow, pressure is isotropic and ...
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2answers
60 views

Excess pressure inside a drop

During the derivation of excess pressure inside the liquid drop, if the setup is in equilibrium, we say that the force due to surface tension +force due to pressure outside =force due to pressure ...
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1answer
34 views

Coalescence of soap bubbles and its impact on the resulting volume

Suppose I have two spherical soap bubbles of volumes $V_1$ and $V_2$. Suppose, they are found to coalesce under isothermal conditions to form another bubble. Is the volume of this resulting bubble the ...
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Surface Tension - Peculiar behavior of Water Drop and Mercury Drop inside a Conical Tube

When a water drop and a mercury drop are taken into two different but same kind of conical tubes, the water drop on its own tends to move towards the narrower end and the mercury drop tends to move ...
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1answer
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Why does surface tension act towards the centre of an air bubble in water?

Surface tension acts towards the centre of an air bubble. However, since surface tension is the result of the cohesive forces between the water molecules, should not the water molecules at the ...
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Does presence of a solid affect the surface tension of a given liquid?

Consider a liquid wetting a solid surface.At liquid vapour interface we have liquid vapor surface tension.At solid liquid interface we have solid liquid surface tension.But why do we have such ...
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Is wetting or non-wetting property of a liquid due to surface tension or imbalance of cohesive and adhesive forces?

I know that surface tension in a liquid is caused due to the unbalance of cohesive forces applied by neighbouring molecules on similar molecules on free surface of that liquid. When a liquid comes in ...
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Understanding surface tension mathematically

According to my textbook surface tension is the force which acts perpendicular to a surface and is given by, $$F=\int \vec{S}\cdot \vec{dl}$$ As in the surface tension per length * perimeter of ...
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3answers
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Measurement of Surface Tension of a Liquid by Capillary Rise Method [closed]

The surface tension at the point of contact for water is inwards (as written in my book) so that would mean it vertical component is downwards but why is that vertical component considered upwards? I ...
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About liquid-liquid phase transitions in binary mixtures

Suppose we have a binary mixture, this is, two substances that are miscible. When you only have one substance, you can draw a phase diagram like this one drawn by Lawrie.skinner - Own work, Public ...
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If liquid and gas are both chaotic states of matter, what's the difference between them on the molecular level?

I'm a laywoman in physics and recently found myself pondering about the matter reflected in the title of this post. To make my question more precise from the mathematical standpoint, let's suppose ...
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Identifying saturated liquid and using property table

I just know how to use thermodynamics property table in some textbooks. However, in practice, for example in industries, how can people usually use the property table? Moreover, how can we identify ...
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Why does molten wax stick to surfaces when it soldifies?

In a candle, when wax is molten and cools after. It sticks to the glass surrounding it, why does this happen?
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In the evaporation process, will the temperature of both liquid and vapor molecules decrease?

The theory says that the molecules that become vapor "take" some energy from the surrounding molecules (the latent heat of evaporation). As a consequence, the temperature of the liquid falls a bit. I'...
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2answers
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What kind of propulsion would a Scrubbing Bubble use [closed]

The brand name bathroom cleaner Scrubbing Bubbles has a mascot, that is a bubble with a rotating bush on the bottom. Please view this video to see an example of the motion. I would like to know what ...
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1answer
27 views

Ice lined refrigerator(ILR)

Disclaimer: An ILR has cabinet temperature of +2 to +8 °C and at the same time they do have lining of water containers(ice tubes), fitted all around the walls and held in place by a frame. When it is ...
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Why do we take two sides of a wire in case of calculating surface force of water? [duplicate]

When we have a wire on the surface of water, why do we take two sides of the surface of wire in case of calculating the surface force of water?
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Help with obtaining the derivation of the resonance frequency of a bubble [closed]

I have a question with regards to the derivation of the resonance frequency of a bubble described using the bubble dynamics equation in the paper I'm currently reading (Eqn 1): $$\frac{3}{2}R_t^2+RR_{...
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Why does pressure remain constant in the liquid vapour equilibrium region? [duplicate]

While studying about liquefaction of gases, I found out about the isotherms of carbon dioxide at various temperatures. The one thing that I found very interesting and unintuitive was the region of ...
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1answer
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What is pressure at microscopic level in a liquid? how can I imagine it? [duplicate]

what i mean to say is that, in a liquid (ideal) pressure gets transmitted undiminished, what it means is that a molecule applies equal amount of force to all the molecules in its vicinity how? how do ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to liquidify plasma?

Plasma, of course, is quite energetic, but would it be possible to liquidify it (or maybe even solidify?) at sufficiently high pressures or by some other method, yet still retaining its charge. If yes,...
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2answers
378 views

Why does water flow downhill?

Researching this topic, I found everyone just saying because of gravity. But that makes no sense to me. Gravity exerts a downward force: But water flowing downhill goes sideways. There must be a ...
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1answer
32 views

Fluids mixture density prediction

As you know 100 ml of H2O mixed with 100 ml ethanol is not 200 ml What is the official name of this 'volume loss'? Is it possible, and if so, how, to calculate, before mixing, what the density of a ...
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2answers
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Strength of Inter-molecular force: Biscuit Vs Water

I take two plates and put a few biscuits in one plate and water in another. I drop a heavy pen from a certain height on each plate. I find that biscuit is smashed into several pieces and water ...
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1answer
38 views

Can liquid hydrogen be ionized?

Does stripping the electrons off of hydrogen atoms affect it's boiling point in any way?
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1answer
59 views

Why is it possible to raise the temperature of water over the boiling point?

For example, if we take water at a constant pressure and increase the temperature fast enough over the boiling point, the water will not boil. Why does it happens?
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1answer
100 views

How to measure the microscopic surface area of a textile?

How to measure the microscopic surface area of something like a piece of cloth? By microscopic, I mean on the level of fiber surface, not the area that would be measured by using a ruler on the piece....
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1answer
102 views

Why doesn't mercury flow in the thermometer?

Nowadays digital thermometers are used, but in the past mercury based thermometers were used. From my experience the mercury does not flow in the thermometer tube. Mercury is a liquid, so it must have ...
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1answer
55 views

Using heat to lift a liquid – What's a good way of turning heat energy to gravitational potential energy?

Edit: A bit of context... Living in a country with extreme heat and a lot of hills, many farmers need irrigation pump systems (pump up water from a pond up to a reservoir). I have for example seen ...
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1answer
44 views

Can a thermometer be used over the max indicated temperature? [closed]

So I have a thermometer in my film developing tank that is bonded to the inside of the tank and the max temperature is 25degree Celsius. Modern development chemicals must be heated to 38 degrees ...
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2answers
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Atoms and molecules

Recently I have been reading Feynman lectures on physics. In the first chapter ,atoms in motion,Feynman talks about decreasing the temperature of water ,forming ice, and writes the following paragraph:...
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1answer
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How can I calculate the pressure needed to compress a piece of tubing with a liquid inside?

I want to study the optical properties of a molecule under pressure. The method that I am planning to use to apply the pressure on my sample is the following: A silicone rubber tube is connected to ...
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How do gaseous molecules arrange themselves in liquids when they are “dissolved”?

To provide some context, I am trying to understand in better detail how oxygen from the lungs passes through a membrane and enters the vasculature in order to be transported via blood. I have ...
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1answer
139 views

Equation of state of Lennard-Jones spheres

One way of accounting for van der Waals interactions in fluids is to use the Lennard-Jones potential [*], which has a repulsive term that dominates at short distances which mimics the hard-core ...
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2answers
326 views

How to know if a liquid is boiling?

Unless we know the boiling temperature of a liquid, how can we know when a liquid is boiling ( I have this doubt because at temperatures nearing boiling point evaporation and boiling cannot be ...
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Model or theory for liquids thermodynamics?

Is there any theory or model for the thermal expansion of liquids, different pressure and temperatures? I don't know if it is right to say "liquids thermodynamics" but i can only find Phonon theory ...
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4answers
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Why do ice crystals form from the top to the bottom of a bottle filled with supercooled water?

If I bang a bottle filled with supercooled water against a hard surface, the ice crystals form from the top to the bottom:$\hspace{50px}$$\hspace{75px}$–source. YouTube has videos showing this ...
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3answers
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A homogeneous isotropic liquid and a perfectly periodic crystal lattice

A homogeneous and isotropic liquid or a perfectly periodic crystal lattice which one has higher symmetry. I was thinking that both have same order of symmetry as if I am at a lattice point and ...
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1answer
107 views

Molecular model of liquids

The macroscopic behavior of gasses and solids follow very intuitively from the description of matter as quasi-spherical molecules interacting with each other with attractive and repulsive forces. ...
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1answer
51 views

Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation

In the Mori-Zwanzig formalism, the following identification for the generalised shear viscosity $\eta(t)$ is given: $$ \eta(t) = \frac{V}{k_B T} \langle \sigma(t) \sigma(0) \rangle, $$ identified as ...
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What is the equation of state of foam, on a macroscopic scale?

Consider a large amount of soap foam (or any other substance producing foam), of mass density $\rho$ in a gravityless environment. What is the internal pressure $p$ of that foam, viewed as a fluid on ...
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1answer
101 views

Estimating the inter-molecular van der Waals' force from the boiling point of water

Background: I understand that inter-molecular van der Waals' forces are responsible for maintaining water in the liquid phase. Now, if we suppose that the net van der Waals' force on a given H2O ...
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2answers
184 views

More efficient way to heat liquids

If we consider two processes to heat up a bucket of water as follows:- Taking one bucket and heating it to our desired temperature for V volume. Taking two buckets of half the volume and heating one ...