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Questions tagged [liquid-state]

The liquid state of matter is characterized by short-ranged correlations, as opposed to the long-ranged correlations of crystals and the absence of correlations in an ideal gas. Use this tag for questions specifically concerning the thermodynamics and statistical-mechanics of liquids. For the dynamical and mechanical properties of liquids, use the "fluid-dynamics" and "fluid-statics" tags.

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Viscoelastic Constitutive Relation

In the Mori-Zwanzig formalism, the following identification for the generalised shear viscosity $\eta(t)$ is given: $$ \eta(t) = \frac{V}{k_B T} \langle \sigma(t) \sigma(0) \rangle, $$ identified as ...
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What is the equation of state of foam, on a macroscopic scale?

Consider a large amount of soap foam (or any other substance producing foam), of mass density $\rho$ in a gravityless environment. What is the internal pressure $p$ of that foam, viewed as a fluid on ...
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61 views

Estimating the inter-molecular van der Waals' force from the boiling point of water

Background: I understand that inter-molecular van der Waals' forces are responsible for maintaining water in the liquid phase. Now, if we suppose that the net van der Waals' force on a given H2O ...
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If a salt solution heated under a pressure slightly lower than critical pressure will it boil?

8.8% NaCl solution for example have a critical point of 450°C under 423 bar pressure. If we heat such solution to same temperature under slightly lower pressure i.e. 420 bar should it will boil or it ...
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2answers
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More efficient way to heat liquids

If we consider two processes to heat up a bucket of water as follows:- Taking one bucket and heating it to our desired temperature for V volume. Taking two buckets of half the volume and heating one ...
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2answers
32 views

Movement of fluid in a container filled with that same fluid

If a cylinder with the bottom end closed and the top end open was filled with water and then dropped in a pool of water. Would the water inside the cylinder stay in the cylinder?
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33 views

What would happen to a liquid's pressure if interaction between molecules ceased to exist?

If a gas is composed of molecules who attract eachother, then its pressure would increase were the interactions to suddenly disappear. This can be quantitatively and qualitatively discussed using Van ...
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26 views

Growth of bubbles in supersaturated liquid

I have read the following section which I don't fully understand (I have no technical background). It's from this article which is about the formation of bubbles of CO2 in soda drinks. When a ...
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2answers
63 views

Why does a liquid exert pressure in all directions? More specifically why does a liquid exerts an upward force? [duplicate]

In a liquid, the pressure is exerted by the weight of the liquid. As the force due to it's weight acts downwards, why is there an upward force at any point in a liquid?
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What does it mean for a potential not to have a Fourier transform?

Consider an isotropic potential $\phi(r)$ corresponding to the classical force of interaction between two point-particles. The Fourier transform of this potential $$ \Phi(k) = \int \exp(-i\vec k\cdot\...
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65 views

Vapour pressure and boiling

I understand that the only reason liquids exist as liquids is because of the earth's atmospheric pressure and in vacuum they would all boil. But what is it that having an equal vapour pressure ...
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48 views

Best way to pour a too-carbonated beer?

I hope people have fun with this. But, for those who aren't interested in fun, here's a Tl/Dr: What is the fastest way to disperse foam from an overcabonated drink being poured. For example, is it ...
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Simple question about molecules leaving a liquid at a temperature below the boiling point

My textbook asks the question why a liquid cools down when partial evaporation occurs just below the surface at a temperature below the boiling point. The answer is of course that only those ...
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How to analytically estimate the pressure loss through an liquid injector?

A simple orifice and a pipe have well-documented pressure loss calculation. But when an injector has complicated flow patterns, is it possible to break it down into simpler sections by which the ...
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Which is preferred for liquid atomization - gas & liquid shear or liquid & liquid shear?

For generating a spray of droplets, liquid need to be disintegrated/atomized through shear forces. Typical injectors in IC engines and aircraft use shear between gas & liquid at the phase ...
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47 views

Where does energy in osmosis come from?

So I get that work is done when a net force converts potential to heat or kinetic. But I also understand that osmosis is driven purely by entropic processes. There is no net force, only a statistical ...
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1answer
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What is water pressure, really? [duplicate]

It's easy for me to imagine gas pressure on a molecular level. More pressure means that more molecule bounce against the thing you are measuring, or the molecules hit it with more speed or the ...
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1answer
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Mechanically compressing a biological cell using solid weight vs water weight

Hope to get some fruitful information from people with physics background. I am doing some lab experiments in which i grow cancer cells on a circular surface, before placing solid weight on top of the ...
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Calculate pressure drop in nozzle with liquid plastic

In 3D printer liquid plastic flows with pressure through nozzle. P1 is initial pressure, maked by motors, P0 is atmospheric ...
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1answer
81 views

Radius of water droplets

What is the radius of water droplets which are forming slowly then falling from ceiling, under the effect of gravitational force only, the other conditions are standard (293K temperature, 1 atm air ...
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22 views

How does a blender manage to mill kiwi seeds in a smoothie?

I'd think, in a blend of kiwi, apple and banana and little bit orange juice kiwi seeds would rotate with the blender's knife, but they get milled. Why is that?
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Is there an inverse for surface tension?

While I was trying to understand surface tension, I read in Wikipedia that, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to the ...
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2answers
220 views

Rate of evaporation/mass loss of liquid in a bowl

Say a hemispherical bowl filled with a liquid was left in a room. I was wondering how we could model the rate of mass loss of liquid as it evaporates. Will it be a quadratic relationship with time? ...
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2answers
51 views

Are their such substances (other than water) which decrease in volume when heated?

I understand why most substances expand when heated (the particles get more kinetic or vibrational energy and tend to occupy more space). The volume of water decreases between 0 degree to 4 degree ...
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103 views

Surface Tension in a liquid placed in a container

Recently I was analysing a Question given by my teacher. Q. Let a Cylindrical container of radius R be filled with water filled up to height $h_0$. Hypothetically consider the water alone ...
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1answer
35 views

Thermodynamics and gaseous state combination question

A water vapour filling the space under the piston of a cylinder is compressed (or expanded) so that it remain saturated all the time,being just on the verge of condensation. Find the molar heat ...
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2answers
480 views

Liquid density as a function of pressure and temperature, how to model experimental data of $\rho(p,T)$?

I’m going to ask my question, explain the problem, show what I have done, and then re-state my question. (Note, perhaps this is a question better suited for https://stats.stackexchange.com/ or https:...
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1answer
457 views

Ice floating on water [duplicate]

Why is the hydrogen bond different from other bonds that allows ice to float in water rather tan sink. I don't want the math. I want the reason that bond is different than the rest. Why, not how.
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Can material of a channel influence the hydrodynamic resistance?

I checked in two books about microfluidics, and both of them mention that the only parameters that influence $R_{hyd}$ are related to geometry (width of channel, length, depth...) but it is ...
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2answers
120 views

Why do fluids have pressure?

I am not able to understand that why fluids have pressure, in terms of newton's laws, and why do fluids have equal pressure in all directions at a point? However I know the story of weight of layer of ...
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1answer
33 views

Can we have an inverted liquid and gas phases?

Imagine a simple experiment - we have a high-pressure container partially filled with water, and then pump the air pressure inside to a high level, about 1000+ bar. At room temperature, air density ...
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1answer
198 views

Plasma directly to Solid or Liquid and vise versa

Let's forget how and go straight to the beef and potatoes. What do you scientifically call it when a plasma turns to liquid and skips recombination, and/or condensation? What about when a liquid turns ...
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2answers
351 views

Do molecules of liquid repel or attract each other?

Consider a liquid under the atmospheric pressure. Nonzero pressure inside the liquid means repulsion between molecules. On the other hand to explain the surface tension it is usually said that ...
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2answers
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If I add a second teabag to a cup, how much the concentration of tea increases?

If I add a second teabag to a cup, how much the concentration of tea in the cup increases?
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1answer
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How to Level Measure a fluid from under/inside/below the liquid? | Level Measurement Instruments

Level Measurement in liquids. I'm aware of all direct & indirect methods of measurement in Level Measurement. However, what are some methods that enable us to measure fluids from inside, or below ...
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Can a Faraday Cage be formed by liquid or gaseous metals?

Suppose we had a metallic element that was capable of blocking a particular part of the electromagnetic spectrum in its solid state. If the metal was fully melted to its liquid state and remained ...
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1answer
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Fractal structure in colloidal systems

In describing the configuration of a colloidal system, one often deals with either, disordered fluid states, disordered jammed states or crystalline states (so an underlying lattice structure), but in ...
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3answers
107 views

Chilling 750 ml liquid (wine, water, etc) in 30 seconds by 20 °F?

There's a crowdfunding campaign which advertises a container like device that you can put in the freezer and after you take it you can pour in 750 ml of liquid and it decreases the temperature of it ...
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150 views

Is the freezing of water on atomic level a gradual process or is there also a big change?

When you look at water that is going to freeze at $0$ °C once it looks totally different and it gets hard. So from our point of view it became suddenly another substance. But is this also on atomic ...
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1answer
895 views

Why pressure in all direction is equal in a hydrostatic? [duplicate]

In the derivation for ρgh we consider the weight above a given area to give pressure but because of it pressure should only be in vertical direction why is it found in every direction possible and in ...
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1answer
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What is critical temperature exactly?

Critical temperature is the highest temperature at which a gas can be turned into liquid using pressure. Again critical temperature is the temperature at which the surface tension of a liquid reaches ...
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1answer
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Why can our bodies bleed? [duplicate]

Human systolic pressure is 16 kPa and diastolic 11 kPa but Earth atmosphere pressure is 101.325 kPa. I don't understand why when we are hurt we bleed instead of air enter into our body. How can blood ...
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1answer
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If surface tension was reversed, what shape would a drop have?

Let's say surface tension was repulsive instead of attractive. In such a case, a drop (would it be called a drop?) would try to expose as much surface as possible. What shape would it take? What ...
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1answer
395 views

Literature recommendation for classical density functional theory (DFT) and fundamental measure theory (FMT)

I'm very much interested in properly learning about density functional theory calculations (DFT) in classical settings, for example as used in the theory of liquids. Apart from the success of DFT ...
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1answer
179 views

Can it rain upsidedown?

Is it possible for it to rain upside down? I am guessing this would happen if the reason rain lighter than the atmosphere. Is there any combination of liquid and atmosphere which could cause it to ...
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1answer
106 views

Centre of buoyancy [duplicate]

Why does the centre of buoyancy act on the centre of the submerged part of a solid floating in a fluid. 1.One explanation that I came across previously was based on the fact that the fluid displaced ...
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2answers
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Liquid vs. gas cooling

I have an aluminum can that needs cooled. I put it in the refrigerator, where it is cooled by the cold air surrounding the can. If I were to place the same can in water that had been cooled to the ...
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3answers
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How can electrical energy be stored in liquids?

Is it possible? If so, can energy also easily be captured using any type or particular types of liquid? For example, NaCl in liquefied form has sodium positive and chloride negative charged free ...
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1answer
105 views

Flow of water in a container

We all know, liquids flow from high pressure to low pressure.(which is a fallacy) And now assume a glass of water. The pressure at the bottom will be surely greater than that at the top. Then why ...
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212 views

Can degenerate matter be in the form of a liquid?

This title probably makes no sense, and that's the problem I'm having. As far as I know, degenerate matter is an entirely different phase of matter altogether — it may have fluidic properties, but it'...