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Questions tagged [liquid-state]

The liquid state of matter is characterized by short-ranged correlations, as opposed to the long-ranged correlations of crystals and the absence of correlations in an ideal gas. Use this tag for questions specifically concerning the thermodynamics and statistical-mechanics of liquids. For the dynamical and mechanical properties of liquids, use the "fluid-dynamics" and "fluid-statics" tags.

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If air was the same density as water, but still a gas, could you swim in it?

I'm not talking about normal physics here, as it would be extremely hard to get such a situation to arise, this is more a hypothetical question. If air was the same density as water, while still ...
Lux's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How Does Hydrostatic Pressure Account for Liquid Layers That Can Mix?

I'm trying to understand how pressure in a homogeneous fluid at a given depth is determined by the weight of the fluid above that point. Specifically, I am confused about how the weight of the liquid ...
Rohan Singh's user avatar
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1 answer
44 views

What is the distribution of speeds in an ideal liquid?

By ideal, I mean similar conditions to the ideal gas-in-a-box with perfect spherical perfectly elastic homogenous atoms, so no inter-atomic forces, evaporation, gravity, rotations or phase changes. ...
monosodiumg's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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During evaporation, why would we expect temperature of the gas at the interface to be lower than the temperature of the liquid?

This paper says that, from the kinetic theory of gases, we expect temperature of the gas at the interface to be lower than the temperature of the liquid. Could the experts here please explain it? ...
Ritesh Singh's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is there any study of the temperature gradient at the surface of a liquid?

My tiny brain expects liquids to be cooler at the surface due to evaporation. However, I couldn't find any experimental evidence for it. Is there any study of the temperature gradient at the surface ...
Ritesh Singh's user avatar
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-1 votes
1 answer
47 views

How do I create a highly conductive vapor cloud? [closed]

I'm working on a project that requires that I create an electrically conductive gas cloud that can conduct voltages as low as 1.5v from a regular double A battery. I've been looking into using mecury ...
TechDroid's user avatar
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6 votes
4 answers
1k views

Gas or liquid? a Bose-Einstein condensate

It is often said that a Bose-Einstein condensate of cold atoms is a gas. But because of Andrews' discovery of the critical temperature, we know that a gas and a liquid is not fundamentally different. ...
poisson's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
81 views

Pressure at a depth in Huge water mass

I am trying to ask my doubt by converting it into a example problem but i am really not able to do so properly- heres my best attempt at it:- The pressure at a certain depth(~ 1km) in a ocean ,a ...
SHINU_MADE's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
38 views

Hysteresis in volume of liquids and solids vs temperature

We were asked as a lab experiment to measure the volume occupied by water and ethyleneglicol as a function of its temperature by having a flask inside a body of water at the desired temperature. Then, ...
Jaime Yepes de Paz's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
112 views

Why are the surface of most liquid so reflective?

I saw a puddle of water on the road and I noticed that I can very clearly see the reflection on its surface in almost 8k high definition of each cars and buses that drove by. I went to the canteen and ...
user6760's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
399 views

How to obtain coordination number correctly from RDF curve?

I run an MD simulation of ionic liquid with CO2 using Gromacs. I want to determine the amount of CO2 absorbed by the liquid. It was reported that integrating the first peak of the Radial Distribution ...
Umar Yahaya's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
2k views

Do liquids typically solidify under enough pressure?

Looking at the phase diagram of water, it looks like increasing pressure of a liquid at any temperature eventually produces a solid. Liquid water becomes Ice VII at some pressure over 1 GPa and 350-...
Alex I's user avatar
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0 answers
28 views

Paramagnetic/diamagnetic fluid separation

Is it possible to separate fluids or at least alter their relative concentrations in the presence of a magnetic field if one fluid is diamagnetic and the other paramagnetic? If so by how much? Are ...
Antonis Teggeris's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
113 views

Why does the $\delta$ term exist in the density-density correlation for simple liquids?

I am reading Theory of Simple Liquids by Hansen and McDonald, and they in chapter 3, they describe the density-density correlation for a simple liquid in the grand canonical ensemble. This is how they ...
megamence's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
829 views

Understanding the Static Structure Factor of a Liquid

I am trying to understand static structure factors, $S(Q)$, for liquids. This function represents pairwise correlations in reciprocal space and can be measured experimentally using X-ray or neutron ...
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4 votes
0 answers
30 views

Why pouring water onto something makes it darker? [duplicate]

Imagine pouring water on a shirt: when the water is absorbed by the tissue you notice the stain because has a darker colour than the dry tissue. This also works on the asphalt, on the loam, on the ...
SamSepiol's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
936 views

Can ice ever sink in the water? [closed]

It is generally taught in schools that ice is less dense than water, which is why ice is seen to float on the water. But isn't ice heavier compared to water at a temperature quite above 4 degrees ...
hbaromega's user avatar
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1 answer
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Newton's law of cooling without data?

I am wondering if it is possible to find the time it takes for a cup of tea to cool down if you know only the initial temperature of the tea and the point where you decide that the cup has cooled down?...
fdsaa's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
89 views

Slip or no slip at liquid-liquid interfaces

Suppose I have two liquids (oil and water). Which condition is more realistic at the interface of the two liquids: Slip or no slip and why?
Wiz123's user avatar
  • 225
2 votes
1 answer
200 views

In an open quantum system, what is the justification for using a harmonic oscillator bath to represent the molecular environment in a solvent?

The Caldeira-leggett (CL) model is sometimes used to describe quantum mechanical effects in a system (like a biomolecule) immersed in a solvent. The Hamiltonian of the CL model consists of an ...
Prem's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
1k views

How can gas be cooled to liquid by expansion?

My friend works at a gas company and told me that in order to cool gas to low temperatures to form a liquid, they compress the gas and then cool it to say -10 degrees C, then let it expand and it gets ...
Name's user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
1 answer
77 views

What will happen with the liquid inside a falling bottle when the bottle is suddenly stopped?

When I dropped a bottle with a small amount of olive oil left in it, the oil got launched out of it when it hit the floor. Now imagine we perform an experiment. We fill a bottle with a liquid. We let ...
Gerald's user avatar
  • 500
1 vote
2 answers
157 views

Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle

My question here is, why do we need point 2 to be on the saturated liquid line, i.e. why do we need a saturated liquid for the throttling process? Why can we not use it in the liquid region or ...
nishesh singh's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
37 views

Would isotopes of hydrogen separate in liquid phase?

According to https://www.aqua-calc.com/calculate/volume-to-weight the difference in density of deuterium/hydrogen in liquid state is 70miligrams/cm^3 vs 169miligrams/cm^3. Would this be a sufficient ...
jhylands's user avatar
38 votes
13 answers
13k views

If water is nearly as incompressible as ground, why don't divers get injured when they plunge into it?

I have read that water (or any other liquid) cannot be compressed like gases and it is nearly as elastic as solid. So why isn’t the impact of diving into water equivalent to that of diving on hard ...
Hitarth Vyas's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
33 views

Does melting a metal affect its electronic band stucture?

Given that the band structure of a metal emerges from the periodicity of the crystalline lattice and the corresponding symmetry arguments, what happens to the band structure as the metal is melted ...
tjsmert44's user avatar
  • 123
18 votes
6 answers
8k views

Is there a liquid which boils at room temperature and normal pressure, and can we use it to produce electricity?

In many places the temperature difference between day and night is more than 20 degrees C. Max 45 C and min 25C. Can we create a machine which uses a liquid which has boiling point around 25-30 C and ...
Deepak Mishra's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
150 views

For liquids where the solid doesn’t float, how does the liquid freeze?

Take for example water; when water freezes, ice floats, and given a pond or something during the winter, the pond seems to freeze from the top down. Considering a similar circumstance, let’s say we ...
Justin T's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Cubic nature of van der Waals' gas equation [duplicate]

$V_m^3-\dfrac{RT+bP}{P}V_m^2+\dfrac{a}{P}V_m-\dfrac{ab}{P}=0$ So, At $T<T_c$ the above equation has three real roots say $V_1,V_2,V_3$, my doubt is what does this mean physically because for some ...
Akshaj Bansal's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
1k views

Confusion in Derivation of Excess Pressure in a Cylindrical Drop

I have recently learnt about surface tension and have developed a list of key points to solve problems:- Surface tension acts on the surface where a surface is defined as the interface(flat or curved)...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
581 views

Why does the air pressure not increase when I shake a coke bottle?

I tried this experiment lately and this happened, I shook a coke bottle and its air pressure remained the same but the coke came squirting out when I opened the lid. How is this possible?
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
180 views

Why is pair distribution function equal to the Boltzmann factor?

On my statistical physics book it is written that the probability of finding two molecules at distance $r$ is not influenced by the presence of the other molecules, and for this reason, without any ...
SimoBartz's user avatar
  • 1,894
0 votes
1 answer
148 views

What is the distribution on the speed of particles in a liquid? (analogous to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution)

I know, for gases, the distribution on the speed of particles is the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. What is the corresponding distribution for liquids (e.g. water)? You can assume that the liquid is ...
chausies's user avatar
  • 1,082
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

What does a local maximum under 1 in a two-point correlation function mean?

Two-point correlation functions like the radial distribution function (real space) and the structure factor $S(q)$ (reciprocal space) give information about correlations in a (typically) fluid ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
173 views

Does a metal evaporate as single atoms or as molecules?

If I had a liquid metal, like Al, and I begin heating it so it evaporates, would the evaporating Al be in the form of atoms or as molecules?
tjsmert44's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
1 answer
536 views

Steam Produced by Induction Cookers

I had recently noticed that induction cookers produce much more steam than normal gas tops and when I set the setting in the induction cooker to 'steam' it produces ever more steam. I used the same ...
Anonymousstriker38596's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
89 views

Effect of the temperature dependence of $\Delta H_{vap}$ on the vapor pressure?

I am aware that the enthalpy of vaporization of a fluid ,$\Delta H_{vap}$ is temperature dependent since it must be equal to zero at the critical temperature of said fluid, $T_c$ (although this is ...
tjsmert44's user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
1 answer
47 views

Convection from rapidly evaporating liquid inside vacuum chamber?

If we have a liquid that is is being actively heated and is rapidly evaporating (let's say around 1g/s for Ag at 1500K) inside a vacuum chamber, can convection around the liquid/vapor interface occur ...
tjsmert44's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
0 answers
146 views

Can you remove air bubbles from oil by heating it just like you do with water? Does oil even have dissolved air?

I have a flat bottle filled half with water and top half with oil. It has a impeller connected with motor which slowly swirls oil and water to create beautiful lava lamp like effect. However after ...
Aamer Jalal's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
25 views

Pump fluid down HPHT gas well - fluid remains at top

Working offshore on a High Pressure / High Temperature gas well. We pumped 120 barrels of organic solvent into the well. The gas density was 0.3kg/m3. The fluid was 0.8kg/m3 & a boiling point of ...
Strevz's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
256 views

Quantum description of water

It seems that we have quantum description of solid and gas, but there seem to be few quantum models of liquid, with the exception of Liquid Helium or perhaps Fermi Liquid. For solids, we often study ...
Liuke LYU's user avatar
  • 960
1 vote
1 answer
580 views

On the dielectric constants of liquid and vapor phases of a material

I can find the static dielectric constant of materials on the website or in a handbook. But for some liquids, it only shows the dielectric constant at the saturation vapor pressure. I am confused that ...
jsxs's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
149 views

How deep bore well pumps works?

From highschool physics that I learned. Let density of water be $\rho = 10^3 kg/m^3 $ and acceleration due to $g = 10 m/s^2 $ and atmospheric pressure be $P{_0} = 10^5 Pa$ now as $\rho \times g \...
Prashanthth Kumar's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
56 views

Can you wash your feet without making them temporarily adhesive?

When my feet get dirty I wash them in the shower but then when I walk around the house small particles on the floor get glued to my feet which I don't like. Boring solutions would be to use a towel or ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
126 views

Functional derivatives in density functional theory

I am studying density functional theory and I am currently dealing with manipulating the intrinsic free energy, $\mathcal{F}$, which is defined as $$\mathcal{F} = F - \int dr \rho ^{(1)}(r)\phi (r) $$...
megamence's user avatar
  • 697
0 votes
2 answers
439 views

How much work can be done on a liquid through compression?

Work can be done on a gas by compressing it in an adiabatic process, raising its temperature. I'm wondering if the same thing could be done on a liquid, since liquids aren't truly incompressible. If ...
zucculent's user avatar
  • 1,405
1 vote
1 answer
124 views

Are open liquids always colder than ambient temperature?

I recently got myself a cheap thermal camera, and amongst other things I also noticed that standing water, even if it has been out for several days, always appears ~2°C colder than ambient temperature....
MaxD's user avatar
  • 222
1 vote
1 answer
212 views

Working of liquid lens

we were recently introduced to the liquid lens in school, but i havent quite understood the working of it. I realize that the curvature of the lens is changed by some process, but i dont exactly know ...
shrekwes's user avatar
  • 321
4 votes
1 answer
290 views

What would be the color of a deep, pure and vast liquid $\rm CO_2$ ocean if viewed from space (ignoring the atmosphere's influence)?

So far I had no luck trying to find the visible absorption spectrum of $\rm CO_2$ anywhere, all I get is the far infrared absorption spectrum and stuff like that. If you just search "what color ...
DeMooniC's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
665 views

Why can't water be liquid above 647 kelvins?

In this article about vapor, it is said that liquid water can't exist if its temperature is higher than 647 kelvins. But if we put the liquid water in a closed container and heated up the water, ...
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