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Questions tagged [ligo]

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (short LIGO) is a large interferometer used for the detection of gravitational waves. Use this tag for questions about this specific installation; for questions more generally about the properties of gravitational waves or gravitation, use [gravitational-waves] and/or [general-relativity]

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Acceleration at peak of a gravitational wave

The amplitude of the strongest gravitational wave signal detected by LIGO sofar can maybe be expressed as an acceleration? If so, what would the numerical value be (in m/s^2)? I would like to compare ...
Wouter M.'s user avatar
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Simultaneous operations of LHC and LIGO

I once asked a question regarding atomic clocks near particle accelerators. Where the high-energy of the accelerators would be considered a source of stress energy. I was made to understand that the ...
Precious Adegbite's user avatar
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Where can I obtain the recorded data of GWs and corresponding best-matched templates for published events confirmed by LIGO please?

It is known that the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration (LVC) has released over 100 confirmed GW events. For each event, I believe that they possess the recorded raw data, which is a one-dimensional sequence of ...
Wein's user avatar
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How exactly does Ligo achieve complete destructive interference with just an interferometer?

Ligo works by destructively interfering light from a laser using an interferometer. Its said that no light enters the photo detector when all mirrors are the same distance. However,based on my ...
spicy-lemonade's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
184 views

Difference between LIGO and Michelson-Morley interferometer

The LIGO interferometer looks like a huge Michelson-Morley experiment showing interferences and the gravitational waves are described as waves propagating on the 'spacetime fabric'. LIGO detects ...
Gerard Zonus's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
300 views

Do LIGO O4 Gravitational waves observations distance estimates account for redshift?

A new LIGO detection today has a mean distance estimate of 7412 Mpc. Does that mean that this LIGO distance calculation does not account for redshift, since that mean distance estimate translates to ...
Max Kislik's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Is LIGO measuring an averaged acceleration?

In "Gravitation" by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler the authors pose the following puzzle: The metric perturbation of the wave changes the scale of the distances slightly, but also ...
staxyz's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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What type of detail and imaging might we be able to achieve with mature gravitational wave detector arrays?

With the success of LIGO and considering the types of imaging we're able to do with distributed arrays of radio telescopes, what level of detail would we be able to achieve were we to build arrays of ...
Aaron Hathaway's user avatar
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For which of the candidate gravitation theories has LIGO been able to establish a 5 sigma exclusion of gravitational wave polarization predictions?

In "Gravitational Wave Polarizations: A test of General Relativity using Binary Black hole mergers" the candidate gravitation theories and their gravitational wave polarizations are given in ...
James Bowery's user avatar
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Where does the energy come from when Vacuum fluctuations move an object?

A couple of years ago an experiment in Ligo showed that vacuum fluctuations can exert a force on macroscopic objects (although this is extremely small). Nevertheless this opens up the question, where ...
eeqesri's user avatar
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Why does a non-gaussian distribution imply noise in LIGO?

So I'm trying to understand why do we expect a non-gaussian distribution to imply correlation in LIGO? Like how do we know the default noise distribution is gaussian? I am concerned about coordinate ...
More Anonymous's user avatar
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What is a complete book for Gravitational Wave Detectors

I would like to find textbook/lecture notes which include the following: explain how gravitational waves are produced the physical principles underlying detectors of gravitational waves (particulary ...
8 votes
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Searching for an "intuitive" explanation about how gravitational waves can be detected by a laser interferometer like LIGO

Since LIGO's first detection of gravitational waves, I have been searching for an intuitive way -as long as intuition can be useful in relativity, which often it isn't- to understand how the detector ...
Csources's user avatar
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2 answers
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Does a core collapse supernova emit detectable gravitational waves?

I've read that LIGO will be the first thing to detect a "nearby" core collapse supernova, because the neutrino pulse travels slower than light, and the light is trapped inside the star for ...
nigel222's user avatar
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Rotating binaries viewing geometry

I am reading this article and looking at eq. (4). I am not sure how the expressions in terms of the viewing angle $\iota$ and the phase $\Phi$ are achieved. It looks to me like it has nothing to do ...
Halo's user avatar
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LIGO's upper-bound on the Michelson-Morley null result?

LIGO is essentially a Michelson-Morley experiment. What is its measured upper-bound on the fringe shift? The most recent Michel-Morley experiment "Michelson–Morley experiment#Subsequent ...
Geremia's user avatar
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3 votes
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Frequency dependence of noise at advLIGO

Here's a picture showing how different sources of noise affect the sensitivity of LIGO I'm trying to understand the frequency dependence of each curve. I'll specifically focus on seismic noise, ...
P. C. Spaniel's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
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Contraction in SR vs GR

I've always had a bit of fuzziness concerning relativistic contraction which I will try to put into words. Iiuc in SR, moving objects contract in the direction of their travel, as measured by rulers ...
jeremy_rutman's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
1k views

Gravitational waves on rigid bodies

I have a question on gravitational wave (GW) detection. I would assume that gravitational waves do not impact rigid bodies. I mean, GWs should be extremely weak with respect to electromagnetic forces ...
deltasun's user avatar
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Bounds of a black hole's spin

What are the bounds of a black hole's spin? Is it -1 to +1? Also where do I find the information about spin1x, spin1y, and spin1z? What are their bounds? What are their i.e. spin1x, spin1y, and spin1z ...
Shreya Hegde's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
635 views

Why does shot noise rise with frequency in LIGO sensitivity?

In plots of the sensitivity of the LIGO interferometer, photon shot noise is the dominant noise source at the high frequency end, e.g. this graphic: It appears to rise roughly in linear proportion ...
tobalt's user avatar
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Graph Interpretation of Gravitational Waves

In the image is the data recorded by the LIGO's 2 observatories in USA. What is its interpretation? I mean what does the zig zag lines represent? Similarly, what does the blond red and blue lines (...
Rusics's user avatar
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How does LIGO detect accurate time differences if gravitational waves are also compressing and stretching the light waves-specific confusion below [duplicate]

I was watching this veritaserum which explains my question at 5:55 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iphcyNWFD10 saying that the speed of light is much faster so will pass through the arms multiple ...
excited elastic bands's user avatar
38 votes
4 answers
8k views

Did LIGO measurements prove that the speed of gravity equals the speed of light?

This question about the speed of light prompted my own question. In the linked question it is asked if there is experimental proof that the speed of gravity equals the speed of light. I was surprised ...
Deschele Schilder's user avatar
1 vote
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Could LIGO detect an Alcubierre drive being used within 10 light-years of the Solar system? [closed]

Maybe this question is too speculative... But is it possible that LIGO would detect the ramp-up and ramp-down of an Alcubierre drive being used within 10 light-years of the Solar system? Also, if the ...
user1402154's user avatar
18 votes
2 answers
2k views

How does LIGO work?

LIGO is described as working as an interferometer, like a Michelson-Morley interferometer but with many reflections along the arms to increase the sensitivity. In MMs work it was assumed that the ...
Brent Meeker's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
382 views

Frequency sensitivity of gravitational wave interferometer with its armlength and with mass of the mergers

To the best of my knowledge, LIGO is capable of observing gravitational waves (GW) from stellar mass black hole (BH) mergers but not mergers of supermassive black holes. In order to detect the latter ...
SRS's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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Tidal effect on interferometry

Interferometry relies on the change in the phase of two orthogonal light beams reflected back to the source point. Assume there is an interferometer at the equator, one mirror is planted 1 mile due ...
aquagremlin's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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3rd Dimension on LIGO

The LIGO interferometers are 2 dimensional, they have $4\rm\ km$ legs that are perpendicular to each other. Could a 3rd $4\rm\ km$ leg either with a straight up tower or deep into the earth, provide ...
Jroonk's user avatar
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2 answers
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Can the LIGO detectors sense continental drift?

I know the detectors can sense earthquakes and the movement of the Pacific Ocean, and given the sensitivity of the arms to detect gravitational waves, it makes sense that they should detect ...
Ghost in the bash's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
304 views

Paper about signal-to-noise ratio for LIGO/VIRGO

I am looking for a recent paper in which the signal-to-noise ratio for the ground based advanced LIGO/VIRGO interferometers is discussed, on the same line of this paper (dated 2006 by E. Berti et al.) ...
mattiav27's user avatar
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Do all black holes mergers and kilonovae produce chirp?

It seems to me that during the final merger of 2 massive objects there will be a chirp, a sharp increase in the intensity and then it is cut off signaling the merging process is completed. I am ...
user6760's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Are the LIGO and VIRGO results consistent with the black hole statistics predicted by cosmology?

Have LIGO and VIRGO recorded enough gravity wave events to cross-check the black hole populations predicted by astrophysics and cosmology? Basically, we now have another experimental tool to verify ...
KevinM's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How to interprete the gravitational wave measurement?

I saw this picture: the LIGO measurements of a gravitational wave. I have a few questions about the graphs. First the graph with residual, what does that mean? If the data of Hanford is projected on ...
BOB's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
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How does LIGO cover the whole sky?

This article says that "[LIGO] is an omnidirectional gravitational-wave detector that monitors the entire sky." But how is that possible with just two flat detectors? If both locations detect a wave ...
MrMartin's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
155 views

Do the gravitational wave moves the Ligo's mirror or the photon in the laser beam?

On NASA website there is an animation showing a signal is detected when the gravitational wave shifts the mirrors about, causing the laser to go out of phase. Do gravitational wave actually shifts the ...
user6760's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Was ever observed a black hole - neutron star merger?

I remember that a few months ago the news of a possible a black hole-neutron star merger detected with LIGO/VIRGO was diffused. Was this discovery confirmed?
mattiav27's user avatar
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2 answers
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How do out of phase tell us the amplitude of gravitational wave?

When gravitational waves hit the 2 mirrors in LIGO and causes the signals to switch between in-phase and out-of-phase, it should only show the changes in frequency. What about the amplitude of the ...
user6760's user avatar
  • 13k
2 votes
1 answer
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Would relativistic LIGO hear different chirp?

Imagine a binary blackholes merger about 100 Mpc away and LIGO's relativistic twin is orbiting Earth at close to speed of light, I wonder would both LIGO and its twin show different results? For this ...
user6760's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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LIGO Observation Reconciled with Falling Object Never Seen to Cross Event Horizon

I've read that an observer watching an object fall toward a black hole will never see it cross the event horizon. For example, see the following Stack Exchange question. How can anything ever fall ...
James's user avatar
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12 votes
2 answers
3k views

What causes a black hole ringdown and why can it prove the no-hair theorem?

When two black holes merge, they will produce the so-called ringdown before forming a new black hole, even the newly created black hole produces some sort of tones due to the force of the impact, but ...
user6760's user avatar
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0 answers
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Can we tell how far away is the source of gravitational wave from the chirp alone? [duplicate]

From the analysis of chirp from Ligo and some other similar detector it is possible to tell the mass but can we also find out how far away too? or we need to look up into the sky and compare the ...
user6760's user avatar
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1 vote
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Gravitational waves detection using lunar retroreflectors

According to Wikipedia, the wavelength of a gravitational wave is about 600,000 km. The Earth moon distance is about 384,400 km. Considering that the latter is roughly half the former, it seems to ...
user1621287's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Can Ligo tell a blackhole and neutron star of same mass throughout the inspiral? [duplicate]

I am wondering what if a massive blackhole which is say thrice as massive as our Sun is gobbling up a neutron star also happens to be of the exact same mass, so in this scenario can Ligo be able to ...
user6760's user avatar
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Can we measure the amount by which LIGO black hole mergers warp space itself, relative to the mass of the merger?

In our day and age we can calculate the mass and maximum volume of a black hole. With LIGO we can also now calculate by how much is space warped, relative to the distance to a black hole merger, such ...
Cosmin A.'s user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
108 views

Should LIGO have been impacted by Lorentz contraction?

What bearing would or could Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction have on Ligo detections? Was this accounted for?
O A's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why does an interferometer with mirrors even work? [duplicate]

My understanding is being thwarted by something basic I am missing. One starts with a light beam that is split into two perpendicular paths. There are two light paths that travel some distance. The ...
aquagremlin's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
462 views

Does frequency of light change in the LIGO interferometer arms?

There are a number of questions on the internet and on this site asking about how the LIGO interferometer measurement works given that the gravitation wave stretches both the length of the ...
Jagerber48's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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LIGO test masses in free fall

I know that the LIGO test masses are considered to be in free fall. However, they are supported by pendula. I thought that free fall means the only acting force is gravity - doesn't the tension in the ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
125 views

How Does LIGO’s Splitter Mirror Cause Two Different Frequencies When a GW is Present?

When a gravitational wave is present in LIGO, how does the splitter mirror work to send out a different frequency than the laser frequency on the arm perpendicular to the laser direction? What are ...
Gary Godfrey's user avatar
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