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Questions tagged [ions]

The tag has no usage guidance.

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Mass spectrometry

I have a question concering mass spectrometry, more specifically the quadrupole mass analyser. As I understand it only some ions will be able to pass through the rods and the rest will collide with ...
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For which energetic reasons are ions blocked by cell membranes?

The permeability of cell membranes is given by the following diagram from the book "Biochemistry": The reason that ions get blocked can be explained chemically: The ions favor interactions with the ...
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1answer
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Binding energy of a molecular ion?

The protons in the $\text{H}_2^{+}$ molecular ion are $0.106 \, \mathrm{nm}$ apart, and the binding energy of $\text{H}_2^{+}$ is $2.65\,\mathrm{eV} .$ What negative charge must be placed halfway ...
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What are the prerequisites for a free electron and an atom/ion to recombine?

I'm mostly interested about recombination not in plasma (e.g., recombination of beta particles with atoms that they pass by), although the rules are probably the same. Say, there's a free electron ...
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Ion separation is effected by static or dynamic electric or magnetic fields?

My textbook says the following: The basic principle of mass spectrometry (MS) is to generate ions from either inorganic or organic compounds by any suitable method, to separate these ions by their ...
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3answers
57 views

What does it mean to be/have a negative charge?

what does it mean to be negatively charged. I can't find anything on it and i would love to be able to finally understand what it means to be negatively charged.
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1answer
14 views

How to contain air ions inside a chamber without loosing their charge?

I would like to create an experiment where I would hold ionized air molecules. Most likely negative O2-1 ions. I am looking for the most appropriate enclosure so that the ions do lose as little of ...
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43 views

Refractive Index in Ionized Liquid from Micro Aspect

I learned about the refractive index of gases and dense materials, which is a function of the atom number per volume, wavelength of electromagnetic wave, etc. However, what is the refractive of ...
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1answer
57 views

Classical Explanation for Electron-Ion collisions

Classically, electrons collide with other electrons and massive (by comparison), stationary positive ions as they conduct down a wire when an electric field is applied. Is there a good mechanism ...
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1answer
35 views

Do ionized salt solutions produce electromagnetic field?

When there is a solution ions of both negatively and positively charged ions, is there an electromagnetic field due to Brownian motion of ions? Do oppositely charged ions mutually cancel out their ...
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24 views

Electronegative - Electropositive atoms can attract ions?

Well I was just wondering how a copper-zinc battery works, with electrolyte an equilibrium of water and NaOH. It says that NaOH is dissolved (I understand that) into water forming H$_4$O$_8$Na+ ions ...
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1answer
47 views

When atom absorb energy, how does the nucleon know? [duplicate]

Imagine a photon hits a hydrogen ion and is absorbed, how do the nucleon of the hydrogen knows and start to accelerate? Any difference between this and hydrogen ion in a electric field?
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2answers
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Why doesn't ionized air give you a current shock?

According to Tesla coil, the air gets ionized and why doesn't ionized air give current shock to a person standing in the ionized air?
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2answers
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Touching single line of AC Power and charge oscillation in body

If a person touches a single line of AC(Only on the live line, and no where else. Say he/she is hanging on the power line using one hand) as shown in the attached image, Do the ions in his/her body ...
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1answer
39 views

Ion optics of a gridded ion thruster

Followup to this question. The holes in the grid of an ion thruster should be thought of as an optical device for ions. As is shown here, ions are focused to the center of the stream. My question is ...
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2answers
51 views

Hole size in ion thruster's accel-grid v. scoop-grid

In ion thrusters, the scoop grid is charged positively and "scoops" ions from the plasma. The accel grid is charged negatively and placed at some distance to accelerate the ions by the applied voltage....
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1answer
117 views

Force between nucleus and electron [duplicate]

Let's say we have a hydrogen atom in electric field. If the field is strong enough, electron will be separated from nucleus. How to determine the value of $E$ at which it happens? To my understanding,...
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1answer
24 views

do metallic ions migrate thru liquids and moist materials

Consider the pictogram, the cotton balls, damp paper towel and iron nails are all very soaked/covered with conductive salt water and the battery leads are soldered to the nails. Do metal ions travel ...
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1answer
26 views

Can atoms capture beta particles or secondary electrons into their orbits and become anions?

Since beta-particles are just free-moving electrons, shouldn't they be caught by strongly-electronegative atoms and thus create anions? Why do they instead create more cations by knocking other ...
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1answer
36 views

Can sea wave make ions?

I came into this website and thought it is not true. The i remembered you can ionize a rod by rubbing cloth so it might be possible. No matter if these ions can be absorbed or have significant effect ...
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1answer
48 views

Can wind blow away the ionised gases created by plasma/arc lighters

I understand that for plasma lighters to work, they ionise the air between the electrodes. I am wondering what happens to these ionised gases during lighting. Do they remain ionised for a while and ...
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The direction of travel of ions in superpositioned electric fields

If a neutral atom A is placed in a superpositioned electric field like this and the superpositioned electric field strength at where A is in the pic has reached the atom's ionization energy, how ...
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0answers
245 views

Could the energy (voltage) required by a ionocraft style EHD thruster be decreased through combining multiple small ionocraft?

I saw a lot of ionocraft designs are focused on building them as big as possible to increase the amount of air the ionized air could push down. This got me thinking. Since one big problem facing ...
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1answer
39 views

Atomic spectroscopy with nuclear spin: hyperfine splitting

In $^{171} Yb$, nuclear spin $1/2$, there is a transition: $^{2}S_{1/2}(F=0) \rightarrow\; ^{2} F_{7/2} (F=3)$ In this paper on p.3 (top-left) they say that $m_F^{(f)} = 0$ at the final state $^2 F_{...
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1answer
43 views

Repulsion force of a magnetic field and a positive ion

I'm trying to figure this out but my understanding is limited so I'd appreciate any help. For the sake of simplicity, let's say I've stripped away the electron from an atom of hydrogen leaving only ...
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2answers
78 views

Is the air we breathe ionized?

Is the air we breathe ionized? I am reading a book that says that the air we breathe is ionized but from what I have read so far, it is only the air in the upper atmosphere that is ionized.
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1answer
352 views

Can hydrogen have 3 electrons?

Can i in any way force a hydrogen atom to have three electrons? Two electrons in first shell and one in the second?
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2answers
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Could a strong enough electric field tear a hydrogen atom apart? [duplicate]

A neutral hydrogen atom is composed of a proton and an electron. The overall charge on the atom is zero but there are local charges within the atom as the negative and positive charge is not evenly ...
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2answers
1k views

Why does the electrical conductivity of salt water increase with increase in temperature?

Is it due to the mobile ions that vibrate with higher energy that increases their conductance? It is noteworthy that the electrical conductivity in metals decreases as the temperature is increased but,...
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1answer
123 views

Electron Volts in Covalent Bonds of Nitrogen [closed]

(once again this question is not a duplicate of any other question to my knowledge, and this should actually help alot of people trying to ionize air) for one you can easily figure out that nitrogen ...
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0answers
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Is the following a valid question re: The Coulomb force?

I'm making up some practice questions for a course on electromagnetism and electric circuits. I like to make the students think, but I also want to make sure that my questions aren't terribly ...
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1answer
1k views

How can an atom exist without electrons?

Consider ${\rm He}^{2+}$ as a example. It has 2 protons and 2 neutrons but no electrons. How is that ion can exist as an atom, and how can we account for its stability?
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1answer
174 views

Chemistry of electrical conductivity of pure water

I understand the electrical conductivity of pure water is very low, but not zero, and is due to the slight number of H+ and OH- ions naturally present. I understand that they will move under the ...
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1answer
100 views

How much heat is needed for an atom to be ionized? [duplicate]

We all know that heat or high voltage makes atoms into an excited state, stripping off the electrons off of their nucleus. But how much heat do you exactly need to create plasma, or have the majority ...
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How powerful of an electric current would I need to fully ionize plasma under the specific circumstances below?

in a cylinder shaped vacuum chamber 4 inches in height and 5 in diameter at 1/100th atmosphere, with 3 cathodes at the face arranged in a equilateral triangle in exactly between the center and and the ...
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53 views

Can air plasma ions in a fusor fuse?

I know that hydrogen ions will fuse in a fusor but what about air ions? Can air plasma ions in a fusor fuse? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusor, if so, under what cicumstances, and how would I ...
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1answer
116 views

Why is there no Sigma-minus ground state for molecular hydrogen ion?

I'm studying a bit of molecular physics and having some trouble understanding the +/- symmetry in a simplest molecule like a molecular hydrogen ion (2 protons and 1 electron). In a book, usually they ...
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1answer
126 views

How to fully ionize plasma

How would I fully ionize plasma in a vacuum chamber? How would I know that it is fully ionized? Could I even come close? How could I measure how would I know how ionized the plasma is.
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1answer
61 views

How likely is it that 'Einstein spontaneous transition rate" in these papers refers to the rate of spontaneous emission?

In a prior question I sorta posed the question "What is the Einstein spontaneous transition rate for the selected line?" The main question wasn't really focused on it, and (as of writing this) the ...
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52 views

Where does this equation for ionic abundances come from, and what does it mean?

So I've been attempting to find ionic abundances using visual emission spectra of planetary nebula, and I ran across an equation to do that in the paper Abundances of planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC ...
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2answers
404 views

How fast do electrons move in an electric arc?

I know that they move extremely slow in wire, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbi7gJTPSXk) but how fast do electrons move in air in an electric spark/arc?
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1answer
27 views

What is the deflective efficiency of glass?

If I have ions, electrons, and gas particles bouncing off of glass, how much energy will the particles retain? what % of the energy will be be retained what % lost, the particles I am referring to are ...
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0answers
27 views

What tools to use to model charge migration?

I would like to simulate charge migration in an applied electrical field in the context of a biological system. Some of the charges are ions floating in solution (which cannot cross the cell membrane,...
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304 views

Accelerated ion beam current

If an electron gun creates a $10\space mA$ electron beam and each electron collides with a gas atom and creates an ion through impact ionization, can the ions then be accelerated with a separate ...
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1answer
2k views

Definition of a charged body

In my lecture notes it is said: In normal circumstances every atom, of any substance (conducting or not), has an equal amount of positively and negatively charged particles, hence it is neutral. ...
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1answer
259 views

Conduction and Ionic Conduction

How the ionic conduction is different from normal conduction ? Does the electrons that leave atoms completely conduct in ionic conduction while in normal conduction the conduction takes place through ...
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1answer
199 views

can you add a electron to sodium?

if you have a sodium+1 ion, are you able to add one electron some way to make it back to a neutral sodium atom?
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1answer
352 views

Can someone clarify the units for the Nernst-Einstein relation?

I am using the Nernst-Einsten relation as a way to calculate the dc ionic conductivity ($\sigma_{dc}$) of a membrane: $$\sigma_{dc} = \frac{q^2CD }{k_BT}$$ where: $q$ is the charge on ions [Coulombs]...
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How does the “lifter”/ionocraft device work? [closed]

A while ago I watched a documentary which at the end (don't let the name mislead you, I'm asking about a perfectly real phenomenon) shows an experiment which its inventor calls a "lifter"/ionocraft. ...
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1answer
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Which equations would allow you to calculate the force exerted on a charged ion moving through a magnetic field? [closed]

Due to 'shear' of the electrical double layer when a liquid is forced through a pipe, ions of net charge are mechanically transported in a specific direction. I want to calculate the force that a ...