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4 answers
147 views

Why don't positively charged metal ions (in a wire) move but electrons do?

I'm very confused on this question. I've researched online but I can't seem to find the answer anywhere: all I was told was that electrons move (as part of electron flow) towards the regions of high ...
Nadia Nowak's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
26 views

Ozoneless air ionisation

Is there some way to ionise air in way that removes or atleast decreases ozone production? Is some combination of electrode shape, electrode material, negative or positive voltage, dc or ac and ...
wav scientist's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

Number of ions in positive corona discharge

In Positive Corona discharge, the positively charged ions move toward the negative electrode. If the positive electrode is a grid of thin wires, and the negative electrode is a flat panel, how do we ...
Akansh Karthik's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
15 views

Ion-Ion Scale Capacitance

Ions have three dimensions in solution and can be estimated as spheres. If ions have dimensions they can experience some degree of capacitance, e.g. an electrostatic potential which increases linearly ...
Cyclohex's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
66 views

How can I determine sound speed of ions in plasma sheath

Since the definition of sound speed, ($c_{s}$), in each ion s$th$ species ($is$) expressed that: \begin{align*} c_{s,is} = \sqrt{\frac{k(T_{e}+T_{is})}{m_{is}}}. \end{align*} How can we determine ...
nirama_xox's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
59 views

Can a homogeneous chemical solution really not be split by centrifuge?

Assuming I have a homogeneous solution such as salt in water. My intuition tells me that gravity or centrifugal forces would affect sodium ions more than water molecules. Theoretically, if I could ...
tobu's user avatar
  • 51
0 votes
1 answer
22 views

How do charged particles accelerate away from an oppositely charged substance? Like in a cathode gun or gridded ion thruster

Like in the case of a gridded ion thruster, the positive ions are accelerated due to their attraction to a negatively charged gird at the back end of the thruster. Why don't the ions just stay by the ...
lewellyn's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
15 views

Any method for measuring hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals in water?

I am looking to irradiate water containing some amounts of iron and would like to measure the amount of hydroperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals produced in real time as a result of the irradiation. Is ...
Bon's user avatar
  • 1
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0 answers
10 views

Nonlinear correction term to Debye-Huckel equation for asymmetrical electrolytes

The Debye-Huckel equation for electrolytes in a solution is a differential equation for the potential function in the following form: $$ \nabla^2\phi_j + \sum^{s}_{i=1}\frac{q z_i n^{(0)}_i}{\epsilon} ...
Jonathan Huang's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
59 views

Why aren't positive ions emitted at the same rate as electrons via thermionic emission?

The Effective Work Functions of the Elements are very similar for removing an electron or a positive ion, e.g. about 4.5 eV for Tungsten. If their work functions are similar, why aren't positive ions ...
David Bailey's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
26 views

What ionic compound has the lowest boiling point?

Defining a molecule as "ionic" when it has a net electronegativity difference greater than 1.7 on Pauling's scale, which ionic compound has the lowest boiling point? And when it evaporates, ...
Robert Goddard-Wright's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
134 views

Parallel plate capacitor infinite energy

Imagine a system with a parallel plate capacitor with holes in the middle where the plates are charged before being disconnected and insulated. Neutral atoms are introduced between the plates and are ...
symen schilstra's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Electron impact ionization

I am looking to study more about electron impact ionization. I noticed that this topic or anything collision-related, is not present in Chen in detail. Is there another resource that I can use to ...
-1 votes
1 answer
91 views

Why sodium ion is able to atract negative charges? [closed]

Why is the sodium ion able to attract negative charges? even though it has 1 excess proton, its electrosphere is further away than the nucleus, wouldn't it be possible to counterbalance the effect of ...
Gabriel Rocha Furtado's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
386 views

How is there so much ionized hydrogen in the sun?

To my understanding, the sun contains large amounts of ionized hydrogen compared to the amount of hydrogen in the first excited state. I am curious about the explanation, at the quantum scale, for how ...
Relativisticcucumber's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
50 views

Capillary action for isotope separation

Take, for example, D2O and H2O. As they have different densities, they should have a different maximum capillary height h, where h is defined according to Jurin's law. Then, each isotope of D and H ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
44 views

Can the principle of helium ion microscopes be generalized to heavier noble gasses for suitable substances?

I have heard helium ion microscopes offer extremely high resolution of features due to the shorter debroglie wavelength of the helium atoms. Naturally I was curious if anyone has built something using ...
Sidharth Ghoshal's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
41 views

Does ambient radiation cause air to emit light?

In a cloud chamber, atoms of air are ionized by passing radiation, providing nucleation sites that enable droplets to form. When those atoms are de-excited, one would expect them to release light; ...
adrian's user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
1 answer
35 views

Does a moving atom with a nuclear magnetic moment generate an electric field?

I have read that moving ions generate a magnetic field as it moves. Similarly, is this also true regarding the nuclear magnetic moments of the atom? In other words, would a moving atom with a nuclear ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
25 views

Viability of generators and electromagnetics based solely on ionic liquids

The background to this question lies in the science fiction novel "The Day the Machines Stopped" by Christopher Anvil (1964), where somehow an experiment gone wrong causes the laws of ...
Ron Kaminsky's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

What physical property does the crossover frequency in an ionic conductor represent; why is conductivity constant below and increasing above it?

After reading an article about ionic transport1, I remain confused about why the behavior illustrated in Fig. 1 of the article happens. (Figure 1 is shown below.) Specifically, why is the conductivity ...
Joseph Thiebes's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

What are the light emissions from an ion engine?

Consider an ion thruster like a DS4G (Dual-Stage 4 Grid) thruster. Gas is released, ionized, and accelerated. Assume it's in a vacuum, be it a chamber or space. Also assume the propellant is Xenon. ...
cthon's user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
1 answer
120 views

Why ions can't stay in metal?

Let's look at the following image. On the left side, we got metal of Zn atoms. They want to lose 2 electrons, hence from the right side, Cu2+ attracts them. Due to this, Zn becomes Zn2-. Now, the ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
56 views

Can an ion thruster work without applied voltage?

In this image, power is used to apply voltage to the charged grids. But if no voltage is applied, would ions still be accelerated by Coulomb forces to create thrust? If not, why?
Beom's user avatar
  • 31
-1 votes
2 answers
173 views

Is there any acceleration of ions going through two electrostatic grids? [closed]

An ion is shot through two grids, one positively charged, the other negative. The positive one has much more charge than the negative one. Let's hypothetically assume both grids have zero applied ...
Beom's user avatar
  • 31
0 votes
2 answers
54 views

How can I concentrate ions in a very small area?

I am interested in concentrating ions in a very small area, so the ion density of that region is elevated above normal levels. What is the field of study, or term, that describes what I am talking ...
Young Jun Lee's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Dense plasma focus at ambient air pressure

About a year ago I read a paper stating that a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) could operate at ambient air pressure. But I can't find the paper anymore and what I've found in online journals seems ...
SR999's user avatar
  • 23
-2 votes
1 answer
163 views

Dirac equation for solving $\rm H^-$ anion

Let's try to solve 1 dimensional Dirac equation for a $\rm H^-$ anion. If you solve the time independent Dirac equation and allow motion of electrons only in the $x$ axis you get: $$-\chi\frac{d\Psi_{...
appliedSciences's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Will removing an outermost electron from the outermost orbital of an atom change the orbital geometry?

Does $\text{He}^+$ and $\text{He}$ have different orbitals?
nitin sathish kumar's user avatar
32 votes
5 answers
4k views

Why are atoms electrically neutral?

I get the grade-school explanation that "the number of electrons equals the number of protons", but the electric field drops off with distance. If the protons are concentrated in the nucleus ...
Michael Stachowsky's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the difference between ionic conductivity and electrical conductivity in an electrolyte?

If we apply an AC current to a conductor it creates an associated alternating magnetic field around it. That's the theory. Additionally, when a current passes through the conductor, there is some ...
Physther's user avatar
  • 564
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Could you use a synchrotron particle accelerator in a descending spiral pattern to create ion thrust for space travel?

Would it be theoretically possible to use a synchrotron particle accelerator that utilizes a spiral pattern to create ion thrust for space travel? In this scenario, ions would be accelerated in a ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
119 views

What are the absorption and emission spectra of $\rm H^+$ ion (a proton)?

Does $\rm H^+$ even produce emission spectrum without an electron?
PSz's user avatar
  • 113
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

What happens when a positively charged ion such as $\rm{O}_2^+$ hits an electrically neutral or positive surface?

The ionized molecule is ionized by electron bombardment. Considering this problem in a rough vacuum (let's say 0.3 Pa as to somewhat limit background noise if it affects the question), at average ...
Andi Iacob's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
278 views

Do ions in solution flow through wires in electric circuit?

In typical electric circuit where we have for example a battery and a light bulb, electrons travel through whole circuit. But what does travel when we use two electrodes and a battery in e.g. NaCl ...
cover's user avatar
  • 169
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

How electrolytes conducts electricity?

While studying electrochemistry, I came across two key points that I'm unable to understand. why does DC alone break down the electrolytic liquid and b) Why doesn't AC do the same?
math and physics forever's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

Force on a test charge inside a cell

Considering test charge inside a cell. Let the cell be in an open circuit. I know that a potential difference will develop between the two electrodes of the cell. If I take a test charge and place it ...
manjit singh's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
859 views

Can an oil drop in a Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment only have a negative charge?

Wikipedia and Britannica seem to say the drops in a Millikan oil drop experiment are always negative, but can't ionization processes can either knock off or add electrons to the drop?
Rising Adi's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
238 views

Can plasma be formed entirely by ions?

Plasma can be formed by an altogether combination of ions, free electrons, atoms, and molecules. Searching a little bit on the internet I found that plasma can't be formed entirely by electrons, ...
Harshit Rajput's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

What is the second excited state of $H^{-}$?

Not considering the electronic spin, the degeneracy of the second excited state of H-atom is 9, while the degeneracy of the second excited state of $H^{-}$ is : The only thing that I need to solve ...
S Das's user avatar
  • 312
3 votes
1 answer
86 views

How does cosmic rays influence aerosol growth?

I have read about aerosol formation increasing due to ionisation but unable to understand what actually goes into the process? Can someone please explain how cosmic rays help in aerosol formation? ...
25 Simran Tiwari's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
56 views

How does partialy ionized plasma affect covalent bonds

During partial ionization in plasmas, do diatomic molecules like H2 dissociate into monoatomic states because of the changing states of electron orbitals (exited/ground)?
Ryan Jones's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
48 views

Examining isotope shift in ions vs neutral atoms - why use ions?

I'm currently deep-diving isotope shift (IS) spectroscopy literature. I've come across several papers that look at the isotope shifts of charged ions, and I want to try and understand why researchers ...
compp's user avatar
  • 149
1 vote
1 answer
689 views

Why does electrolytic conductance increase with dilution?

We are only talking about strong electrolytes. According to my book, conductance increases slightly due to dilution. Explanation given by my book: On the one hand, in a dilute solution, the number of ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
403 views

Charge in atoms in bond

Let us think of a covalent bond between two atoms $A$ and $B$. Since in covalent bond,sharing of electrons take place, valence eletrons of one atom behave as the electrons of the other atom. So since $...
madness's user avatar
  • 1,179
0 votes
2 answers
123 views

Positive charge in electrostatics

We know that all charges are caused by excess or shortage if electrons. Since electrons are negatively charged, it makes sense seeing negative charges in motion which we usually see in electrostatics. ...
madness's user avatar
  • 1,179
0 votes
1 answer
62 views

What is unit system in this reduction process?

I have read "The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids", which is published in 1985 about ion implantation. There is a equation in P.53 : $$ \varepsilon=\frac{32.53M_2E_0}{Z_1Z_2(M_1+M_2)(Z_1^...
Learning Lin's user avatar
7 votes
5 answers
4k views

If lightning is caused by ionisation of air, why does it only last briefly?

I'm comparing lightning and fire - both are related to ionisation of air but lightning happens so fast in a blink of an eye while fire goes on until it runs out of fuel. My question is: despite being ...
user6760's user avatar
  • 13k
0 votes
1 answer
104 views

A question regarding how ion thrusters work

The positively charged ions migrate toward grids that contain thousands of very precisely aligned holes (apertures) at the aft end of the ion thruster. The first grid is the positively charged ...
Kaushik Kumbhat's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
32 views

How are the electrons able to overcome the significant force of attraction of the ions?

The cause of electrical resistance(in a metal) is electrons colliding with themselves and the positive ions. So if the electrons collide with the positive ions, how are they able to overcome the ...
Akhil Kumar Singh's user avatar