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Questions tagged [ions]

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22 views

Electronegative - Electropositive atoms can attract ions?

Well I was just wondering how a copper-zinc battery works, with electrolyte an equilibrium of water and NaOH. It says that NaOH is dissolved (I understand that) into water forming H$_4$O$_8$Na+ ions ...
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1answer
45 views

When atom absorb energy, how does the nucleon know? [duplicate]

Imagine a photon hits a hydrogen ion and is absorbed, how do the nucleon of the hydrogen knows and start to accelerate? Any difference between this and hydrogen ion in a electric field?
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2answers
29 views

Why doesn't ionized air give you a current shock?

According to Tesla coil, the air gets ionized and why doesn't ionized air give current shock to a person standing in the ionized air?
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2answers
62 views

Touching single line of AC Power and charge oscillation in body

If a person touches a single line of AC(Only on the live line, and no where else. Say he/she is hanging on the power line using one hand) as shown in the attached image, Do the ions in his/her body ...
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1answer
31 views

Ion optics of a gridded ion thruster

Followup to this question. The holes in the grid of an ion thruster should be thought of as an optical device for ions. As is shown here, ions are focused to the center of the stream. My question is ...
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2answers
47 views

Hole size in ion thruster's accel-grid v. scoop-grid

In ion thrusters, the scoop grid is charged positively and "scoops" ions from the plasma. The accel grid is charged negatively and placed at some distance to accelerate the ions by the applied voltage....
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1answer
87 views

Force between nucleus and electron [duplicate]

Let's say we have a hydrogen atom in electric field. If the field is strong enough, electron will be separated from nucleus. How to determine the value of $E$ at which it happens? To my understanding,...
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1answer
24 views

do metallic ions migrate thru liquids and moist materials

Consider the pictogram, the cotton balls, damp paper towel and iron nails are all very soaked/covered with conductive salt water and the battery leads are soldered to the nails. Do metal ions travel ...
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1answer
24 views

Can atoms capture beta particles or secondary electrons into their orbits and become anions?

Since beta-particles are just free-moving electrons, shouldn't they be caught by strongly-electronegative atoms and thus create anions? Why do they instead create more cations by knocking other ...
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1answer
33 views

Can sea wave make ions?

I came into this website and thought it is not true. The i remembered you can ionize a rod by rubbing cloth so it might be possible. No matter if these ions can be absorbed or have significant effect ...
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1answer
29 views

Can wind blow away the ionised gases created by plasma/arc lighters

I understand that for plasma lighters to work, they ionise the air between the electrodes. I am wondering what happens to these ionised gases during lighting. Do they remain ionised for a while and ...
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0answers
7 views

The direction of travel of ions in superpositioned electric fields

If a neutral atom A is placed in a superpositioned electric field like this and the superpositioned electric field strength at where A is in the pic has reached the atom's ionization energy, how ...
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178 views

Could the energy (voltage) required by a ionocraft style EHD thruster be decreased through combining multiple small ionocraft?

I saw a lot of ionocraft designs are focused on building them as big as possible to increase the amount of air the ionized air could push down. This got me thinking. Since one big problem facing ...
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1answer
37 views

Atomic spectroscopy with nuclear spin: hyperfine splitting

In $^{171} Yb$, nuclear spin $1/2$, there is a transition: $^{2}S_{1/2}(F=0) \rightarrow\; ^{2} F_{7/2} (F=3)$ In this paper on p.3 (top-left) they say that $m_F^{(f)} = 0$ at the final state $^2 F_{...
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1answer
35 views

Repulsion force of a magnetic field and a positive ion

I'm trying to figure this out but my understanding is limited so I'd appreciate any help. For the sake of simplicity, let's say I've stripped away the electron from an atom of hydrogen leaving only ...
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2answers
68 views

Is the air we breathe ionized?

Is the air we breathe ionized? I am reading a book that says that the air we breathe is ionized but from what I have read so far, it is only the air in the upper atmosphere that is ionized.
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1answer
246 views

Can hydrogen have 3 electrons?

Can i in any way force a hydrogen atom to have three electrons? Two electrons in first shell and one in the second?
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2answers
477 views

Could a strong enough electric field tear a hydrogen atom apart? [duplicate]

A neutral hydrogen atom is composed of a proton and an electron. The overall charge on the atom is zero but there are local charges within the atom as the negative and positive charge is not evenly ...
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2answers
655 views

Why does the electrical conductivity of salt water increase with increase in temperature?

Is it due to the mobile ions that vibrate with higher energy that increases their conductance? It is noteworthy that the electrical conductivity in metals decreases as the temperature is increased but,...
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0answers
33 views

What are a set of conditions I can setup in a vacuum chamber to create fully ionized plasma

I need a set of attainable conditions in which the electrons have ejected from the atoms and are free resulting in plasma in a vacuum chamber fully or near(99%) fully ionized. I need to know with a ...
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1answer
96 views

Electron Volts in Covalent Bonds of Nitrogen [closed]

(once again this question is not a duplicate of any other question to my knowledge, and this should actually help alot of people trying to ionize air) for one you can easily figure out that nitrogen ...
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0answers
43 views

Is the following a valid question re: The Coulomb force?

I'm making up some practice questions for a course on electromagnetism and electric circuits. I like to make the students think, but I also want to make sure that my questions aren't terribly ...
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1answer
885 views

How can an atom exist without electrons?

Consider ${\rm He}^{2+}$ as a example. It has 2 protons and 2 neutrons but no electrons. How is that ion can exist as an atom, and how can we account for its stability?
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1answer
92 views

How much heat is needed for an atom to be ionized? [duplicate]

We all know that heat or high voltage makes atoms into an excited state, stripping off the electrons off of their nucleus. But how much heat do you exactly need to create plasma, or have the majority ...
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0answers
64 views

How powerful of an electric current would I need to fully ionize plasma under the specific circumstances below?

in a cylinder shaped vacuum chamber 4 inches in height and 5 in diameter at 1/100th atmosphere, with 3 cathodes at the face arranged in a equilateral triangle in exactly between the center and and the ...
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0answers
43 views

Can air plasma ions in a fusor fuse?

I know that hydrogen ions will fuse in a fusor but what about air ions? Can air plasma ions in a fusor fuse? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusor, if so, under what cicumstances, and how would I ...
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0answers
28 views

Under the circumstances written below it is possible to fully ionize plasma in vacuum chamber?

If I have a negative ion generator inside a sealed vacuum chamber with electric DC current being supplied from the outside can I eventually ionize all of the plasma inside of it by having it turned on ...
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1answer
104 views

Why is there no Sigma-minus ground state for molecular hydrogen ion?

I'm studying a bit of molecular physics and having some trouble understanding the +/- symmetry in a simplest molecule like a molecular hydrogen ion (2 protons and 1 electron). In a book, usually they ...
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1answer
95 views

How to fully ionize plasma

How would I fully ionize plasma in a vacuum chamber? How would I know that it is fully ionized? Could I even come close? How could I measure how would I know how ionized the plasma is.
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1answer
56 views

How likely is it that 'Einstein spontaneous transition rate" in these papers refers to the rate of spontaneous emission?

In a prior question I sorta posed the question "What is the Einstein spontaneous transition rate for the selected line?" The main question wasn't really focused on it, and (as of writing this) the ...
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0answers
51 views

Where does this equation for ionic abundances come from, and what does it mean?

So I've been attempting to find ionic abundances using visual emission spectra of planetary nebula, and I ran across an equation to do that in the paper Abundances of planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC ...
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0answers
29 views

Flux of high charge positive ions, how?

I need a flux of highly positive ions, at least penta-valent ions (5+ or more, 6+, 7+, ...); there are ion sources that can generate a proton flux, but I need 5+ ions; do you know how I can do that?
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2answers
325 views

How fast do electrons move in an electric arc?

I know that they move extremely slow in wire, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jbi7gJTPSXk) but how fast do electrons move in air in an electric spark/arc?
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1answer
27 views

What is the deflective efficiency of glass?

If I have ions, electrons, and gas particles bouncing off of glass, how much energy will the particles retain? what % of the energy will be be retained what % lost, the particles I am referring to are ...
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0answers
25 views

What tools to use to model charge migration?

I would like to simulate charge migration in an applied electrical field in the context of a biological system. Some of the charges are ions floating in solution (which cannot cross the cell membrane,...
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0answers
302 views

Accelerated ion beam current

If an electron gun creates a $10\space mA$ electron beam and each electron collides with a gas atom and creates an ion through impact ionization, can the ions then be accelerated with a separate ...
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1answer
1k views

Definition of a charged body

In my lecture notes it is said: In normal circumstances every atom, of any substance (conducting or not), has an equal amount of positively and negatively charged particles, hence it is neutral. ...
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1answer
240 views

Conduction and Ionic Conduction

How the ionic conduction is different from normal conduction ? Does the electrons that leave atoms completely conduct in ionic conduction while in normal conduction the conduction takes place through ...
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1answer
163 views

can you add a electron to sodium?

if you have a sodium+1 ion, are you able to add one electron some way to make it back to a neutral sodium atom?
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1answer
310 views

Can someone clarify the units for the Nernst-Einstein relation?

I am using the Nernst-Einsten relation as a way to calculate the dc ionic conductivity ($\sigma_{dc}$) of a membrane: $$\sigma_{dc} = \frac{q^2CD }{k_BT}$$ where: $q$ is the charge on ions [Coulombs]...
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0answers
197 views

How does the “lifter”/ionocraft device work? [closed]

A while ago I watched a documentary which at the end (don't let the name mislead you, I'm asking about a perfectly real phenomenon) shows an experiment which its inventor calls a "lifter"/ionocraft. ...
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1answer
77 views

Which equations would allow you to calculate the force exerted on a charged ion moving through a magnetic field? [closed]

Due to 'shear' of the electrical double layer when a liquid is forced through a pipe, ions of net charge are mechanically transported in a specific direction. I want to calculate the force that a ...
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1answer
87 views

Do sound waves deflect off of a charged plate in ion-filled liquid?

Suppose there is a small tank of water filled with charged particles, and a sound wave is being transmitted through it. If a metal plate was placed in the tank and a voltage applied to the plate, ...
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2answers
1k views

Can we isolate the iron ions in a solution?

I was wondering if it was possible to isolate the iron ions in a soltion without adding anything (to precipitate for example). Maybe using a magnetic field? Thanks
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2answers
104 views

How do accelerated ions with remaining electrons in the shell produce synchrotron radiation?

Since ions are charged, they should produce synchrotron radiation in an accelerator. I am interested the characteristics of the emitted radiation when there are still electrons in the ion's shell (not ...
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1answer
43 views

How does the ion mobility influence the elctrical fiels?

So I have a system of three electrodes, anode, cathode and reference electrode. When I apply a negative current and then register somehow the activity of the sodium chloride solution. Then I apply a ...
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1answer
229 views

CNOT gate with trapped ions

I'm interested in knowing the structure of a CNOT gate, in quantum computing. THe problem with that is, that I've read how the structure of a nuclear quantum computer works, but I still don't ...
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1answer
77 views

Local charge density manipulation of ionized air

Assume we have ionized the air in an isolated container. Would is be possible to concentrate the ions within a specific region of the container with electric fields, i.e. to manipulate local charge ...
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0answers
371 views

salt water conductivity

my book says the following on conductivity in water with ions. I am confused about why electrons from the zinc (anode) repel positive ions. Because zinc becomes negative, shouldn't it attract it? ...
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0answers
127 views

In the LHC, how is the proton separated from the electron in the hydrogen? [duplicate]

I know that we use protons in the LHC. So my question is, how is the proton separated from the electron in the hydrogen?