Questions tagged [ions]

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4 views

Ionic and Electronic conductivity: Separate measurements

Suppose a material consists of a mixture of conductivities both ionic and electronic. How do we measure these conductivities separately?
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13 views

Is a negative absolute reduction potential impossible?

The lower the reduction potential of species, the lower the ionization energy of the species. Reduction potential is a species ability to gain electrons, and its "counterforce" is oxidation ...
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10 views

Adjustment of spin quantum number in ionic bond

I would like to describe my problem with an example: The spin of 11th electron of Na (Sodium) atom could be $\pm \tfrac 12$. Let's consider in this case it is $+\tfrac 12$. The spin of 17th electron ...
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28 views

Are ionic crystals, band insulators?

Ionic crystals are considered as electrical insulators. Is there a proof that they are insulators from the point of view of electronic band theory? In other words, is there a proof that ionic crystals ...
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19 views

The interaction of an ion with all ions in KCL crystal structure deducing its relationship as $𝑈_𝑖 = โˆ’|𝛼| 𝑒 ^2 /𝑅 + 𝛽 𝐵_𝑛 / 𝑅^𝑛$

please, if someone can answer this question? deduce the relationship of the interaction of an ion with all ions in KCL crystal structure as $๐‘ˆ_๐‘– = โˆ’|๐›ผ| \frac{๐‘’^2}{๐‘…} + ๐›ฝ \frac{๐ต_๐‘›}{๐‘…^๐‘›}$
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1answer
31 views

Generating electrical current using sea or ocean currents

I'm curious to know is this concept can work. Place two metallic plates in a body of salt water. Connect a power supply in order to attract ions close to each plate. Place two coils as illustrated ...
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1answer
33 views

Why does the high charge density of a proton prevent it from existing alone in a solution?

My chemistry lecture notes say that when an acid is in a solution, it can give off protons, but only when there is another molecule that can accept those protons. It is said that the reason why the ...
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1answer
13 views

Identifying variable in an ion thruster problem

recently came across a school revision problem introduced my teacher about ion thrusters. With the assumption that we are ionising air (Nitrogen) and that the ions accelerate by mutual repulsion ...
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2answers
75 views

In plasma when we introduce a positive test charge then electron cloud shield it, why don't they stick to it and neutralise it?

When a positive test charge is introduced into a plasma, then there is a formation of an electron cloud which shields it. Why don't these electron stick to the positive charge and just neutralise it? ...
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1answer
29 views

Why Debye shielding occur in plasma?

Why Debye shielding occur in plasma when we introduce a test charge? Does Debye shielding depends on test charge When it is introduced in plasma?
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16 views

Is it possible to store ions in an insulated chamber?

Is it possible to use some sort of container to store negatively(or positively) charged lets say...nitrogen ions? And if the container is made out of insulating material, will the atoms remain charged ...
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2answers
96 views

What is quasineutral in plasma physics?

What is quasineutral gas? In plasma physics, what exactly quasineutral means? In definition of plasma, it is written that plasma is a quasineutral gas of charged and neutral particles which exhibit ...
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2answers
24 views

“Crystal electric field”, zero temperature, and the idea that the crystal electric field will have a “symmetry reflecting that of the crystal lattice”

I was searching for information on "phonon broadening" in the context of lasers. I found the document Paper BIII: Diatomic Molecules & Laser Physics by Prof. Simon Hooker, where chapter ...
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1answer
22 views

Electric arc and electric spark differences? [duplicate]

Why does an electric spark occur discontinuously while an electric arc is not extinguished as long as the current is maintained?
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1answer
41 views

Why does lightning strike lightning rods sometimes?

I watched some videos and read a lot of posts mentioned that pointy shaped objects create denser electric field than other objects (especially spherical ones), that's why people use pointy and ...
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0answers
42 views

How is electric spark produced?

Regarding to my textbook and what I've learned via Internet. Electric spark occurs when the gas molecules are ripped apart into ions due to huge voltage, and when they recombine to form neutral state, ...
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34 views

Does membrane permeability affect the equilibrium reached by two different concentrations of equally charged ions?

I'm asking this question to aid understanding of the formation of membrane potential in a cell from electrochemical gradients of ions e.g. why the membrane potential is skewed towards the equilibrium ...
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1answer
33 views

Charge state in Accelerator physics

while asking for calculation of magnetic rigidity for accelerators, I am seeing notations like '238-U-28+' & '197-Au-77+ Previously I was comfortable seeing charge state like 40-Ca-1+ ions before. ...
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1answer
22 views

Can ions / protons / charge liquids generate magnetic fields

can ions moving in a solution generate magnetic field if yes then why is it not more commonly used. lithium ion's in batteries pass from cathode to anode separated by a membrane to discharge the ...
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1answer
24 views

Charge measurement and mass spectrometer

When reading about how we can use a mass spectrometer in order to determine the mass of atoms/ions, several books that I have considered say that a mass spectrometer allows for a measurement of the ...
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20 views

Energy in a cold ion gas

Imagine that all of space is filled with a cold ion cloud that has a known particle density. How can I calculate just the electrostatic potential energy per unit volume of space? Please forgive any ...
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1answer
64 views

Continuity of electric displacement field inside ion solution

I am trying to model transport of ions (calcium, potassium, chloride etc.) in water. The ions move because of the influence of diffusion and electric force and can be modeled by the Poisson-Nernst-...
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1answer
87 views

What is the difference between ion beam and laser?

What is the difference between laser beams and ion beams, especially in inertial confinement fusion? In inertial fusion, we use lasers as well as ion beams for driving the reaction. What is the ...
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3answers
56 views

Atom charge forces and ionic bounding [duplicate]

Why do electrons form shells/clouds around nucleus? If electron is negative charge and protons in nucleus are positive they should attract each other and as a end result stick in one place? Second ...
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1answer
107 views

Difference between ions, free electrons, and excess charge

This part from University Physics turned my world upside down. What is the difference between ions, free electrons, and excess charge? Also, ions and free electrons make up a neutral conductor? Bloody ...
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1answer
31 views

Does potassium ions have a longer range attraction than sodium ions or hydrogen ions?

Electronegativity decreases with period in in the periodic table. The explanation for that is because the distance to the nucleus decreases with each orbital shell of electrons, if I got that right. ...
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An electron leaves a neutral droplet. After that, a singly-charged positive ion joins the droplet. What is the resulting charge of the droplet? [closed]

I know an electron's charge is $~1.6 ร— 10^{-19} C$, which would mean that after leaving it would leave the droplets charge as $+1.6 ร— 10^{-19} C$ (right?) but I do not understand the effect of the ion ...
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13 views

Plasma behavior around the Electric spark in air

When a pointed cathode and a plane anode are subjected high voltage dc and there is air between them, and spark is formed and the spark is allowed to sustain for few micro seconds, how the electrons ...
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16 views

Are ions in a flowing solution affected by magnetic fields

Are ions which has been dissolved in water affected by magnetic fields in any measurable way? Basically, I want to measure different ions in a water solution. Would it be possible to build a mass ...
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1answer
162 views

What are the theoretical limits of ion propulsion? [closed]

What is the theoretical limit in terms of thrust and energy efficiency a ion thruster can have? Will they ever be able to lift humans on earth? If so, what would the minimum required conditions to do ...
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43 views

How does a duoplasmatron work?

I'm looking at a diagram of a duoplasmatron ion source and am unclear on the intricacies of the design. The text accompanying the image reads: The working principle is based on two-stage discharge. ...
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1answer
136 views

Can an isotope also be an ion?

In an element when the number of neutrons differs than that of protons, it is called an isotope. An ion is formed when an atom gains a net charge due to loss or gain of an electron.
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2answers
41 views

Bremsstrahlung in synchrotrons

In synchrotons electrons are accelerated by undulators or wigglers. However, I don't get how you produce Bremsstrahlung, because Bremsstrahlung is a 3-particle process: charged particles, ions and ...
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2answers
375 views

Is there a limit of electrons a single hydrogen atom can have?

Is there a limit of electrons a single hydrogen atom can have? If so what is it? why? Is the the answer to why scalable to helium?
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2answers
96 views

Does fusion only occur with ions?

In nuclear fusion, the particles require enough energy to overcome the Coulomb barrier. The Coulomb barrier is caused by the Coulomb force, which is created by the protons repelling each other because ...
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67 views

Can a hydrogen atom temporarily attract an additional electron to form a negative ion?

Negative ions should be a kind of temporary substance form that exists widely. Can a hydrogen atom temporarily attract an additional electron to form a negative ion? Other elements or molecules can. I ...
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1answer
76 views

Why does the Einstein relation hold in the derivation of the Goldman equation?

The Einstein relation $D = \mu k_B T$ is derived by assuming an equilibrium between the drift current and the diffusion current. Knowing this I would assume, that the relation is only valid under this ...
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42 views

How is reverse osmosis even possible for desalination?

I don't understand how reverse osmosis for desalination is possible for existing RO membranes of pore size 10 angstroms (A) if the radius of a sodium atom is 3.14 A, chloride is 3.7 A and maximum ...
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34 views

For which energetic reasons are ions blocked by cell membranes?

The permeability of cell membranes is given by the following diagram from the book "Biochemistry": The reason that ions get blocked can be explained chemically: The ions favor interactions with the ...
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1answer
51 views

Binding energy of a molecular ion?

The protons in the $\text{H}_2^{+}$ molecular ion are $0.106 \, \mathrm{nm}$ apart, and the binding energy of $\text{H}_2^{+}$ is $2.65\,\mathrm{eV} .$ What negative charge must be placed halfway ...
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43 views

What are the prerequisites for a free electron and an atom/ion to recombine?

I'm mostly interested about recombination not in plasma (e.g., recombination of beta particles with atoms that they pass by), although the rules are probably the same. Say, there's a free electron ...
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3answers
2k views

What does it mean to be/have a negative charge?

what does it mean to be negatively charged. I can't find anything on it and i would love to be able to finally understand what it means to be negatively charged.
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1answer
20 views

How to contain air ions inside a chamber without loosing their charge?

I would like to create an experiment where I would hold ionized air molecules. Most likely negative O2-1 ions. I am looking for the most appropriate enclosure so that the ions do lose as little of ...
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48 views

Refractive Index in Ionized Liquid from Micro Aspect

I learned about the refractive index of gases and dense materials, which is a function of the atom number per volume, wavelength of electromagnetic wave, etc. However, what is the refractive of ...
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1answer
92 views

Classical Explanation for Electron-Ion collisions

Classically, electrons collide with other electrons and massive (by comparison), stationary positive ions as they conduct down a wire when an electric field is applied. Is there a good mechanism ...
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1answer
38 views

Do ionized salt solutions produce electromagnetic field?

When there is a solution ions of both negatively and positively charged ions, is there an electromagnetic field due to Brownian motion of ions? Do oppositely charged ions mutually cancel out their ...
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33 views

Electronegative - Electropositive atoms can attract ions?

Well I was just wondering how a copper-zinc battery works, with electrolyte an equilibrium of water and NaOH. It says that NaOH is dissolved (I understand that) into water forming H$_4$O$_8$Na+ ions ...
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1answer
72 views

When atom absorb energy, how does the nucleon know? [duplicate]

Imagine a photon hits a hydrogen ion and is absorbed, how do the nucleon of the hydrogen knows and start to accelerate? Any difference between this and hydrogen ion in a electric field?
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2answers
105 views

Why doesn't ionized air give you a current shock?

According to Tesla coil, the air gets ionized and why doesn't ionized air give current shock to a person standing in the ionized air?
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2answers
124 views

Touching single line of AC Power and charge oscillation in body

If a person touches a single line of AC(Only on the live line, and no where else. Say he/she is hanging on the power line using one hand) as shown in the attached image, Do the ions in his/her body ...