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How would I calculate plasma density profile for a plasma in a magnetic field?

I want to find the density profile of a xenon gas plasma at a given pressure. My current approach is to model the plasma as a fluid and use the continuity equation below: $\frac{\partial n(\vec{r},t)}{...
MXVG's user avatar
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Can impact offset of an electron on an ion affect the resulting particle velocities?

A free electron, of mass $m_e$ and velocity $v_e$ collides with an ion of mass $m_i$ and velocity $v_i$. When they recombine, a photon of exactly the ionization energy $E_i$ will be emitted, moving in ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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When two neutral atoms collide, and one atom ionizes, how does the speed of the ejected electron compare to that of the atoms?

When two neutral atoms collide, and one atom ionizes, how does the speed of the ejected electron compare to that of the atoms? Context is, I was trying to do the calculations for the velocity of the ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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2 answers
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Can an atom absorb a photon that matches the ionization energy of the atom, without ionizing? What would the resulting orbital state be?

Can an atom absorb a photon that matches the ionization energy of the atom, without ionizing? What would the resulting orbital state be? Let's take as an example atom argon (or hydrogen, if that is ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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How can photons be absorbed by matter, without causing ionization or new photons?

Let's say we have a gas, of argon atoms for example. We raise the temperature of the gas to 20,000K. Some atoms collide with enough energy that the atoms ionize, into free electrons and ions. So, now ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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2 answers
66 views

How can a free electron and an ion in a plasma recombine without violating conservation of energy and momentum?

This question is the inverse of How does ionization of gas molecule affect the translational kinetic energy of the molecule? The answer to that question is that a molecule cannot spontaneously ionize: ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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How does ionization of gas molecule affect the translational kinetic energy of the molecule?

Some things I understand to be true: When we raise the temperature of a gas to around 10-20,000 Kelvin, the molecules of gas start to ionize, form a plasma, according to the Saha equation. The ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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Ionization power density

Is there theory that relates electromagnetic power density to ionization probability? If you want a simpler problem, assume hydrogen and microwave frequency.
Alex's user avatar
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Why ionization energy of oxygen dips moving from nitrogen to oxygen if the total spin decreased?

How does spin-orbit splitting also affect this or anomalous zeeman effect or decrease in spin when you move from Nitrogen to Oxygen? Bad Teacher: The addition of the second electron into an already ...
jkj's user avatar
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1 answer
33 views

Sudden drop in temperature in Sun convective zone

In the solar temperature graph, why does the temperature drop suddenly in the convective zone? Is it because some energy is needed for ionisation?
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Koopman's Theorem for Ionization energy and electron affinity

Why is Koopman's theorem a reliable approximation for ionization energy but unreliable for electron affinity? I understand that it has to do with cancellation of errors by orbital relaxation and ...
ManfredArcane's user avatar
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Why doesn't the water in a Light Water Reactor split to $\rm H_2$ and $\rm O_2$?

Intuitively I'd expect a nuclear reactor to produce gamma and neutron radiation powerful enough to knock hydrogen atoms/nuclei (or electrons) off $\rm H_2O$ molecules, some of which could recombine ...
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Is there a way to simulate particle stopping stochastically, from a known $dE/dx$ curve?

I want to make a simulation of the stopping of Muons in liquid water that, instead of considering they lost exactly the amount of energy predicted by the $dE/dx$ curve at each iteration, sorts an ...
user2934303's user avatar
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2 answers
135 views

Parallel plate capacitor infinite energy

Imagine a system with a parallel plate capacitor with holes in the middle where the plates are charged before being disconnected and insulated. Neutral atoms are introduced between the plates and are ...
symen schilstra's user avatar
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3 answers
3k views

Paradox about white dwarfs and ionization

I am facing a dilemma. The fact that matter is ionized allows ions and electrons to be much closer together than they are in atoms (Bohr radius $a = 0.5 \cdot 10^{− 10} \mathrm{m}$), and the result is ...
Bml's user avatar
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$U=qV$: is my understanding right?

Suppose a point charge (q) moves from point A to point B, only under the influence of an external charge configuration. ΔU=qΔV: The change of the potential energy of the charge+external configuration ...
Mathematics 22C's user avatar
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2 answers
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Ionization process

Is it possible that ions can be doubly or more charged in the ionization process? like if we have 22keV energy photon then can this much energy photon ionize the Ar atom twice ionize and more? because ...
Chandra Dhawan's user avatar
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Cooper-Zare-Theory - Photoionization simulated in Python

My concrete problem is that I want to calculate cross-sections for photoionization transitions in argon in Python. For example from the excited state 3S^23p^56d into the continuum. For this, I found ...
LaserLennart's user avatar
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Two photon ionization of H, He via natural light sources

I have tried to find references for numbers on the two-photon ionization of H and He, i.e. ionization via photons of energies lower than the ionization energy. My goal is to decide whether natural ...
AtmosphericPrisonEscape's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
278 views

Binding energy vs. Ionization energy of hydrogen

Why is the binding energy of the electron in atomic hydrogen not the same as the ionization energy of hydrogen? The binding energy is $\approx 13.605874\text{ eV}$ (accounting for fine structure, see ...
Yodo's user avatar
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Dense plasma focus at ambient air pressure

About a year ago I read a paper stating that a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) could operate at ambient air pressure. But I can't find the paper anymore and what I've found in online journals seems ...
SR999's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is third photoelectric effect law wrong? [closed]

1.Ionization energy equals minimal energy electron needs to overcome atom’s Coulombs and gravitational fields. Ionization energy depends on which state atom currently is. For ground state ionization ...
Stdugnd4ikbd's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
564 views

Why are atoms not being ionized during stimulated emission?

To ionize atom at some state, as understand, it must receive the energy of that state, so for a hydrogen atom, being in the ground state it $13.6\ eV$. In the second state, the ionization energy is ...
Stdugnd4ikbd's user avatar
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Electron affinity from first principles

How accurately has the electron affinity of Hydrogen been simulated (compared to its measured value of 0.754195 eV)? It seems like this could be a good check on whether two electrons have any ability ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Recombination of protons in solar wind

All accounts of solar wind I have seen (I am no expert in the topic), seem to refer to it being everywhere a plasma (mainly composed of protons/electrons). For example, I have seen statements about ...
oliver's user avatar
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1 answer
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Momentum conservation in ionization

When an atom ionized by a photon, is the total momentum of the photon and the emitted electron conserved?
Andreas Valadakis's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
66 views

Can the nucleus be ionized?

Traditionally, the word ionization is conceptualized as the removal of electrons from an atom to leave a net charge on that atom. This is generally achieved through the bombardment of high energy ...
Morphyl's user avatar
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What is the physic explanation why does a spark in spark generator doesn't jump in a straight way? [duplicate]

Picture source: This is the spark in a spark gap transmitter, a transmitter in the early of radio is discovered, or maybe including the Hertz's experiment itself. This is also we may see in a spark ...
AirCraft Lover's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
72 views

Photoionization by black-body radiation

I am trying to solve the question: "Show that if an atom is photoionized by black-body radiation with the temperature $T^*$ such that $kT^*\ll I_H,$ the average kinetic energy acquired by an ...
TTT's user avatar
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2 answers
86 views

Why is it easier to throw electrons from a higher energy shell?

From what i understand, as we increase the radius of unlike charges, the potential energy of the system also increases, so electrons in the outer shell live in a higher potential system, i.e more ...
confused's user avatar
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Why does the closed-shell structure lead to high ionization potential?

Why does the closed-shell structure of atoms (those of the noble gases), lead to high ionization potential compared to the neighbouring atoms in the periodic table, on both sides of them, i.e. one ...
Solidification's user avatar
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Simulating Plasma Ionization Rate using PPT formula

I've used A.14 formula in the paper "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly-ionized, optically-transparent media" to calculate the dependence of ionization rate in oxygen molecules in air ...
The Capacitor's user avatar
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3 answers
136 views

Why doesn't when an electron gets knocked out of an atom, the electron get attracted back to the atom and reunite?

I first thought of this question when I was learning how solar cells work and how ionization happens. The question I have is if atoms can get ionized to net positive charge by removing electrons, then ...
alienare 4422's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does the absorption of ionizing radiation increase the absorber temperature?

Let's say a gamma ray shielding material (assume water) has absorbed 1 joule of gamma ray ionizing radiation, does the absorbed 1 joule eventually end up as heat in this material? I ask this question ...
Abanob Ebrahim's user avatar
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1 answer
132 views

What would happen if I were to shine light on a metal for a long time?

According to photoelectric effect, shining light of sufficient energy would ionized an electron from a metal. So what would happen if I were to shine a light on the metal for a very long time? Will ...
sachin shajil's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
42 views

Can you combine photons to ionise electrons?

I was talking with a friend about the photoelectric effect. I know that only light of a certain energy will eject an electron from a metal plate. But consider this. A photon (red) had the exact energy ...
John Hon's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Temperature dependence on enthalpy change during phase transition

Context The temperature dependence on the enthalpy of vaporization can be found by evaluating the enthalpy before and after the transition. The definition of the specific heat capacity is $\left(\frac{...
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Is ionization energy non-negotiable?

$$\text{2Na(s)}+\text{Cl}_2\text{(g)}\longrightarrow \text{2NaCl(s)}\tag{1}$$ This is a spontaneous reaction ($\Delta G<0$). 2 Na atoms donate 2 electrons to 2 Cl atoms. However, Na still has a ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
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1 answer
204 views

Ionizing radiation energy in joules

The energy level at which radiation can be labelled as ionizing is about $10.00-33.85$ eV. This (the $33.85$ eV) is equivalent to $5.423368\cdot 10^{-18}$ Joules. In terms of joules this is a very low ...
Mohamed Abdulraheem's user avatar
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1 answer
182 views

Why does the electron impact ionization cross-section for atoms increase and then decrease as a function of incident electron energy?

The question really states it all and I haven't been able to find a source online or here that discusses the shapes of these characteristic ionization curves (argon curves shown below). I would like ...
Damon's user avatar
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6 votes
4 answers
560 views

Can one photon excite two widely-spaced atoms simultaneously?

For example, can a single 1 eV photon excite 0.5 eV transitions in both of two atoms that are widely separated (events outside each other's light-cones)? In order to excite a transition, the incoming ...
Roger Wood's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
146 views

How can we calculate the ionization energy of lithium atom?

In Griffiths book, I have seen how to calculate the ionization energy of a Helium atom, but I am unable to calculate it for a Lithium atom. How can we calculate the ionization energy of a Lithium atom?...
Rick Andy's user avatar
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0 answers
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What is electrical efficiency of ionized air

I have tried finding the correct answer to this question with no avail. I want to know what the loss would be when a path in the air is ionized and electricity is transferred from a source(lets say ...
Zmelgar K1R3D2's user avatar
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2 answers
202 views

How does the high potential difference between the two points ionizes the air?

As we can see that for some instance air can tolerate the potential difference between two points without any high leakage current and when this potential difference between the two points becomes too ...
Tejas Dahake's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

What type of energy electrons store on different orbitals?

It's said that electrons, situated on different energy levels inside an atom, possess different amounts of some energy. I'm interested in what is that energy. Is it kinetic energy? Surely, electrons ...
Victor Novak's user avatar
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1 answer
104 views

Is high tempurature/ thermal radiation a requirement for ionization of gas to plasma using different frequencies of photons?

I am wondering if thermal radiation or heat energy is fundamental to ionizing a gas into a plasma when using lasers or different frequencies of light. I know that gas discharge tubes or Geissler tubes ...
JuicyYellow's user avatar
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39 views

Ion-propelled device ionization

Imagine we have an ion-propelled device: Lower part is made of 1cm wide aluminum foil, upper part is separated from it with 3cm gap and made of 0.1mm copper wire. Parts are connected to high-voltage ...
realGuybrush's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

Why do the oil droplets pick up electrons in Milikans Oil Drop experiment?

As I currently understand it the x-ray source ionises the air liberating electrons which then stick to the oil drops hence giving them a negative charge which Milikan utilised to acquire a value for e....
Feyon's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to relate laser pulse characteristics to the degrees of ionization of a target (i.e. how many electrons get removed per atom)?

Say I have a lithium foil as a target for a laser. Li has $3$ protons and $3$ electrons and therefore $3$ degrees of ionization associated with $3$ ionization energies (for removing the first, second ...
MrFu's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
630 views

How can radio radiation ionize gases?

Reading the operational mechanism of Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) on Wikipedia, I encountered the following: The propellant, a neutral gas such as argon or xenon, is ...
C-Consciousness's user avatar