Questions tagged [ionization-energy]

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What is the physical meaning of a molecular fragment having two appearance energies?

Appearance energies are particularly import when it comes down to mass spectrometers that use electron impact bombardment. They typically denote the quantum energy value for fragmenting the molecule ...
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5answers
135 views

Can air be ionized using microwaves?

I've read about the concept of a laser induced plasma channel where air can be ionized to form a plasma using laser light. Can this be done or is it hypothetically possible to ionize air with ...
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9 views

Is there a way to calculate the molecular ionization energy from the single atom ionization energies?

Let us call the ionization energies of three atoms $E_1, E_2 $ and $E_3$. Is there a way to at least approximate the ionization energy of the molecule formed by those three ionization energies?
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720 views

Does ionization process release energy?

Does ionization process release energy? In the case of helium atoms, to ionize the first electron, energy is injected, which is 24.59 eV of the experimental results. Will helium emit energy in the ...
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24 views

What is the real difference between tunneling ionization and multiphoton ionization (MPI)?

Ionization is when an EM neutral atom gaing Em charge by losing or gaining an electron. Tunnel ionization is ionization due to quantum tunneling. In classical ionization, an electron must have ...
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1answer
43 views

Ionization rate in atomic hydrogen

In perturbation theory (QM), i found the graph of ionization rate with various parameter like momentum of ejected electron, intensity, frequency, field strength of incident laser field. But i am ...
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18 views

What portion of the energy carried by lightning is lost as ionization, heat, light, sound and other phenomena before it hits the ground?

What portion of the energy carried by lightning is lost as heat, light and sound, by ionizing the atmosphere or to other phenomena the space between its source and the ground? How does it vary ...
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1answer
33 views

Neutral lithium ionization energy for removing an electron from the $1s$ orbital

How much energy does it take to singly ionize a neutral lithium atom by removing an electron from the $1s$ orbital?
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18 views

Ionization of a Column of Air Using Laser

First, I know there is a question similar to this already, but I am asking it in much more detail and I have done much more research than the original asker. Say I wanted to ionize a 3 metre long path ...
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1answer
36 views

When air is ionised, which component gases are actually ionised?

Air is a mixture of O2, N2 etc. Which gases are ionised at STP, and is there a different level of ionisation for different gases?
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32 views

How does waterfall produces negative ions? Do rain do too?

I read that water molecule steal electron from oxygen molecule but the next sentences onward is talking about the benefit of negative ions for health, what is the cause of negative ion production in ...
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39 views

Air ionization by powerful continuous laser (power calculation)

I am interested about air ionization by the laser beam. Here I found a very good answer, but I would like to clarify it a bit more. How about a continuous laser? For MPI (multiphoton ionization) ...
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35 views

tribo charge and work function - adiabatic vs vertical

I am interested in estimating relative tribo charging for different dielectric materials (insulators). I understand that I can use the work function difference between two materials to estimate ...
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48 views

Positive and Negative Corona Discharge

I have two plates with high voltage (+30KV) with a distance of 2mm. Inside of the vacuum, I did not see any discharge or arcing. After I insert the Rubidium vapor, I start seeing the corona discharge ...
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1answer
48 views

Electron density Saha Ionization Equation

Saha-Boltzmann equation describes the ratio of number densities between any two consecutive ionization states and its product with the number electron density i.e. $$n_e\frac{n_{i+1}}{n_{i}}$$ Here, ...
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1answer
75 views

What happens to the $3d$ and $4s$ levels during the ionisation of a transition metal?

I'm just wondering about the transition state of a transitional metal before (ex: $[\mathrm{Ar}]\, 3d^3 \,4s^2$) and after ionisation (which means $[\mathrm{Ar}]\, 3d^3 \,4s^1$) because before ...
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1answer
42 views

Can a strong electric field cause the electrons to come out of the atoms?

Can a strong electric field cause the electrons to come out of the atoms, is this how free electron are obtained in a discharge tube?
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3answers
54 views

What am I doing wrong in electrolysis of water?

I am trying to two 1.5V battery in series to electrolysis a small bowl of tap water oversaturated with salt. But I can't see any bubble on the part submerged (circled on the photo). Could you guys ...
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1answer
19 views

How far can we track ionic based spaceships if antenna fails

Suppose we send an ionic based spaceship and all the antennas are broken on launch, suppose the spaceship destination is another solar system. Obviously we can track it with optical telescopes, but i ...
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2answers
99 views

How can high voltage create ions?

So I was reading about Tesla Coil propulsion and Ion Thrusters. The thing I don't understand is the following: As it is shown on the image, when an electron colides into a gas atom, it ionizes it. ...
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1answer
137 views

Force between nucleus and electron [duplicate]

Let's say we have a hydrogen atom in electric field. If the field is strong enough, electron will be separated from nucleus. How to determine the value of $E$ at which it happens? To my understanding,...
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1answer
60 views

A question about Helium spectrum

I'm starting to read about two-electron atoms from physics of atoms and molecules by Bransden. Analyzing Helium spectrum I noticed that the energy of $He^+(1s)+e^-$ is greater than the energy of He, ...
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3answers
188 views

Ionization Energy Confusion

In my Barron's SAT Physics book, it states that ionization energy is equal to the absolute value of the ground state energy. This doesn't make sense to me because ionization energy is the minimum ...
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1answer
20 views

Why does MPI require high intensities?

I have been reading up on multi-photon ionization recently, and I can't seem to find an explanation for this. My understanding so far is that if you need x amount of energy to excite an electron, and ...
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2answers
189 views

Quantum tunneling versus over-the-barrier ionization

I was doing a quantum physics past paper and there was this question about ionizing atoms with laser. My answers made reference to the photons within the laser knocking off or transferring their ...
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1answer
45 views

Why are atoms ionized at ICP-MS temps?

If the upper temperature of an ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) plasma is 10,000 kelvin, why are any atoms introduced ionized? 1 eV is equivalent to 11,605 kelvin and the first ...
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Laser induced Ionization

We know that when a linearly polarised laser field interacts with a diatomic molecule ionization happens when the molecular axis is along the laser-field direction. However, in case of a circularly ...
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1answer
485 views

Ionisation of hydrogen

Is ionization of hydrogen gas atoms possible? I separated hydrogen from water by electrolysis but I want to obtain H+, how do I ionize that hydrogen gas? Is it possible to do it?
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1answer
348 views

The Geiger Counter

In my class, we talked about the GM-counter and we were shown a graph with the voltage on the x-axis and intensity on the y-axis. But I do not understand why the graph has the characteristics it has, ...
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1answer
203 views

How to determine the activation energy for donors/acceptors using the Arrhenius eq.?

I am trying to determine the donor/acceptor activation energy for the semiconductor InGaP with the Arrhenius equation. However it contains only one parameter for the activation energy, which turns out ...
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1answer
1k views

Forces vs Energy

We have conservation of momentum and conservation of energy. Both are similar in some respects but different in others. It is quite amazing that the momentum in a system of two particles is always ...
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2answers
986 views

Could a strong enough electric field tear a hydrogen atom apart? [duplicate]

A neutral hydrogen atom is composed of a proton and an electron. The overall charge on the atom is zero but there are local charges within the atom as the negative and positive charge is not evenly ...
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1answer
34 views

Ionization energy comparison

I'm a bit confused about this part since it doesn't specifically mention it in my book as far as I've read. But let's say if I have to compare the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom to the ...
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0answers
136 views

Can two lasers ionize a single point of air?

I am not very educated in this subject, so I apologize in advance if what I am asking is obvious/incorrect/duplicated. I am interested in volumetric displays, and was doing some research when I came ...
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84 views

Approximate Solutions to Dyson's Equation

I've been trying to learn about Green's function in the context of computational chemistry by reading Szabo and Ostlund's Modern Quantum Chemistry. I've reached a section about the one particle many ...
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1answer
83 views

How do people Ionize with higher watt lasers?

A double covalent bond of nitrogen ($\mathrm{N}_2$) has an ionization potential of 15.58eV. Now lets go into an example. If I have a laser of wavelength $\lambda = 477\:\mathrm{nm}$ and I calculate ...
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2answers
75 views

Does pulse duration matter in laser induced air breakdown

(Before I start the question, this is not a duplicate of any question to my knowledge. Also yes I could maybe ask this on my other questions, but these questions aren't just for me they are for ...
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1answer
77 views

How to make the two-photon process occur in ionization?

In my previous questions I ask about ionizing air molecules such as nitrogen which requires 15.58 eV or oxygen which requires 12.07 eV. If you do the equation wavelength = 1240 eV nm / (photon energy) ...
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1answer
270 views

How is it possible to ionize air with wavelengths longer than the UV dictated by the ionization potential?

I understand that molecular oxygen has an ionization potential of around 13.6 eV and molecular nitrogen sits at around 14.8 eV; these correspond to wavelengths of around 80 nm and 92 nm, respectively, ...
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1answer
89 views

Ionizing with 980nm laser

I have been looking at a 980 nm, 5-250 mw, 1 Hz to 1000 kHz pulsed IR laser. I understand that it takes 13.6 eV to ionize oxygen, and 15.6 eV to ionize nitrogen. Our pulses are only every 1,000,000 ...
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1answer
44 views

A dot in the air

I want to make a dot in our air without a vacuum. Weather it's with a laser intersecting with something else to emit a visible particle or with ionization. I want to make a small dot. What kind of ...
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888 views

Why isn't the ground state energy $-13.6 eV$ of electron in hydrogen atom also the rest energy $0.5 MeV$ of electron?

Why isn't the ground state energy $-13.6 eV$ of electron in hydrogen atom also the rest energy $0.5 MeV$ of electron?
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281 views

Ionisation and excitation energy

In these notes (Interaction with matter, Katharina Müller, 2014), discussing the Bethe-Bloch formula, on slide 12, it is written as Mean excitation energy $>$ Ionization energy. How is this ...
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1answer
109 views

How much heat is needed for an atom to be ionized? [duplicate]

We all know that heat or high voltage makes atoms into an excited state, stripping off the electrons off of their nucleus. But how much heat do you exactly need to create plasma, or have the majority ...
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1answer
715 views

Minimum voltage to ionize Xenon

As we know, the ionization energy for Xenon is $12.13 \,\rm{eV}$. Is this value obtained via experiment? Or can it be calculated? In the latter case, can you please share the formula? I tried to use ...
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1answer
212 views

Air ionisation through insulated conductor

Imagine electric conductor,copper wire for example,that is fully coated with thin teflon coating and this coated wire is surrounded by air. The classis high voltage air ionisation happens when the ...
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2answers
276 views

How to completely turn a gas into positive or negative ions

How would I completely turn a gas into positive ions? How would I completely turn a gas into negative ions? Could I simply have a gas in a sealed chamber with an ion generator inside with the power ...
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1answer
31 views

Ionization energies of atoms while bonded

Is the ionization energy of an atom different when it is in a bond or in a crystal? For instance the ionization energy of H is 13.6 eV. Is it different when bonded with O in water? Another example is ...
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62 views

How ionized is the plasma in a Crookes tube

How ionized is the plasma in a Crookes tube, at $10^{−6}$ to $5 \times 10^{−8}$ atmosphere ($7 \times 10^{−4}$ – $4 \times 10^{−5}$ torr or 0.1–0.005 pascal). Under any of these circumstances is it ...
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what is the degree of ionization of glow discharge tube air at various pressures?

From the minimum air pressure to the highest air pressure achievable with glow discharge tubes what is the degrees of ionization associated with them? What is the minimum degree of ionization of glow ...