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Questions tagged [intensity]

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Gain Coefficient of lasers and intensity paradox?

It can easily be shown that the intensity of a laser is $$I = I_0e^{z\gamma} \,, \tag{1}$$ where $\gamma$ is the gain coefficient. It can also be shown that $$\gamma = \frac{\gamma_0}{1+I/I_{\text{...
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Intensity, power and efficiency question help [on hold]

The solar Intensity in the Netherlands is $1.0e3\ W/m^2$ at a maximum sunshine and a perpendicular incidence. On average, about $10\%$ of this peak power can be utilized. The efficiency of the ...
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How can I quantitatively compare the average sound intensity of two different audio clips?

Let's say I have two different sound clips of two different people snoring. The intensity of the audio in both clips will be fluctuating throughout and peak when the person is inhaling. Is there an ...
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4answers
4k views

Does light intensity oscillate really fast since it is a wave?

If you shine light on a wall, what will be seen is a "patch" with constant intensity. However, if light is viewed as a wave, then it is oscillations of the electromagnetic field changing from 0 to the ...
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1answer
18 views

Luminostiy, Flux, Intensity definitions and meaning

I am taking astrophysics course and we are constantly talking about Luminosity,Brightness,Intensity,Flux etc. I thought that I understand the idea properly but I see now that I dont. Intensity is the ...
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3answers
42 views

Intensity of the resultant of two complex waves [closed]

Suppose I have two waves: $Y_1= a_1e^{i(wt-kx1)}$ and $Y_2= a_2e^{i(wt-kx2)}$ I know by superposition $Y= Y_1+Y_2$ and intensity $(I) = |Y|² $ But how can I solve it. It seems hard for me to find the ...
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0answers
46 views

Photoelectric effect - the reason for exponential graphs and a misconception about the concept of intensity

We have this basic PASCO Photoelectric Effect equipment in our lab and there are two things I would like to ask about the experiment. We keep either the area apertures or wavelength filters fixed and ...
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1answer
23 views

Reflection coefficient derivation

from fresnel equations we have $$r_{parallel}=\frac{n_1\cos\theta_i-n_2\cos\theta_r}{n_1\cos\theta_i+n_2\cos\theta_r}$$ $$r_{perpendicular}=\frac{n_2\cos\theta_i-n_1\cos\theta_r}{n_1\cos\theta_i+n_2\...
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1answer
27 views

What is the relation between Reflectance and Intensity?

I am just reviewing Fresnel's equations where Reflectance $R$ is equal to $$R=|r|^2$$ where $r$ is the complex reflection coefficient. Is there an equation that relates $R$ to intensity or is there ...
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3answers
66 views

How is energy conserved during simultaneous refraction and reflection of light?

My question is regarding the partial reflection and refraction of light when incident on a refracting surface. Here, the energy of Incident Ray is E=hv of Reflected Ray is E=hv and that of Refracted ...
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1answer
37 views

Photoelectric Current [duplicate]

Recently learnt that Intensity= nhv ; where n is the number of photos per unit area My textbook specifies that the photoelectric current only depends upon the number of photons striking per unit time ...
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1answer
49 views

why does the intensity of light does not vary with time in youngs double slit experiment

[ we can see that resultant electric field at a point p is given $E=E0\sin(kx-\omega t+\epsilon)$[equation highlighed with yellow color] as the resultant field varies with time, why not ...
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1answer
40 views

Calculating light intensity with Fresnel's Equations [closed]

When light gets reflected or transmitted by another medium it's intensity splits for both the parallel and perpendicular component. Using Fresnel's equations calculating the reflected intensity which ...
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2answers
230 views

A Question About Brewster's Law

In most textbooks I read, they state that when the angle of reflection + angle of refraction = 90, there is maximum polarization. What I don't understand is what maximum polarization means. Does it ...
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1answer
36 views

A Physics Problem Involving Refraction [closed]

I'm not sure how to solve this problem. I've considered using Malus' law, but then I don't know what theta is, preventing me from solving this problem.
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3answers
140 views

What does K means in The Inverse Square Law? [closed]

Today in class i have learned the inverse square law and i was given the equation $I=K/d^2$ for some constant K. What does K really means?? I know that it is a constant but how can you get K or where?
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3answers
119 views

Energy conservation in the combination of two coherent beams

I was asked a question today by a student that I couldn't find a satisfactory answer to. Imagine we have two identical laser beams with average electric field strength $E$. Upon combining these beams ...
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6answers
3k views

What does it mean to make a sound twice as loud? [duplicate]

Giancoli Textbook question: To make a given sound twice as loud, how should a musician change the intensity of the sound? The given answer is: "Increase the intensity by a factor of 10." I don't ...
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1answer
62 views

Wave optics, intensity distribution

Do Gaussian beams have a gaussian intensity distribution? If so, why? Does the intensity distribution depend on the profile of the light beam?
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4answers
69 views

What does the intensity profile of a set of parallel rays look like after travelling through a convex lens?

I have had a discussion at my university about the following question. Imagine a 'perfect' convex lens and a set of parallel rays, falling onto that lens. The set of incoming rays has a flat intensity ...
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1answer
29 views

Noise level x amount of meters away from an outdoor singer: sphere or semi-sphere?

When computing the noise level x amount of meters away from a singer who is singing outdoors, should one rely on the standard formula $I=\frac{P}{4πr^2}$ (and then convert 'I' into decibels) or ...
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2answers
220 views

What does “intensity of light” mean?

In this lecture from MIT, the professor defines the intensity of a wave as the square of the amplitude of the wave. But, at the same time, the professor defines the intensity of light as the number of ...
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0answers
30 views

Derivation of scattering coefficient as a function of number density of scatterers

I'm trying to derive the usual formula for intensity of light passing through scattering medium: $$I=I_0\exp(-\alpha x),$$ where $\alpha$ is the scattering coefficient (assuming it's constant), and $...
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2answers
1k views

How do polarized sunglasses reduce glare?

How do polarized sunglasses reduce intensity? When unpolarized sunlight enters our eyes through linearly polarized sunglasses the intensity is reduced. How can I understand it from the expression of ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the formula for the intensity of light, and how are amplitude, frequency and number of photons considered?

One formula for light intensity is$$ I = \frac{nfh}{At} \,,$$where: $n$ is the number of photons; $h$ is Planck's constant; $f$ is the frequency; $A$ is the incident area; $t$ is time. Another ...
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28 views

“Intensity” as a unified term

I am seriously having trouble with the word “intensity”. Does it have different meanings when it is placed next to another word (light intensity for example) or does it always mean the same (power/...
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4answers
151 views

Relationship between intensity and electron emission from a metal?

Here's the question: A xenon arc lamp is covered with an interference filter that only transmits light of 400- nm wavelength. When the transmitted light strikes a metal surface, a stream of electrons ...
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0answers
35 views

Quadratic relationship between amount of light and intensity

In a spectroscopy experiment, we were able to control the amount of light shining onto a sample by adjusting two small slits. By investigating the relationship between slit width and the intensity of ...
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1answer
35 views

Photon energy and power

My question has to do with the solar spectrum. I understand sunlight is composed of light of different wavelegnths, and these wavelegnths have different energies associated with them. I also ...
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0answers
21 views

How much information can be yanked out of an XRD Graph?

I have an XRD Graph(plotted data peaks between 2theta and intensity).I already Know the d-value corresponding to each peak.The material has an orthorhombic symmetry.What more information can I ...
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0answers
95 views

How is radiance conserved? - Power/intensity misconception

Before getting to the main question I'd like to clear some pretty basic concepts regarding energy/power/intensity as my physics is pretty rusty. According to wiki In radiometry, radiant flux or ...
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1answer
47 views

Acoustic amplitude transmission through multi layer medium

I have an acoustic wave with amplitude $A$ in ice. It passes a water-filled crevasse, and I want to calculate the impact of this passage on the magnitude of the amplitude (I do not care for the phase)...
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1answer
27 views

Fourier Transforms and bell frequency example

I am stuck on the following question: I can do the part a rather easily, but the part b i am stuck on. For now I have shown that I(Wo) = 1/(2piK^2) and 1% of this is 1/(200PiK^2) I have also ...
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1answer
69 views

Converting illumination to irradiance

I need get intensity of an LED light source, but I cannot convert lux to $W/M^2$ How does one convert illumination to irradiance? And what is the irradiance formula?
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1answer
358 views

Intensity of electric field and electric potential [duplicate]

I know that the vector of the intensity of the electric field has the opposite direction of the gradient of the electric potential. But what baffles me is that the magnitude of the intensity and the ...
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1answer
71 views

Characteristics of light [closed]

if Monochromatic rays of some intensity fall on a metal plate placed on a rough horizontal surface at certain angle. Will the plate move if the plate is perfectly reflecting irrespective of the value ...
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2answers
53 views

Inverse Square relationship using paint problem confusion

I want to ask a question about the inverse square relationship using an aerosol paint spray mentioned in my book. I am reading the book Advanced Physics by Steve Adams, and it mentions this in the ...
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1answer
368 views

Maximum light intensity?

From what I had learned and observed, every image (light per certain area,let it be cm^2 here) can be projected onto a small or large area without any natural obstruction from intensity. So, if light ...
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2answers
805 views

How does distance affect light intensity? [closed]

Why does light intensity decrease as the distance increases from the light source?
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3answers
911 views

Why do we use decibels instead of just using intensity to measure how loud things are?

In my physics book, it says that in the human ear, the sensation of loudness is approximately logarithmic. And that the relative sound intensity is directly proportional to a logarithmic ratio ...
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1answer
1k views

Compton Effect (graph between relative intensity and wavelength)

Why is the peak of the graph more for greater wavelengths? Since wavelength is inversely proportional to energy and relative intensity, shouldn't the peak for greater wavelength be lesser? Please ...
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1answer
234 views

Inverse square law - brightness and distance [closed]

I am working on a lab report wherein I am given a bunch of readouts from an experiment that measures the brightness (lux) of light at set distances (cm). When I apply the inverse square law, $$\frac{...
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1answer
1k views

What happens to the diffraction pattern when the width of a single slit is increased?

https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/wave-interference According to the simulation in the above link if the width of the slit is sufficiently increased then the intensity of the central point ...
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0answers
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What does the Interferogram of a FTIR-spectrometer show ? Is it instantenous intensity vs time or time averaged intensity vs time?

I try to get a clear understanding of FTIR spectroscopy and it is unclear to me what exactly the interferogram shows. I know that we see the intensity of the superpositioned beams where we vary the ...
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2answers
11k views

Exact relationship between electric field and intensity

I often see $I(t)\propto |E(t)|^2$. What is the exact form ? Which constants are missing to make this an equality and why are they so often omitted ?
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1answer
1k views

Factors on which brightness of light depends

Does brightness of light depend on number of quanta in the light? It makes sense assuming that the number of photons would affect the brightness of light.
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1answer
181 views

Intensity of superimposed waves at the michelson inferometer

The Problem is about the Michelson Inferometer described by the picture below Let the Beam Splitter be one, who reflects half of the intensity and transmits the other half of it. Furthermore assume ...
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1answer
212 views

Meaning of “intensity” in the optical Kerr effect in optical quantum computation

Kerr media, or mediums displaying the optical Kerr effect, are used in some optical quantum computers - on Chuang and Nielsen's Quantum Computing and Quantum Information, pgs. 289 - 290, it says, ...
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1answer
149 views

Intensity at $\theta = 0$ in slit diffraction

From the explanation on diffraction at http://web.mit.edu/viz/EM/visualizations/coursenotes/modules/guide14.pdf $$I = I_0\left [ \frac{\sin(\beta/2)}{\beta/2} \right ]^2=I_0\left [ \frac{\sin(\pi a \...
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1answer
169 views

How to use Malus's law to get real output energy from a polarizer

As we know, the Malus's law is: $I=I_0\cos^2\theta$ Presently, I have a polarizer system (one half wave plate in front of a polarizer) in the lab, and have a powermeter. So, I can get two key ...