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Questions tagged [harmonics]

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Why are there these other “harmonics” (violin-specific terminology) in violins?

I've often read explanations of how standing waves form on the string of a violin and their harmonics but there is another phenomenon I've never seen explained: When you play certain notes, musicians ...
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5 views

What counts as a “load” on an ultrasonic transducer?

I’m trying to build an ultrasonic knife for my work. I have a 40khz ultrasonic transducer and driver circuit. It’s the same kind of transducers used in ultrasonic cleaners. I have read that the ...
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3answers
71 views

Why, in an open or half-open pipe, must an open end of a standing sound wave have a pressure of zero?

I believe this question was asked in some form before, but I'm not clear on the answer. If a sound wave must equal air pressure when it exits a tube, why is it possible that at many points after the ...
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1answer
67 views

Pulling a string with both ends fixed [duplicate]

Consider a string with both ends fixed. If somewhere in middle of it be pulled and released, how would it oscillate and what is it's equation? My solution assuming the result is a standing wave: The ...
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2answers
80 views

How is it possible that multiple overtones can exist at the same time?

I was wondering how it is possible for overtones to co-exist at the same time. When one pulls a string, it starts to oscillate and forms a standing wave with frequency $$f_0 = f$$ Additionally, ...
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12 views

Deconstructing harmonics

If I am firing a burner into a cylindrical chamber with a flat rear refractory wall, and we are experiencing constructive amplitude because of a coincidence of sound frequency and vessel length - can ...
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1answer
31 views

How do we hear harmonics and how does it affect audio fidelity?

First and foremost, do we hear a sound wave as a sum of all the individual harmonics, at the fundamental frequency, or do we hear all the associated harmonics above the fundamental frequency and ...
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0answers
14 views

Sawtooth synthesis using random harmonic phase

I was experimenting with Octave and NumPy/SciPy by synthesizing (reverse) sawtooth waves and decided to find out what a sawtooth comprised of harmonics with arbitrary phases would sound like. Note ...
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1answer
43 views

Can we consider oscillation of air column in the wind instruments as phonons subject to Bose- Einstein statistics ?

A flute is a wind instrument, which could be modelled as a resonance cylinder open at both ends. Any cylinder resonates at multiple frequencies. A skilful player produces a standing wave in the flute ...
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2answers
74 views

At what frequency does a string vibrate?

When a string with fixed ends vibrates (e.g. plucking a guitar string) Fourier Theorem says that the vibration can be expressed as a sum of its normal modes, which are sinusoidal vibrations with ...
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2answers
28 views

Which book would you recommend for a dummy wanting to start studying acoustics, out of interest?

I've been very into acoustics lately, specifically the harmonic series. I find it fascinating how the harmonic series works as a sort of guideline to harmony, and how we base tuning systems on trying ...
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1answer
80 views

Where do pure tones occur in nature, besides harmonics?

When you sound a tuning fork, you hear an pure tone/sine wave of usually 440Hz. Yesterday, I tried hitting a table knife made entirely from stainless steel against a grapefruit. When I held it up to ...
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1answer
43 views

Are These Guitar Strings Demonstrating Subharmonics?

This video has a fair few instances where there is an exaggerated wiggling of the guitar strings. I rationalise this by saying its a similar effect to rotoscoping, like where wheels appear to spin ...
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2answers
51 views

Is second harmonic generation a special case of high harmonic generation?

That might be a strange question, but while I was researching for these topics, I never found an explicit statement that would answer that question. (That might be because of the different ...
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2answers
67 views

If a guitar note is determined by the fundamental frequency, what is the relationship between this and octaves?

All the research I've been doing tells me that a guitar note is determined by the fundamental frequency played. But say you play an A on the open A string (110 Hz), and then play a higher octave A by ...
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4answers
3k views

How are overtones produced by plucking a string?

I read the following from wikipedia: When a string is plucked normally, the ear tends to hear the fundamental frequency most prominently, but the overall sound is also colored by the presence ...
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1answer
29 views

Why do two tubes with different lengths produce different frequencies?

I've learned that it has to do with harmonic frequencies and the relationship between length and wavelength in the equation $L = n(\frac{\lambda}2)$, but my question is why? If you were to blow air ...
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3answers
34 views

What Does It Mean That Standing Waves Oscillate In Phase?

What does it mean that all points between two adjacent nodes in a standing wave oscillate in phase? I sort of get what in phase means, it means that the peaks and troughs etc of 2 waves align. But how ...
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2answers
64 views

On Harmonics In Physics

I am an IB physics student. I am very confused about the concept of first, second, third, etc harmonics. My questions are: How does a wave get from first to second harmonic, and from second ...
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2answers
72 views

A pure sine wave vs. the infinite sum of its harmonics

Is a pure sine wave equivalent to the sum of its every harmonic (up to infinity and without the fundamental lets assume)? Moreover, if it is so, is this the reason why all the harmonics are present ...
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3answers
738 views

What is fundamental frequency, how does it make sense?

I’m currently going through harmonics, and I do not at all understand the fundamental frequency. I understand that it is the simplest vibration of a string, but I don't understand how can it have ...
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1answer
59 views

Calculating the decay rates for modes of an ideal circular membrane (ie. drum head) using wave equations?

I am attempting to solve for the theoretical decay rates of the various (m,n) modes of an ideal circular membrane, if that membrane is excited momentarily by an impulse or deformation. I would ...
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1answer
124 views

Fourier Series Analysis [duplicate]

Can anybody explain this paragraph from the chapter " Fourier series and transform " of the book by M l Boas? "If you strike a piano key you do not get a sound wave of just one frequency . ...
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2answers
84 views

Creating sympathetic resonance in a guitar string with an electromagnet

I have an idea for a potential new type of reverb and I wanted to know if it was possible/practical. The idea is to have an electromagnet in the middle of a guitar string(s) which will hopefully ...
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0answers
17 views

How does reflection of longitudinal waves happen in an closed organ pipe? [duplicate]

What actually happens in a closed organ pipe? According to my book, if a source is kept at the open end reflection occurs at the fixed end and the incoming wave is inverted. Why is this so? A normal ...
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3answers
101 views

Do traveling sound waves have harmonics?

I know that standing waves produce harmonics but what about traveling waves that dont reflect back on itself? Do traveling sound waves have partials that are harmonic(integer multiple of the ...
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1answer
57 views

Must all periodic sound waves have harmonics?

Does there exist a periodic sound wave that has partials which are not integer multiples of the fundamental frequency?
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1answer
360 views

What is the difference between octaves and harmonics? [closed]

my question is about the importance of Octaves vs harmonics? What is the difference between these two concepts?
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1answer
151 views

dependence of fundamental frequency of vibration of a stretched string on the medium in which it is kept [closed]

suppose a stretched wire's fundamental frequency in air is 280 Hz. What would be it's fundamental frequency in water ? (all other conditions of the string remain same) I looked into the laws of ...
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1answer
65 views

Are there physics, theories that predict standing wave harmonic deviations in curved tubes?

For cylinders, it's widely documented how to predict the harmonic frequencies given the length of the tube, the end conditions and the speed of sound which is in turn determined by what gas is in the ...
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1answer
52 views

How can a 2.1 Hz excitation induce resonant vibrations in a structure with a fundamental frequency at 6.3 Hz?

I've come across an example given in a footfall design guide wherein it's mentioned that a floor with a fundamental frequency of 6.3 Hz can be excited to resonance by a person walking at 2.1 Hz ...
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1answer
79 views

What is 'harmonic likeness'?

While reading about sympathetic vibrations/resonance, I came across the term 'harmonic likeness'. Sympathetic resonance or sympathetic vibration is a harmonic phenomenon wherein a formerly passive ...
5
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3answers
279 views

Unwanted frequencies in sawtooth tone

Since 440 represents an A note, a 55 Hz tone also represents an A, since it is at 1/8 the frequency. However, when I generate this note in Audacity, I always get unwanted frequencies appearing as ...
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2answers
114 views

Standing waves of a string

Why standing waves cannot be form from every frequency but only a particular frequency? I understand standing waves as a pattern that will be formed from one wave interfering with another, but i dont ...
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1answer
163 views

Varying amplitude of beats

Why is the product of 2X and cosine delta t divided by 2 is the varying amplitude and not the other 2X and cosine function?
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3answers
151 views

Does a harmonic become a fundamental of its own harmonic series?

Simple question, hopefully there's a simple answer. I'm about half a piano tuner, not a physicist. A musical tone has a fundamental frequency, say $220\,\text{Hz}$. Its second harmonic is $440\,\...
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3answers
223 views

Are square wave harmonics real-life phenomena or just mathematical abstractions?

Based on my limited knowledge, it is my understanding that square waves can be mathematically broken down into an infinite sum of sinusoidal waves (of different amplitudes, frequency, etc) . This is ...
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2answers
399 views

Dynamics - bungee jumping [closed]

A bungee rope is specifically designed and its spring constant is known. The rope is stretched to twice its normal length by a person of mass 75kg hanging at rest from the free end. The length is ...
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3answers
151 views

Music / Harmonics [duplicate]

I am trying to understand the physics behind waves, sound, and music and feel as if I'm missing some important conceptual components. How is it even possible for a string to vibrate at multiple ...
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1answer
50 views

Can we calculate that a certain Force is equal to how much Weight?

If I connect one end of a big spring to the ground and pull up the other end... How much weight I will be lifting in that moment? Does it increase as I'm pulling up or it remains a constant thing for ...
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2answers
42 views

How to find the wave pattern recorded by the microphone

Two identical tuning forks, vibrating with identical amplitude at a frequency of 660 Hz, are brought towards a microphone from opposite direction with speeds 1 m/s and 2 m/s respectively.At the time ...
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1answer
310 views

Harmonics for standing wave pattern in pipes and strings

So I was reading about standing wave patterns in strings and pipes however I could not get an intuitive sense about how a harmonic was defined in each case. In the case of a string, the harmonics made ...
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2answers
335 views

Difference between the first and 3rd harmonic is a open-closed pipe?

Ok, I am doing a lab and do not understand my results. We measured by hand the length in m of a tube at which our tone generator hit a point of inflection, meaning we had found the 1st then the 3rd ...
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3answers
4k views

Difference between note and tone: which one has only one frequency? [closed]

What is note and tone both in physics and musical terms? Are the two used in different ways in the different fields or are they the same thing. Moreover, which one has only one frequency? Well this ...
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1answer
201 views

What is the effect of coherent oscillations on the entropy of a system?

In EEG analysis, entropy and coherence are treated as opposites in a scale. Lower coherence is higher entropy. This is information entropy, not thermodynamic entropy. In a thermodynamic system, how ...
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1answer
274 views

Open Pipe Thickness & Fundamental Frequency

Does the thickness of an open pipe affect the fundamental frequency of it and how? Is there an equation relating the two?
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2answers
79 views

What is the cause and meaning of harmonics?

Let's suppose that a cantilever is vibrating at a frequency of 2Hz. That means that it goes up and it comes down twice per second. I don't understand what the term harmonic means. I can't grasp how ...
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1answer
763 views

How many natural frequencies does a beam have?

If you take a real 3D beam, how many natural frequencies does it have? Likewise, how many natural frequencies does a beam have if it's a one dimensional, like an Euler beam?
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2answers
91 views

Two Cases Of Harmonic Motion Caused By Gravity

I'm a highschool student and we learned not so long ago Simple Harmonic Motion, and I'm trying to analyse "similar" cases which I thought of. Here we have a body (with mass $m$) being affected by the ...
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1answer
37 views

Finding the moments in which a mass moves through the equilibrium position [closed]

I am having trouble understanding what one has to do when they are asked all the positions in which a mass is in a certain position: The movement equation is $x = 3 \sin(600t + \pi/4)$. Then I am ...