# Questions tagged [hamiltonian]

The central term in the hamiltonian formalism. Can be interpreted as an energy input, or "true" energy.

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### The formal solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation

Consider the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (or some equation in Schrödinger form) written down as $$\tag 1 i \partial_{0} \Psi ~=~ \hat{ H}~ \Psi .$$ Usually, one likes to write that it has a ...
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### Is there a valid Lagrangian formulation for all classical systems?

Can one use the Lagrangian formalism for all classical systems, i.e. systems with a set of trajectories $\vec{x}_i(t)$ describing paths? On the wikipedia page of Lagrangian mechanics, there is an ...
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### Find the Hamiltonian given $\dot p$ and $\dot q$

I have these equations: $$\dot p=ap+bq,$$ $$\dot q=cp+dq,$$ and I have to find the conditions such as the equations are canonical. Then, I have to find the Hamiltonian $H$. To answer to the first ...
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### Example where Hamiltonian $H \neq T+V=E$, but $E=T+V$ is conserved

I'm looking for an example of a Hamiltonian $H$, where $H\neq T+V$, but the total energy in the system, $E=T+V$, is still conserved. While I'm at it, I might as well add that I'd be most interested ...
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### What does it mean for a Hamiltonian or system to be gapped or gapless?

I've read some papers recently that talk about gapped Hamiltonians or gapless systems, but what does it mean? Edit: Is an XX spin chain in a magnetic field gapped? Why or why not?
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### Is the Ground State in QM Always Unique? Why?

I've seen a few references that say that in quantum mechanics of finite degrees of freedom, there is always a unique (i.e. nondegenerate) ground state, or in other words, that there is only one state (...
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### Can one write down a Hamiltonian in the absence of a Lagrangian?

How can I define the Hamiltonian independent of the Lagrangian? For instance, let's assume that i have a set of field equations that cannot be integrated to an action. Is there any prescription to ...
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### Why is time-evolution operator unitary?

When we shift the system's time from $t=0$ to $t = t$, we can define the following operator $\hat{U}$. $$\hat{U} = e^{- i \hat{H} t / \hbar} \, .\tag{1}$$ So many (as far as I read, almost all of) ...
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### Why can the Schroedinger equation be used with a time-dependent Hamiltonian?

I have a puzzle about Schroedinger equation with time-dependent hamiltonian, which is usually used in time-dependent quantum systems. However, one of the axioms in quantum mechanics postulates that ...
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### First exposition of non-Hamiltonian system

Not all equations of motion admit a Hamiltonian. Several questions and answers on this site concern this correspondence, for example Hamiltonian or not?, When can an autonomous system be written using ...
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### Detailed derivation and explanation of the AKLT Hamiltonian

I am trying to read the original paper for the AKLT model, Rigorous results on valence-bond ground states in antiferromagnets. I Affleck, T Kennedy, RH Lieb and H Tasaki. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 799 (...
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### Why do excited states decay if they are eigenstates of Hamiltonian and should not change in time?

Quantum mechanics says that if a system is in an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian, then the state ket representing the system will not evolve with time. So if the electron is in, say, the first excited ...
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### Is there a Hamiltonian for the (classical) electromagnetic field? If so, how can it be derived from the Lagrangian?

The classical Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field is $$\mathcal{L} = -\frac{1}{4\mu_0} F^{\mu \nu} F_{\mu \nu} - J^\mu A_\mu.$$ Is there also a Hamiltonian? If so, how to derive it? I know how ...
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### What is a “picture” in quantum mechanics?

One of the basic ingredients of quantum mechanics is the possibility of working in different "pictures". Thus, while we normally work in the Schrödinger picture, in which states evolve according to ...
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### Quantum Stat-Mech Proof of an Inequality for the Partition Function

I have the following problem that I was unable to solve for class, but I had a couple first steps that I started with that I am unable to finish. I know I can't get this since it's already been ...
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### Off-diagonal elements of Hamiltonian matrix $H_{12}$ & $H_{21}$: energy of transition from $|1\rangle$ to $|2\rangle$ or amplitude of transition?

$\newcommand{\k}{\left| #1 \right\rangle} \newcommand{\dd}{\frac{d #1}{dt}}$In a Hamiltonian Matrix like this: $$H = \begin{pmatrix} E_{11} & E_{12} \\ E_{21} & E_{22} \end{pmatrix}$$,...
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### Hamiltonian and Energy of a charged particle in an Electromagnetic field

The Lagrangian of a charged particle of charge $e$ moving in an electromagnetic field is given by $$L=\frac{1}{2}m\dot{\textbf{r}}^2-e\phi-e\textbf{A}\cdot \textbf{v}$$ where $\phi(\textbf{r},t)$ is ...
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### Heisenberg equation with time-dependent Hamiltonian

It is the root of quantum mechanics that Heisenberg picture and Schrödinger picture are equivalent? In most textbooks and wikipedia, the equivalence is proved with a time-independent Hamiltonian. ...
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### Perturbation theory in quantum mechanics: assumptions on eigenvectors [duplicate]

In a course that I follow, we use the perturbation method to find the eigenvectors and energies to an Hamiltonian written $H_0 + V$ where $V$ is a weak perturbation. It is written that as $V$ is a ...
Given a time dependent Hamiltonian which commutes at different times, we have the time evolution operator given by \mathcal{U}(t,0) = \text{exp}\bigg[-\bigg(\frac{i}{h}\bigg)\int_{0}^{t}dt' H(t')\...