Questions tagged [hamiltonian]

The central term in the hamiltonian formalism. Can be interpreted as an energy input, or "true" energy.

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PDE from Hamiltonian density

For the wave equation Hamiltonian density is $2H=\phi_t^2+\phi_x^2$ while the Lagrangian density is $2L=\phi_t^2-\phi_x^2$. I can easily compute the pde from the Lagrangian density but how does one do ...
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118 views

Derivation of $U=e^{-iHt/\hbar}$ [on hold]

When trying to derive the time evolution operator, I arrive to this differential equation: $$\frac{\partial}{\partial t}{\hat U(t,t_{o}})=\frac{-i}{\frac{h}{2\pi}}{\hat{H}}{\hat U(t,t_{o}})$$ How ...
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68 views

Dyson Series Iteration - Gives Exact Solution?

When we derive the Dyson series for usage as the time evolution operator in the case of a time dependent Hamiltonian, we start with the equation: \begin{align}\hat{U}_I(t,t_i) = 1 - \frac{i}{\hbar}\...
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Help with understanding Pauli matrices in specific Hamiltonian

I am trying to explicitly write out using matrices a Hamiltonian given in this condensed matter paper. In eq (3) of the paper, we have: $$ \hat{H} = a t (\tau k_x \hat{\sigma_x} + k_y \hat{\sigma_y} ) ...
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41 views

Hamiltonians and Hilbert spaces in QFT

Suppose we start from a theory with a given $\mathcal{L}$ and correspondigly a Hamiltonian $\mathcal{H}$. Now a state of this $\mathcal{H}$ is (say) $|p,q,r>$. Now suppose that we do a set of ...
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49 views

Can the wave-function of any particle in any basis be written as a matrix?

Can the wave-function of any particle in any basis be written as a matrix? If no, how can we explain this, where the Hamiltonian $H$ in U is a QM operator that can be written as a linear ...
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143 views

Energy contributions of Hamiltonian density

In Lancaster and Blundell, Quantum Field Theory for the Gifted Amateur, p.99, Hamiltonian density is \begin{equation} \mathcal{H}=\frac{1}{2}[\partial_0\phi(x)]^2+\frac{1}{2}[\nabla\phi(x)]^2+\frac{...
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Tight Binding Hamiltonian for graphene

The TB Hamiltonian for the tetragonal lattice is $ \hat H_0 = -J\sum_{m,n} (\hat a_{m+1,n}^\dagger \hat a_{m,n}+\hat a_{m,n}^\dagger \hat a_{m,n+1}+h.c.) $ How can this be derived for the hexagonal ...
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1answer
24 views

Heisenberg Hamiltonian 2-Spin Terms in Matrix Representation

I am stuck on the interpretation/derivation of the 2-spin terms of the quantum Heisenberg model Hamiltonian. In this model, our electrons, with spin up or down, are confined to sites on a lattice. ...
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Scattering, 4 point correlator, #distinct Feynman diagrams

In order to compute the scattering probability that two particles of type 1 (associated to $\phi_1(x)$) which come from the far past with the momenta $p_1$ and $p_2$, to scatter and evolve into two ...
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49 views

Using Lie theory to understand $U=e^{i\mathcal{H}t}$ [duplicate]

Can we use the exponential map (lie theory) to understand how the Hamiltonian $\mathcal{H}$ gives rise to the unitary, and therefore compliments an essential property of the unitary operator (ie to ...
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1answer
62 views

Proof that rotational symmetric potential operators are scalar operators

Defintion: A scalar operator B is an operator on a ket space that transforms under rotations \begin{equation}\left| \xi ' \right >=\exp{(\frac{i}{h} \mathbf{\phi \cdot J})}\left| \xi \right >\...
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1answer
77 views

Different formula to find $2\times 2$ Hamiltonian's eigenvalues [closed]

Consider the Hamiltonian $$ \left[ \begin{matrix} E_1 & -A\\ -A& E_2\\ \end{matrix} \right] $$ where $A$, $E_1,E_2$ are real numbers. I have seen a different formula to ...
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458 views

Is the Hamiltonian of a relativistic charged particle in an electromagnetic field only an approximation?

Consider a system of two relativistic charged point particles 1 and 2 which interact through their electric and magnetic fields. The equation of motion for the first particle is then given by the ...
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1answer
155 views

Trouble getting the matrix representation of a 4-state Hamiltonian

$\newcommand{\bra}[1]{\left\langle #1 \right|} \newcommand{\ket}[1]{\left| #1 \right\rangle}$I have a simple 4-state Hamiltonian and am trying to find the matrix representation (in order to determine ...
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Semiclassical limit $S \to\infty$ in spin model

In many literature, the limit $S \to \infty$ is considered as a semiclassical limit. My question is that when this approximation is valid? Since paticles, say electrons, have the fixed spin number $S=...
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68 views

Why does the wave function of a non relativistic particle flatten out over time?

The Hamiltonian I used is the classical one with no potential energy: H=p^2/2m $$i \hbar \frac{\partial \psi}{\partial t} = -\frac{\hbar^2}{2m} \frac{\partial^2 \psi}{\partial x^2} $$ I want to gain ...
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1answer
77 views

Is Hamiltonian a scalar or tensor in Quantum Mechanics?

According to Wikipeida, a scalar operator is invariant under rotations, and the Hamiltonian satisfies this definition. But at the same time, a Hamiltonian can be written as a matrix, which means it is ...
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1answer
123 views

One-dimensional Ising Model in a three spin chain

I have a system of three aligned spins with $S=\frac{1}{2}$. There are interactions between nearest neighbors, and each spin has a magnetic moment. The Hamiltonian of the system is: $$H=J[S_z(1)S_z(2) ...
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Why is the generalized momentum replaced by the momentum operator but not the ordinary momentum?

I was trying to understand the derivation of the Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamiltonian_mechanics#...
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1answer
75 views

Significance of energy in a time dependent quantum box

The Hamiltonian for a particle in a finite box is $$H = \frac{p^2}{2m} + V(x)$$ which will give time evolution as $$ i\hbar d/dt|{\psi(t)}\rangle = H|{\psi(t)}\rangle \, .$$ However, if I do a ...
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42 views

Direct Derivation of Kraus Operator from Interaction Hamiltonian

For the dynamics of open quantum systems, the Kraus operators $K_\kappa$ can be derived from the unitary orbit $U(t)\rho U(t)^\dagger$ for $\rho=\rho_S\otimes\rho_E$ of the composite system given by ...
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2answers
76 views

Completeness condition involving continuum states

Consider a potential $V(x)$ in 1d. Suppose that $V(|x| > a )= 0$ for some positive $a$. We then know that the hamiltonian $H = - \frac{\partial^2}{\partial x^2 } + V(x)$ has non-normalizable or ...
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(Altland-Simon) Deriving ferromagnetic interaction term from interacting tight-binding Hamiltonian

Below is a part of the book "Condensed Matter Field Theory" by Altland and Simon. My question is about deriving the equation with red arrow. This is outlined in the exercise in the figure, but I don'...
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In quantum search algorithm, how to interpret the effect of $U(t)$ as a rotation on the Bloch sphere?

In Nielsen's QCQI, in page 259, it reads, $$U \left ( \Delta t \right ) = \left ( \cos^2 \left ( \frac {\Delta t} 2 \right ) - \sin ^2 \left ( \frac {\Delta t} 2 \right ) \vec \psi \cdot \hat z \...
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84 views

What is a Hamiltonian of a System?

What is a Hamiltonian of a System? When learning about Hamiltonian for first time it is an object introduced as Legendre Dual Transform of Lagrangian of the same system. And we learn further that it ...
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Why doesn't Wigner's friend interact with the system?

So I was recently modelling something that turned out to be basically Wigner's friend. I saw there were some differences (in the Wiki page) in how it was modelled: Namely, that Wigner's friend ...
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How to construct a Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) matrix?

Recently,I am learning BdG method in superconductor system,I have some question about particle-hole symmetry during construct Hamiltonian matrix for this system. In Hamiltonian if spin orbital term ...
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What is the correct Bogoliubov transformation for a SDW (spin density wave) Hamiltonian in the FBZ (First Brillouin Zone)?

The Hamiltonian for a Antiferromagement with Spin Density Wave (SDW) (in the Reduced Brillouin Zone (RBZ))is written as- \begin{eqnarray} H_{\mathbf{k}\in RBZ}=\sum\limits_{\mathbf{k} \in RBZ}\sum\...
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Is energy $E$ in Schrödinger equation an observable/ Can $E$ be measured?

Take this quantum approach to estimate mean energy of a molecule: $$\langle\psi|H|\psi\rangle=\overline E$$ Question: Is $E$ an observable? How we can compare it to an experimental value? i.e how ...
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33 views

Why are there no potential operators that are non-diagonal in position basis?

The potential energy operator in the Hamilton operator can be expressed in the following way $$ \begin{aligned} \hat V &=\int dx\int dx'|x \rangle\langle x|\hat V|x'\rangle \langle x'| \\ &=\...
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193 views

Prove conservation law in quantum mechanics

I major in Math, and I am studying Quantum Mechanics (QM). I see the conservation law in QM as a mathematical theorem. Please check if my understanding is right, and help me to prove the theorem? ...
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Manipulating Dirac Notation

I have trouble getting my head around manipulating Dirac notation, it's still new to me and I'm not used to it. I'm following the rotating wave approximation derivation for Rabi oscillations and light ...
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1answer
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Calculating exact energy levels of perturbed Hamiltonian

I wish to find the exact energy levels of the following perturbed hamiltonian. $$\hat{H}=\frac{p^2}{2m}+\frac{m\omega^2}{2}x^2+\alpha x+\beta p^2.$$ I believe that it can be solved by using the ...
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4answers
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Simultaneous eigenstates of Hamiltonian and momentum operator

Given the potential barrier, \begin{align} V(x, y) = \left\{ \begin{array}{cc} V_{0} & \hspace{5mm} \text{if $0 \leq x \leq D$} \\ 0 & \hspace{5mm} \text{...
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Derivation of the BCS Hamiltonian

$$ \hat{H}_{\mathrm{BCS}}=\sum_{k \sigma} \varepsilon_{k} c_{k \sigma}^{\dagger} c_{k \sigma}-\sum_{k k^{\prime}} G_{k k^{\prime}} c_{k \uparrow}^{\dagger} c_{-k \downarrow}^{\dagger} c_{-k^{\prime} \...
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Expection values of the hamiltonian of Klein-Gordon field

The hamiltonian of the quantized Klein-Gordon field $\phi(\textbf{x},t)$ can be writting using the creation and annihilation operators: $$\hat{H} = \frac{1}{2} \int d^{3}\textbf{p} \ \omega_{p} (\hat{...
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1answer
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Kinetic energy always time independent?! Where is my mistake? [closed]

I have some problems understanding the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalism. Those can be condensed in the following "derivation" of $\frac{\partial T}{\partial t} = 0$ from the equation $\frac{\...
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1answer
71 views

Is there always a canonical transformation such that the new Hamiltonian only depends on the new momenta?

Given the Hamiltonian $H(x,p)$ of a system. Is there always a coordinate transformation such that the new Hamiltonian is $K(x',p')=K(p')$?
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Hamiltonian and Supercharges

Mirror Symmetry p.188 Eq. 10.109 states that $$H \left\vert \alpha\right> = 0 \Longleftrightarrow Q \left\vert\alpha\right> = \overline{Q} \left\vert\alpha\right> =0. \tag{10.109}$$ I dont ...
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Evolution of the propagator in the Interaction picture?

The evolution operator in the interaction picture is defined as $U_I=e^{iH_0t}e^{-iH_St}e^{-iH_0t}$ Where $H_S=H_0+V$ I am trying to find the evolution of the operator $U_I$. In literature it is ...
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71 views

Can we craft a Hamiltonian such that the measurement is consistent with the discrete measurement taught in Quantum physics?

So the way I understand this, the way measurement is taught is that you have a wave function $\Psi(t)$. It's evolution over time is : $$i \hbar \frac{d}{d t}\vert\Psi(t)\rangle = \hat H(t)\vert\Psi(t)...
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1answer
210 views

Couple of non-interacting, non-integrable Hamiltonian systems

I have two Hamiltonians, $H(p_1, q_1, \dots, p_n, q_n)$ and $H'(p_{n+1}, q_{n+1}, \dots, p_m, q_m)$. They are non-interacting, indeed they have different variables. Moreover, I know that they are both ...
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Commutation of Hamiltonian with momentum

In which case does the Hamiltonian $H$ commutes with the momentum $P$? Can anybody help me? With an example? (No particular or strange Hamiltonians and no particular momenta are involved). How can I ...
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1answer
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Quantum field theory , Schrödinger wavefunction

$\psi$ is a state that given $|\psi\rangle=\int d^3x\psi(x)|x\rangle$ How does the wave function change in time? The Hamiltonian can be written as $$H=\int d^3x\frac{1}{2m}\nabla\psi^*\nabla\psi=\int ...
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31 views

Generically, why do we want to evolve states with unitary operators? [duplicate]

Why is it so important that operators that evolve states are unitary?
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How to know the symmetries of a coupling in the Hamiltonian

Suppose you have an interaction term in your hamiltonian that looks like \begin{equation} H=\sum_{ijkl}U_{ijkl}c^\dagger_ic^\dagger_jc_kc_l \end{equation} where $U$ is the coupling and $c$, $c^\...
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1answer
208 views

Momentum operator in effective mass approximation

When we calculate the band structure of some solid then we often find that in the bottom of the conduction band the dispersion looks approximately quadratic with some new effective mass: $$E(k) = \...
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1answer
36 views

Can we automatically find the Hamiltonian from knowledge for multiple wave functions?

Say we had a set of wave functions $\psi(x,t)$ that we new the values of for all $x$ and $t=t_0..t_1$. Say we had $N$ of these wavefunctions, perhaps $N=10$. All these wave functions start off at ...