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Questions tagged [grand-unification]

A Grand Unified Theory is a model in particle physics in which at ultra-high energy, the 3 gauge interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetic, weak, and strong) merge into a single one, characterized by one larger encompassing gauge symmetry and one unified coupling constant. After SSBreaking, force carriers differentiate themselves and are driven by the RG to their values and numbers in the lab. Use for gauge GUT and gravity unification.

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61 views

In which representation are monopoles of grand unifying theories classified?

In the context of grand unification theories A.Zee's book states that $SU(5)$ (or $SO(10)$ if $SU(5)$ is considered as outdated as GUT candidate) as GUT and as spontaneously broken non-abelian gauge ...
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Representation of the $\rm SU(5)$ model in GUT

In Srednicki's textbook Quantum Field Theory, section 97 discusses Grand Unification. On page 606, it states: In terms of $\rm SU(5)$, we have \begin{equation} 5 \otimes 5 = 15_{S} \oplus 10_{A} ...
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Why are both C and CP violation necessary for baryogenesis?

Sakharov condition states both C and CP violation is necessary for baryogenesis. Now consider, for example, a theory with B-number violating interaction and C-violation. Therefore, if $p\to e^+\gamma$ ...
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599 views

Are there any good books about Grand Unified Theories?

I'm starting to get a little desperate, because I can't find any introductory treatments of Grand Unified Theories (GUT). So far the only books I found are Mohapatra Unification and Supersymmetry ...
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How the hierarchy of forces is explained by Supersymmetry?

The hierarchy problem is often stated in two ways: First, the divergent corrections to the Higgs bare mass, second, why is gravity so much weaker than the other three forces. The solution to the ...
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Hypercharge normalization for $SU(5)$ GUT

Reading about $SU(5)$ unification, texts says that they use the renormalization factor $\sqrt{3/5}$ for weak hypercharges in order to embed SM into a $SU(5)$ group. This implies a new $U(1)_Y$ ...
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What processes conserve (and don't conserve) GUT $X$-charge?

I've been Wikipedia-ing the weak interaction and GUTs and I came across 2 seemingly conflicting pieces of information. In the page for Weak Hypercharge it says this: one of the interactions is with ...
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What is the way to work out the running of lepton masses?

If we assume the GUT unification energy is some value E, (say $10^{16}GeV$). Can we work out the running of the particle masses for example the electon, muon and tau at various energies? And will ...
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Interaction range of fundamental forces at a unification energies

At low energies, all fundamental forces have different coupling constants as well as an interaction ranges. As one know, at a some high energy (GUT energy $10^{14}$ GeV), all the coupling constants ...
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Why do we need complex representations in Grand Unified Theories?

EDIT4: I think I was now able to track down where this dogma originally came from. Howard Georgi wrote in TOWARDS A GRAND UNIFIED THEORY OF FLAVOR There is a deeper reason to require ...
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Mass splitting for leptons and down quarks in $SU(5)$ model?

In the minimal $SU(5)$ GUT model, the masses of the leptons and the corresponding down-type quarks must be equal. i.e. $m_e=m_d$, $m_\mu=m_s$, $m_\tau=m_b$. Whereas this is approximately correct for ...
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Why does the conclusion that protons are monopoles has led us to believe that they specifically may have a half-life? [closed]

from Zeldovich, Ya. B.; Khlopov, M. Yu. (1978). "On the concentration of relic monopoles in the universe": "The majority of particles appearing in any quantum field theory are unstable, and they ...
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$SU(5)$ group theory: Contracting three adjoints to make a singlet

There's probably a trivial answer to my question, but I'm having trouble finding it. In an $SU(5)$ GUT, we have a gauge field, $A_{\mu} = A^{a}_{\mu}T^{a}$ which lives in the $24 (\text{Adjoint})$ ...
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Sun's energy and grand unification

According to Wikipedia, The approximate grand unification energy value is equal to $1×10^{25}$ eV or $10^{16}$ GeV This is equal to $1602176$ J. Now, The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) ...
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How to decompose the representation of $\rm SU(5)$?

This question comes from Srednicki's textbook "Quantum Field Theory". On pages 514-515, it states: Under the unbroken $\rm SU(3)\times SU(2) \times U(1)$ subgroup, the $5$ representation of $\rm ...
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These terms are so foreign to me that they feel like unnecessary jargon; what do these terms mean, and are they relatively common?

No pun intended in the title. ;) I am having trouble understanding this sentence on Wikipedia's page for Unified Field Theory: Governed by a global event $\lambda$ under the universal topology, ...
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Decomposition of the complex conjugate of the fundamental representation of $SU(5)$ in $SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)$

I know I can decompose the fundamental representation (denoted as $5$) of $SU(5)$ as: $$ (3,1)_{-2c/3} \oplus (1,2)_{c} $$ But how do I get the decomposition of the complex conjugate of this ...
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What does it mean to say that “the fundamental forces of nature were unified”?

It is said that immediately after the Big Bang, the fundamental forces of nature were unified. It is also said that later they decoupled, becoming separate forces. Indeed, if we look at the list of ...
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Runaway Monopole Catalyzed Baryon Decay

I am a layman in the subject, but I have recently learned that magnetic monopoles could be used to induce baryon decay (Callan-Rubakov mechanism), according to some GUTs. I have also learned that ...
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Can $E_8 \times E_8$ contain the standard model?

I know $E_8$ by itself can't be gauge group because it has no complex representation and so would not be chiral. But assuming the existence of mirror matter which also would have $E_8$ gauge group ...
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The strong CP problem in Grand Unified Theories

The strong CP problem could, in principle, be solved by a massless up quark. Can this solution be embedded in Grand Unified Theories, such as $SO(10)$ (or $SU(5)$)? These theories, in particular $SO(...
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Why should proton decay into positron rather than antimuon?

Grand unification theories, such as $SU(5)$/$SO(10)$/SUSY variants, suggest proton decay. The lack of observational evidence for proton decay rules out simple GUTs. But wait a minute! The GUT's ...
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Running of gravitational constant versus. other coupling constants, GUT and TOE

Is there any theory that proves convincingly that the gravitational constant runs with energy AND it is like the other coupling constants and converge at a single point at a given energy? Or is that a ...
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Unification of the strong and electromagnetic interaction

Is it somehow possible to theoretically unify the electric charge in electromagnetic interaction with the colour charge in the strong interaction and how these charges give rise to the respective ...
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What is the status of SUSY GUTs in 2018?

Grand unification theories (GUTs) generically predict proton decay, and many of them have been under pressure for decades as experiments have failed to see it. I don't think there have been recent ...
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$SU(5)$ representation and higher anti-symmetric traces

In Zee QFT book v2 p.411 eq.16-17, he shows the SU(5) gauge theory anomaly cancellation by the following: The 1st line in fundamental of SU(5) $$ tr(T^3)=3(+2)^3+2(-3)^3=30, $$ is easy to follow, ...
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Symmetry breaking of $SO(10)$ or $Spin(10)$

The Spin(10) grand unification has a symmetry breaking of SO(10), or Spin(10). In Wikipedia, it says, "The symmetry breaking of SO(10) is usually done with a combination of (( a $45_H$ OR a $54_H$...
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Does the sedenion algebra offer a grand unification theory?

Stephane Bronoff in The Standard Model of Particle Physics from Sedenions claims that studying the left-multiplication map of unit doubly-pure sedenions solves several mysteries of the standard model. ...
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Thought Experiments to Corroborate Unification

Apart from beauty, is there reason to believe the known forces to be parts of one "superforce?" The response to a similar question seems incomplete in that it does not address unification; there is ...
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70 views

What dictates the Higgs potential of the Standard model?

As far as I know, there is no convincing answer for why does the Higgs potential has a 'Mexican hat' shape. Apart from Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance, the Higgs potential of the Standard ...
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$\mathbb{Z}_6$ symmetry in the Standard Model

It's a well-known result that the spontaneous symmetry breaking of $SU(5)$ would lead not to the usual $G_{SM}=SU(3)\times SU(2)\times U(1)$, but to $G_{SM}/\mathbb{Z}_6$. However, it's also often ...
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How to decompose E6?

Hi I'm trying to understand decomposition of $E_6\to SO(10)\otimes U(1)_\psi\to SU(5)\otimes U(1)_\psi\otimes U(1)_\chi\to SU(3)_C\otimes SU(2)_L\otimes U(1)_Y\otimes U(1)^\prime$. I believe I mostly ...
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1answer
80 views

Which are the obstructions for $E_8^L\times E_8^R$ unification?

After left-right symmetry extension of the standard model, $$G' \times SU(2)^L \times SU(2)^R$$ it would seem that a logical pathway to grand unification is to try to obtain it by breaking down from ...
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86 views

Splitting the Fundamental Forces

So one interesting idea in physics is that at higher energy levels, fundamental forces fuse together (ex: Electricity and Magnetism into Electromagnetism) and (Eletromagnetism + Weak Force -> ...
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Why does the $\mu^{+}\pi^{0}$ mode in flipped SU(5) becomes more important when compared to simple SU(5)?

I know that the higgs sector of these theories are different and all that. But what is the simple reason of why $p\rightarrow\mu^{+}\pi^{0}$ becomes comparable to $e^{+}\pi^{0}$? One thing I can image ...
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Since gluon fields do not appear apart from quarks, did gluon fields first appear during the quark epoch?

Big Bang cosmology and grand unification theories say that the strong force and the electroweak force separated during the electroweak epoch, i.e., $10^{-36}$ to $10^{-32}$ seconds after the Planck ...
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What's the deepest reason why QCD bound states have integer charge?

What's the deepest reason why QCD bound states have integer electric charge, i.e. equal to an integer times the electron charge? Given that the quarks have the fractional electric charges they do, ...
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Why in $SU(5)$ we do not consider $\bar{\nu}_L$?

In GUT, why in representation $\bar{5}+10$ of $SU(5)$ we do not consider $\bar{\nu}_L$? One says that there are 15 particles-antiparticles per generation but, for me, there are 16 particles-...
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Proton's half life (Energy-dependent)

Proton's half life has a lower estimated bound in 10^33 years aprox. This is due to the enormous mass of the X boson, predicted by some GUTs. So my question is: if the free proton is in a high energy ...
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Discovery of anti-deuteron and the implication of CPT violation

From this review by Antonino Zichichi 2009 and this review from T. D. Lee in 2007, it is said that Dirac is very upset when hearing the discovery of anti-deuteron (anti-matter of deuteron, the nucleus ...
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Doublet-triplet splitting : Meaning of some mechanism names

In order to solve the Doublet–triplet splitting problem, people have developped several mechanisms, such as the Missing Partner, the Missing VEV and the Sliding Singlet mechanism. I couldn't really ...
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Enormous masses of $X$- and $Y$-bosons in GUTs

I was reading an article on Wikipedia about the hypothetical particles called $X$ and $Y$ Bosons. Looking at their "calculated" masses, I felt quite weirded. Their mass should be $$ m = 10^{15}\,\...
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775 views

Color-charge conservation in proton decay

In some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics (Supersymmetry with R-parity violation being a prominent example), the proton is allowed to decay, e.g. via $p\to e^+\pi^0$: While this ...
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580 views

Why magnetic monopole has't been shown in the particle physics's Standard Model context?

For various reasons, experts, since Dirac, believe that a unified field theory must have a magnetic monopole. For example, Polyakov said: "I am quite certain that magnetic monopoles really exist. How, ...
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Possible intermediate scales of baryogenesis?

The conventional beyond Standard Model explanation of baryogenesis is that, within Grand Unified Theories (GUT), there exist some new heavy scalar bosons of mass $M_{\rm GUT}\sim10^{15}$ GeV, which ...
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603 views

Supersymmetry and grand unification

I came across this diagram in my introductory particle physics class. Given the fact that SUSY can make the plot look suspiciously nice, what can we do with it? Also, electromagnetism has been ...
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1answer
184 views

How far are we from reaching around $10^{16}~\rm GeV$ collisions experimentally?

I understand this is a highly speculative question, so I'm not expecting final words, but rather insights to deepen my notion on the issue. I know we reached about 209GeV at LEP in the end of 2000, ...
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1answer
105 views

SUSY $SU(5)$ GUT chiral adjoint repersentations

when you have a chiral superfield in the adjoint representation in your theory (i.e the Higgs $\Sigma_{24}$ in $SU(5)$), you can write it as a $5\times5$ Matrix: $(\Sigma_{24})_i^j=\Sigma^a (t^a)_i^j$ ...
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Why do we want GUT groups to be simple (rather than, say, semisimple)?

I've heard before that when looking for grand unified gauge groups, with a single gauge coupling, we want to use simple groups, in the group-theoretic sense of having no non-trivial normal subgroups. ...
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How reasonable is it to suppose that we are living in a cellular automaton? [duplicate]

Possibly in the search for a grand unified theory, it seems trendy at the moment for some writers and commentators to claim that space-time is grid-like and discrete rather than continuous. I wonder ...