Questions tagged [geophysics]

The study of the physical processes and properties of the planet Earth. Applicable to many subjects about Earth, such as its shape, its magnetic field, and ocean currents.

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How does the NASA InSight lander determine the depth of a Marsquake?

With only one lander with this type of equipment at one location, how can the InSight lander's investigators be so sure of the depth of the Marsquakes it detects?
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Would a 1km edge length solid tungsten cube sink through the Earth crust?

This question was inspired by this question on worldbuilding SE. Suppose you have a giant cube with $1$km edge length made out of pure tungsten and you put it somewhere on the ground. This is the size ...
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Finding a single component of a strain tensor ($E_{yy}$) knowing $E_{xx}$ and $E_{yx}$

I know $E_{xx}$, $E_{yx}$, and $E_{xy}$ but I can't figure out how to find the value for $E_{yy}$. I think it has something to do with the phrase 'homogenous $2D$ strain' as a big hint since there's ...
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The Earth's Core [closed]

4 questions about the Earth's core Does the earths core rotate differentially to the earths crust or surface? and what is the differential rotation, if any? Due to the increased pressure (of 3.6GPA) ...
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How far could one tunnel towards the Earth's core? [closed]

Using current technology and virtually unlimited funds, how deep could we dig a shaft/tunnel with 1m bore (or larger), and what would be the limiting factor(s)? If we push the envelope of current ...
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Why isn’t the center of the Earth cold? [closed]

If the pressure of the Earth is keeping the inner core solid, keeping it rigid to take up the least space, and temperature is dependent on how much the atoms are moving, why isn’t the inner core cold? ...
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4answers
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Why is the bottom of the Mariana Trench not frozen?

I have found following information on Wikipedia: The temperature is $1$ to $4\,°\mathrm C$ and the pressure is about $0.156$ GPa. The Graph tells us that it's liquid. However, I don't quite ...
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How do rocks store information about Earth's magnetic field?

When a particular rock is being formed in a rift (by the solidification of magma, which is composed of ferromagnetic materials), the rock "stores information" about the Earth's magnetic field at the ...
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Does the moon formation theory consider the necessary precision in the angle of ejection of material caused by the collision?

When Newton considered that a projectile fired horizontally at 8km/h from a very high mountain would enter orbit, I suppose that he also understood the importance of the firing angle being strictly ...
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Does human made global warming of atmosphere drive the increase of volcanic and tectonic activity?

I read in the handbook that the heat transfer coefficient between magma and soil is very small. What then is the mechanism of the predominant influence of global warming due to greenhouse emissions on ...
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Tectonic plate movement, sun's and moon's position

I was interested to read about gravity night and day. Would there be sufficient differences between the gravitational forces across a tectonic plate for a tendency for more tilt of tectonic plates, ...
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How much higher is muon flux at Earth's poles?

https://futurism.com/make-a-cosmic-ray-detector-at-home-and-test-relativity-2 This article states that the Earth's magnetic field funnels incoming muons towards the magnetic poles. Quantitatively, ...
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How gravity is responsible for cone-like shape of a mountain?

I searched on web and found that that the most important factor for conical (approximate) shape of a mountain is the action of rivers. I understood it well but I again searched more on web because ...
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Why the Earth's inner layers temperatures are layered and not distributed?

so I was having a debate with a flat earther, and he sent me this image which I couldn't explain well. at first, I thought that the different pressure levels inside the layers cause these levels of ...
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Transmission Spectrum of Rock

Maybe a very specific question, but what wavelengths are sand grains transparent to? Also, how can one image underground minerals through rock? Is there a certain Infrared band that sandstone (...
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Influence of gravity upon gases [closed]

Are gases influenced by gravity? If yes: so how you can demonstrate that? Is there are a difference in distribution of gases in the air? So CO2 will be close to surface more than O2? Si no: why ? (I ...
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Resonance in physics

The resonance is a physical phenomenon which manifests itself in several contexts. It is asked the general characteristics and a specific example in order to illustrate how the typical parameters of ...
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Darcy applied to surface and groundwater interaction?

My question is, in which of these two scenarios would the ponded water drain more quickly? Darcy's law applied to falling head condition appears to indicate that it would be the a) scenario. I'm ...
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Calculate how thick the continent is [closed]

I have a task that I'm stuck on: For simplicity's sake, we assume that a continent consists of an even thick surface of granite that floats in peridotite. If a continent protrudes 5.0 km above the ...
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Why is dry soil hydrophobic? Bad gardener paradox

When I forget to water my plants, and their soil becomes very dry, during the next watering I can see that the soil becomes hydrophobic. I can even see pockets of air between the repelled blob of ...
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Thermodynamics of the Earth’s core

Wikipedia presents conflicting data in the article “Tidal Acceleration”. Hopefully one of you experts can clarify this. The torque on the Earth is measured at $3.9 \cdot 10^{16}$ yet the tidal ...
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Electric potential due to a current source - Basic equations

In my book I found the folowing formula of the electric potential generated by a current source: $$ \Phi = \frac{I}{4 \pi \sigma} \frac{1}{r} $$ where I is the current, $\sigma$ the electrical ...
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Why do P-waves cross each other for small angles?

The following is an image produced by ObsPy of P-waves entering the earth just below the surface at small angles depicting the problem: I wish to understand why the P-wave rays cross each other at ...
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Asteroid Theory of Dinosaur Extinction [closed]

Have proponents of the Chicxulub dinosaur extinction theory wildly exaggerated the effect of asteroid impact in order to validate their theory? For example,the world-wide forest fire claim doesn't ...
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3answers
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How does the Earth's center produce heat?

In my understanding, the center of the Earth is hot because of the weight of the its own matter being crushed in on itself because of gravity. We can use water to collect this heat from the Earth and ...
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What would earth's wind look like without differential heating?

If the earth were not subject to differential (solar) heating, but otherwise had the same atmospheric and surface temperatures, and same rate of rotation: What would its wind look like? E.g.: Would ...
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How do big rocks split in half? [closed]

So, recently I was on a trip in which I could observe a lot of huge rocks (1 to 20 meters in diameter), and I found odd how in several occasions rocks would be split in two parts, with a neat division....
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How much must the Sun's radiation be reduced to offset global warming?

About 70 % of earth is covered with clouds and the rate of atmospheric water vapor is increasing. Also the warming of the oceans will most probably cause more and deeper low pressures and increased ...
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Rainbow angle equals tropics inclination… a coincidence?

An observer from ISS can find a rainbow forming under certain conditions ( of internal reflection /refraction) in a cloud of water droplets at the equator. It may be regarded as equivalent to a ...
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Stability of a 10km planetoid with a micro-black hole in its centre

Let's assume there is a tiny, 10km-radius planetoid with a micro-black hole in its centre of about 10^19kg, so the surface of the planetoid is at 1g. How it appeared (or was constructed) would be the ...
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How does Bullheading work?

Bullheading, a method of Well Kill, involves simply pumping the kill fluid (heavy fluid) directly down the well bore forcing the well bore fluids back into the reservoir, does the heavier fluid flip ...
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Can we image the interior of the earth by shooting weakly interacting particles through it?

Could we image the various layers of the earth by shooting weakly interacting particles through it? Let's say we shot a very high amount of neutrinos in one side (say, the north pole) and then ...
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What exactly is delta-14C and why are there periodic plateaus in the delta-14C curve?

I downloaded the IntCal13, IntCal09, and IntCal04 datasets (parent site), and when I plotted the last 24k years was surprised to see a plateau or even reversal appear every ~5300 years. Apparently we ...
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Temperature as function of $CO_2$

The carbon stored in fossil fuels must have been taken out of the earth atmosphere from CO2 in past periods by plants. Thereby reducing the amount of CO2 drastically and increasing the amount of O2 to ...
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How to change rotating frames?

This problem is related to rotating reference frames. $p$ is a precessing frame or turning table that rotates at $\mathbf{\omega_p}$, and $m$ is a container that spins on the top of the turning table ...
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Estimating the Pressure of Earth's Center

The pressure of a medium of density $\rho$ and in a graviational field with strength $g$ at a depth of $z+dz$ is equal to the pressure at $z$ plus the pressure caused by the weight of a slab of volume ...
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1answer
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How long for released dye to uniformly saturate the oceans?

Suppose a supertanker filled with purple dye breaks open at a particular point in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and spills an enormous volume of purple dye into the ocean all at once. Imagine that ...
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How can an electrically neutral planetary core be geodynamo? [duplicate]

The standard theory for the earth's magnetic field is that the planet's core is a geodynamo. I know moving electric charges can induce a magnetic field, but I also know that opposite charges produce ...
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4answers
64 views

Do CFCs get emitted in air from appliances?

Do the refrigerators and air conditioners that use CFC or HCFC cause damage to the environment even when they are working normally. I mean, is there any gas emission under normal conditions when the ...
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1answer
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How do we know the Earth's core is Molten with Seismology?

My current knowledge about how the core of the earth was discovered is the observation made from non returning/reflecting sonar signal when sent to deeper depths through the earth's crust/mantle. How ...
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How did Mars lose all its surface water?

A lot of geological evidence suggests that Mars once had quite a bit of surface water. I assume it wasn't whisked away into space, so where did it all go? What processes caused the water to go there? ...
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276 views

Do a floor tile or dry sand conduct electricity

If you touch an electric wire while standing on a ground made of soil or floor tile, you will get electrocuted. So, electricity passes through it. Right? Shall I conduct an experiment by passing ...
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Has there been a quantifed estimate of the thermal impact of human activity? Not to include “greenhouse gasses” [closed]

In 1984 I read a prediction by the biological scientist and Nobel Laureate Konrad Lorenz that heat produced by human activity would necessarily increase Earth's average atmospheric temperature. His ...
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High pressures under ocean surface

I read a book about deep water exploring in mariana's trench. They of course talked a lot about pressure, and so this question came to my mind: If you're, say, 2km down in the Mariana's Trench there ...
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How can I calculate the ratio of distance between 2 longitudes at different latitudes?

Suppose i have to calculate the ratio of lengths of AB and CD where A(0° N,0° E) and B(0°N,30° E), and C(30°N,0°E) and D(30°N,30° E) the values are just as an example.Is it possible to get the ratio ...
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1answer
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young's modulus vs longitudal deformation modulus

Young's modulus is typiccaly denoted with E. I have come accross a similar quantity called longitudal deformation modulus (in Russian literature, they call it модуль продольных деформаций) and it is ...
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Max. air temperature on Earth [duplicate]

Is there any max. temperature that air on Earth could reach, assuming that solar radiation is standard and the average temperature on Earth is 14.6 like today? I mean, is there any chance that the ...
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A sound argument for existence of Americas, along al-Biruni's lines?

In 11-th century, Al-Biruni computed circumference of Earth with high accuracy, and mapped all then-known terrain. He then argued that the unknown part of the globe cannot be all ocean, predicting ...
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Global warming and air temperature

The layman's question. Is there a maximum temperature that can be reached by air on Earth due to global warming? For example, one that would prevent living organisms from functioning? I read somewhere ...
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Seismology - PPV / VDV from geophone waveform data

I'm using an inexpensive seismometer to try and measure the effects of local HGV traffic on buildings. The device is connected to a Raspberry PI that has a Cirrus Logic Audio Card. The signal is fed ...

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