Questions tagged [geophysics]

The study of the physical processes and properties of the planet Earth. Applicable to many subjects about Earth, such as its shape, its magnetic field, and ocean currents.

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Is General Relativity (GR) compatible with the expanding Earth hypothesis? [closed]

There is a lot of convincing evidence that the Earth and all the other planets and their moons are expanding with time. Prof. Samuel Warren Carey's summary of the evidence: https://www.youtube.com/...
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Is there a modern accurate formula for the length of the sidereal year?

Newcomb (1898) gives the following formula for calculating the tropical year: $$365.24219879 - 0.00000614T$$ And the following for calculating the sidereal year: $$365.25636042 + 0.00000011T$$ Where T ...
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Calculate the radius of Mercury's core with density, equatorial radius [closed]

I have a task where I don't know how to solve the second part. Some data on the planet Mercury: mean density $5400$ $kg/m^3$, equatorial radius $2440$ $km$, oblateness $0.0$, period of rotation $58....
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Is there a correlation between the Earth's spin, the moon, and temperature?

Based on NASA's arcticle, changes to land, ice sheet, ocean, and mantle flow affect Earth's spin. Does the moon's elliptical orbit around Earth also affect Earth's spin? What effect does distance play?...
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Why are the Earth and Moon so different?

The suggestion was made that the Earth and the Moon are two parts of a once whole object. If that is true then they must share the same basic composition. They also receive fairly similar amounts of ...
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What exactly are the 2 points where a magnetic needle becomes horizontal?

Textbooks and websites say: A magnetic needle rests making different angles with horizontal when suspended at different places of the earth In the explanation, they say that the magnetic needle ...
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How to explain the Earth's Equatorial bulge without centrifugal force?

There are many answers to the question why is the Earth bulged at the equator, see e.g. here, but almost all of them involve centrifugal force. Since it's a fictitious force, how to we explain this ...
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Does the Earth's magnetic field reversal and the corresponding magnetostrictive stress and strain make any contribution to the Earth's oblateness?

If the changing magnetic field in a power grid's transformer can induce stress and strain on the transformer core, then can the changing magnetic field of the Earth, similarly, place stresses and ...
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If the moon became a black hole, how much lower would the temperature be on Earth's surface?

I read that if the Sun became a black hole the Earth would become colder, but the effect would be negligible because the mass of the hole is still there so there would still be tides. But, how much ...
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Would the Earth have cracked differently than 'pole to pole' at Atlantic ridge if had been rotating slower?

When a thick hot peace of glass is left to cool down it will break on the surface. Have the same happened to Earth and did the fast rotation provoked the crack at the middle Atlantic to gain this pole ...
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Does the inner core of the Earth drop?

If standing on earth, I experience the planet's gravity. Rain drops are accelerated to move toward its centre and reach the crust. These attractions are mutual. This contrasts to e.g., the ISS with ...
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What will pole reversal cause to modern world and civilization?

I don't think it's just a matter of reorienting maps and recalibrating compasses. In any case, how long does a inversion last? hours, days, weeks, years? If it lasts days or more.... would Sun fry ...
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Why is deep water cold while deep soil is hot?

The temperature of deep water is around 3 or 4°C. However, in the Earth's crust, temperature increases with depth (e.g., 66°C in some underground mine). So, why would the water be cold? If the heat is ...
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What would be the increase of gravity if we create a new world slightly bigger than the earth? [closed]

I need to know what would happen if I increased the earth's size by a small percentage to make a fictional world similar to earth. So my thought process is this: My thinking started with increasing ...
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Clarifying the relationship between pressure and temperature?

From the ideal gas law, we are aware that PV = nRT, which seems to suggest a direct relationship between pressure and temperature, or that as temperature increases, pressure increases. In my geography ...
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Can gravity be measured by proximity?

Can the topography of a terrain be measured by a gravimeter to give a clear image of the surface or sub-surface of a planet or does gravity scatter like light? In other words can the changes in ...
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Schumann resonance frequency

I keep hearing that Schumann resonances have been increasing rapidly in recent years. And that it was relatively stable before. I failed to find any scientific data proving or disproving this. I would ...
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Gravity force inside the Earth

It is a well known exercise on classical Newton's gravity that assuming that the Earth has an ideal round shape to compute its gravity force at the given distance from its center. (Answer: it is equal ...
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Can Earth's Magnetic Field Be as Less as -85μT and as Much as +70.46μT?

What did create the question? I was analyzing a data set where the researchers have used objective data. They have calculated earth's magnetic field through sensors and that research was conducted in ...
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How does the NASA InSight lander determine the depth of a Marsquake?

With only one lander with this type of equipment at one location, how can the InSight lander's investigators be so sure of the depth of the Marsquakes it detects?
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Would a 1km edge length solid tungsten cube sink through the Earth crust?

This question was inspired by this question on worldbuilding SE. Suppose you have a giant cube with $1$km edge length made out of pure tungsten and you put it somewhere on the ground. This is the size ...
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Finding a single component of a strain tensor ($E_{yy}$) knowing $E_{xx}$ and $E_{yx}$

I know $E_{xx}$, $E_{yx}$, and $E_{xy}$ but I can't figure out how to find the value for $E_{yy}$. I think it has something to do with the phrase 'homogenous $2D$ strain' as a big hint since there's ...
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The Earth's Core [closed]

4 questions about the Earth's core Does the earths core rotate differentially to the earths crust or surface? and what is the differential rotation, if any? Due to the increased pressure (of 3.6GPA) ...
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How far could one tunnel towards the Earth's core? [closed]

Using current technology and virtually unlimited funds, how deep could we dig a shaft/tunnel with 1m bore (or larger), and what would be the limiting factor(s)? If we push the envelope of current ...
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Why isn’t the center of the Earth cold? [closed]

If the pressure of the Earth is keeping the inner core solid, keeping it rigid to take up the least space, and temperature is dependent on how much the atoms are moving, why isn’t the inner core cold? ...
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Why is the bottom of the Mariana Trench not frozen?

I have found following information on Wikipedia: The temperature is $1$ to $4\,°\mathrm C$ and the pressure is about $0.156$ GPa. The Graph tells us that it's liquid. However, I don't quite ...
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How do rocks store information about Earth's magnetic field?

When a particular rock is being formed in a rift (by the solidification of magma, which is composed of ferromagnetic materials), the rock "stores information" about the Earth's magnetic field at the ...
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Does the moon formation theory consider the necessary precision in the angle of ejection of material caused by the collision?

When Newton considered that a projectile fired horizontally at 8km/h from a very high mountain would enter orbit, I suppose that he also understood the importance of the firing angle being strictly ...
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Does human made global warming of atmosphere drive the increase of volcanic and tectonic activity?

I read in the handbook that the heat transfer coefficient between magma and soil is very small. What then is the mechanism of the predominant influence of global warming due to greenhouse emissions on ...
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How much higher is muon flux at Earth's poles?

https://futurism.com/make-a-cosmic-ray-detector-at-home-and-test-relativity-2 This article states that the Earth's magnetic field funnels incoming muons towards the magnetic poles. Quantitatively, ...
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How gravity is responsible for cone-like shape of a mountain?

I searched on web and found that that the most important factor for conical (approximate) shape of a mountain is the action of rivers. I understood it well but I again searched more on web because ...
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Why the Earth's inner layers temperatures are layered and not distributed?

so I was having a debate with a flat earther, and he sent me this image which I couldn't explain well. at first, I thought that the different pressure levels inside the layers cause these levels of ...
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Transmission Spectrum of Rock

Maybe a very specific question, but what wavelengths are sand grains transparent to? Also, how can one image underground minerals through rock? Is there a certain Infrared band that sandstone (...
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Influence of gravity upon gases [closed]

Are gases influenced by gravity? If yes: so how you can demonstrate that? Is there are a difference in distribution of gases in the air? So CO2 will be close to surface more than O2? Si no: why ? (I ...
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Calculate how thick the continent is [closed]

I have a task that I'm stuck on: For simplicity's sake, we assume that a continent consists of an even thick surface of granite that floats in peridotite. If a continent protrudes 5.0 km above the ...
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Why is dry soil hydrophobic? Bad gardener paradox

When I forget to water my plants, and their soil becomes very dry, during the next watering I can see that the soil becomes hydrophobic. I can even see pockets of air between the repelled blob of ...
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Thermodynamics of the Earth’s core

Wikipedia presents conflicting data in the article “Tidal Acceleration”. Hopefully one of you experts can clarify this. The torque on the Earth is measured at $3.9 \cdot 10^{16}$ yet the tidal ...
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Electric potential due to a current source - Basic equations

In my book I found the folowing formula of the electric potential generated by a current source: $$ \Phi = \frac{I}{4 \pi \sigma} \frac{1}{r} $$ where I is the current, $\sigma$ the electrical ...
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Asteroid Theory of Dinosaur Extinction [closed]

Have proponents of the Chicxulub dinosaur extinction theory wildly exaggerated the effect of asteroid impact in order to validate their theory? For example,the world-wide forest fire claim doesn't ...
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How does the Earth's center produce heat?

In my understanding, the center of the Earth is hot because of the weight of the its own matter being crushed in on itself because of gravity. We can use water to collect this heat from the Earth and ...
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What would earth's wind look like without differential heating?

If the earth were not subject to differential (solar) heating, but otherwise had the same atmospheric and surface temperatures, and same rate of rotation: What would its wind look like? E.g.: Would ...
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How do big rocks split in half? [closed]

So, recently I was on a trip in which I could observe a lot of huge rocks (1 to 20 meters in diameter), and I found odd how in several occasions rocks would be split in two parts, with a neat division....
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How much must the Sun's radiation be reduced to offset global warming?

About 70 % of earth is covered with clouds and the rate of atmospheric water vapor is increasing. Also the warming of the oceans will most probably cause more and deeper low pressures and increased ...
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Rainbow angle equals tropics inclination… a coincidence?

An observer from ISS can find a rainbow forming under certain conditions ( of internal reflection /refraction) in a cloud of water droplets at the equator. It may be regarded as equivalent to a ...
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Stability of a 10km planetoid with a micro-black hole in its centre

Let's assume there is a tiny, 10km-radius planetoid with a micro-black hole in its centre of about 10^19kg, so the surface of the planetoid is at 1g. How it appeared (or was constructed) would be the ...
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How does Bullheading work?

Bullheading, a method of Well Kill, involves simply pumping the kill fluid (heavy fluid) directly down the well bore forcing the well bore fluids back into the reservoir, does the heavier fluid flip ...
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Can we image the interior of the earth by shooting weakly interacting particles through it?

Could we image the various layers of the earth by shooting weakly interacting particles through it? Let's say we shot a very high amount of neutrinos in one side (say, the north pole) and then ...
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What exactly is delta-14C and why are there periodic plateaus in the delta-14C curve?

I downloaded the IntCal13, IntCal09, and IntCal04 datasets (parent site), and when I plotted the last 24k years was surprised to see a plateau or even reversal appear every ~5300 years. Apparently we ...
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Temperature as function of $CO_2$

The carbon stored in fossil fuels must have been taken out of the earth atmosphere from CO2 in past periods by plants. Thereby reducing the amount of CO2 drastically and increasing the amount of O2 to ...
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Estimating the Pressure of Earth's Center

The pressure of a medium of density $\rho$ and in a graviational field with strength $g$ at a depth of $z+dz$ is equal to the pressure at $z$ plus the pressure caused by the weight of a slab of volume ...

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