Questions tagged [geophysics]

The study of the physical processes and properties of the planet Earth. Applicable to many subjects about Earth, such as its shape, its magnetic field, and ocean currents.

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Conservation of water?

I know that water can exist in various states (liquid, solid, ...) and can be in various places (clouds, oceans, ground, ...). What I want to know is whether or not the total number of water ...
Will Octagon Gibson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Could Earth's Zircon (used in geological dating) have formed in extraterrestrial events before the Earth was formed?

This is a follow up question asked and answered (Radio-dating and the age of the earth) The answer was given that the mineral Zircon is formed under high pressures and temperatures. How do we know, ...
Lucas's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Are there torques affecting Earth?

Since the time it takes for the earth to complete one rotation about itself (i.e., the time we call "day") is not constant, then the angular speed is also not constant, that is, there is a ...
Yossi Lonke's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do they precisely locate the marker at the *"true"* geographic South Pole?

So referring to this page (I'm sure there are others), they say "A metal marker is placed at the geographic South Pole on January the 1st each year and the pole is moved usually by about 10m as ...
robert bristow-johnson's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
82 views

How does the excess GPE of a mountain cause its base to melt?

Weisskopf suggested that the Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) of a vertical column of mountain rock of mass $m$ must be less than the latent heat of fusion $L_f$ of the rock, i.e. $$mgh<η L_fm ...
Yitian Chen's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is this Volcanic or Impact winter management proposal right? [closed]

In case of a volcanic winter where a VEI 8 volcano releases large amounts of SO2 and H2S into the stratosphere making it react with OH and H2O to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) wich would prohibit most of ...
gragggle's user avatar
-5 votes
1 answer
114 views

If setting off nukes creates "nuclear winters", why don't we set off a few nukes to offset global warming?

I mean nuclear weapon testing is nothing new and was done in the not so far past. A few explosions strategically placed in the upper atmosphere should do the trick,,,right?
Markoul11's user avatar
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How does corner transport differ from advection schemes?

I was curious what the difference between corner transport and regular advection schemes. Usually models approximate advection by plugging in $1 D$ flux approximations for $\frac{d Qx}{dx}$, $\frac{d ...
Abraham Roseman's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
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Tides in lakes attached to the ocean

This is research for a book I am writing and I strongly suspect the answer is no, however I can not quite get Google to spit out a direct answer. :-) If you have a lake, attached directly to the ocean ...
Ken's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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Why does the Earth's magnetic field have an angle of 11.5°?

Does anybody know why the magnetic field of the Earth have an angle of 11.5°? According to a theory by Prof. Blackett, Earth has magnetism due to the rotation of the the Earth about its own axis. (...
Aarav Raj's user avatar
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3 answers
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*Why* does global warming lead to more extreme weather events? [closed]

I read several times about global warming leading to more exteme weather events, i.e. flooding, droughts and even winter storms occuring at higher rates and with more intensity. So, higher temperature ...
Michael S's user avatar
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60 votes
4 answers
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Why does CNN's ‘gravity hole’ in the Indian Ocean dip the sea level instead of raising it?

Ref. There is a ‘gravity hole’ in the Indian Ocean, and scientists now think they know why According to CNN, the 'gravity hole' is an area of decreased gravity, compared with the surroundings. This ...
Paul Uszak's user avatar
24 votes
4 answers
8k views

Why can't sunlight reach the very deep parts of an ocean?

Sunlight reaches the surface of the ocean and refracts. So it is still there. And its speed is about $225000$ km/s in water which is still incredibly fast. Light is a massless electromagnetic wave. So ...
Snack Exchange's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
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Thermal expansion of the oceans versus thermal expansion of land masses

I am told that some, (about half of the 3 mm per year), rise in the sea level, is due to the thermal expansion of the oceans. But thermal expansion should affect the land masses also, so shouldn't the ...
rajnz00's user avatar
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1 answer
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How much $\rm D_2O$ is in Earth's icepacks? [closed]

How much $\rm D_2O$, by mass and/or percentage, is locked in Earth's polar icepacks? Is the $\rm D_2O$:$\rm H_2O$ ratio the same as elsewhere?
RoUS's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
159 views

How does water regulate temperature? [closed]

I've always realised that areas in close proximity to the ocean experience moderate temperature changes. I don't understand how water moderates this temperature. I suspect that it has something to do ...
James Chadwick's user avatar
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What percentage of volcanic energy is of solar origin?

As I understand, the earth is in thermal equilibrium with solar irradiation, terrestrial radiation and nuclear decay processes happening inside the earth: (Energy from nuclear decay) + (Solar Energy ...
yippy_yay's user avatar
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Energy needed to stop the Earth's inner core ---and its effects?

As you will most possibly know, a misreading of this paper by the media caused kind of a "panic" about how the Earth's inner core had stopped or even reversed its rotation and its "...
esther's user avatar
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Why do geysers have an almost constant period between eruptions?

I was wondering about how can geysers be so precisely predicted. For example, I was in the Yellowstone Park, and it amazed me how the eruption of the Old Faithful was accurately predicted. Also, it ...
selenio34's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
269 views

Quantitatively, how much would radiation levels increase without the geomagnetic field?

Many, many popular science articles claim that if the Earth didn't have a magnetic field, then the much higher concentration of cosmic rays that reached the surface would cause health damage to humans....
tparker's user avatar
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Is there a formula for finding pressure as a function of depth in the ocean?

It is well known that one can find the pressure in a static fluid as a function of height using the well-known formula for hydrostatic equilibrium $$\frac{\mathrm{d}P}{\mathrm{d}z}=-\rho g, \tag 1$$ ...
Don Al's user avatar
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3 votes
6 answers
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Do water wheels slow down the water downstream in a river?

Since the speed of the water may vary across the river, let us focus on the speed at the river mouth. When a water wheel is placed in a river, part of the kinetic energy of the water is stored. ...
Riemann's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How has Earth's atmospheric water been in previous eras and periods?

How has partial pressure and net amount of water vapor and colloidal water been in previous eras and periods on Earth?
David Jonsson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
132 views

On the Melting of the Arctic Ice [closed]

I have read that: Polar ice caps are melting as global warming causes climate change. We lose Arctic sea ice at a rate of almost 13% per decade, and over the past 30 years, the oldest and thickest ice ...
DDS's user avatar
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0 answers
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Calculating current flow through the Earth attached to an ohmmeter

If I wanted to measure the resistance of the Earth between two points at its surface, I could, in principle, connect a simple ohmmeter to the two points and read out the apparent resistance just like ...
Kenning's user avatar
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0 answers
38 views

What would the theoretical barometric pressure be at the bottom of a canyon that is about 15 miles below Earth's surface?

I'm trying to create a fictional world. I am kicking around the idea of supercritical CO2 lifeforms that live at the bottom of some abyss. I read that supercritical CO2 must be at 88F and 72atm. I am ...
Calakin's user avatar
14 votes
4 answers
4k views

Why is the ground warm during winter and vice-versa?

I was just looking at the geothermal house heating in Iceland, and came to know that in the winter the water is warm, hence cools the house, but how is it hot, not about us feeling it.. My question is ...
DEV17's user avatar
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4 votes
5 answers
464 views

Why is Earth's magnetic field not strong?

Why is Earth's magnetic field not as strong as the magnetic field that is artificially produced even though Earth's magnetic field is produced from an iron core that is very large? Wouldn't more iron ...
MiltonTheMeme's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
61 views

What is the Curie temperature of iron within the Earth's outer core?

According to Wikipedia, Curie temperature is affected by pressure: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curie_temperature#Pressure If my understanding is correct, since the liquid iron in the outer core is ...
Giffyguy's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
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Can different radioactive dating method produce vastly differing results on the same item? [closed]

After being questioned by a creationist, some of their given evidence seemed to be more poignant to me than it had previously done. notwithstanding carbon dating methods which are highly prone to ...
Louis's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
72 views

Why is modelling the Earth as having geomagnetic poles useful?

I'm reading about geomagnetic poles and wondering what their signifcance is. It seems one (and perhaps the main) purpose of using this type of model is for understanding the aggregation of magnetic ...
Rory McDonald's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
122 views

Application Of Kirchoff's Law In A Desert [closed]

Homework Statement:: Sand is rough and black so it is a good absorber and radiator of heat depending on temperature. During the day, sand's radiation of the sun's energy superheats the air and causes ...
Aurelius's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Question about the MATLAB gravity models

There is a graph showing the gravity values as a function of latitudes for point mass, zonal harmonic, and wgs84 gravity models at Comparing Zonal Harmonic Gravity Model to Other Gravity Models. The ...
DrWill's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
44 views

Lopsided planet

Something that has always puzzled me about Pangaea. If we have a "roughly" spherical mass of solids, aren't two points on opposite sides approximately the same distance from the center of ...
WGroleau's user avatar
  • 369
2 votes
3 answers
135 views

Would a gyroscope have solved the longitude problem?

So I was thinking about the longitude problem, which was the problem of determining the longitude at sea. It caused great problems in sea navigation. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longitude#...
bananenheld's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Do we have a "good" model for the temperature of the Earth's crust/mantle/core measured from the center of the earth?

Is there a "good" function $f$ that models the temperature of the Earth's crust/mantle/core measured $r$ miles from the center of the earth? By good, I mean a function that strikes a nice ...
Mike Pierce's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
456 views

Do neutrons fall to the center of the earth?

Neutrons have no electric charge so they don't interact with the electric and magnetic fields, have mass so they do interact with gravity and are smaller than nuclei so they pass through most atoms, ...
Tomek Dobrzynski's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
204 views

Why is ozone $\rm O_3$ in the Earth's upper atmosphere?

If you look at the density table, you will see that ozone has the highest density among other gases, so why is it in the upper layer of the atmosphere, in the picture I schematically drew how the ...
Fakt309's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Approximating the warmest time of day

I'm trying to find a very simple approximation of when the maximum air temperature will occur on a given day at a given location. By "air temperature," I just mean the air temperature at ...
sasquires's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
42 views

Taking the mystery out of geopotential coefficients

Geopotential coefficients are usually notated Cnm and Snm (for example, see this IERS Tech Note). My questions (in the order I care about them) are, What are the constraints on n and m? Is n always ...
user3358338's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
84 views

What direction is the wave traveling in? [closed]

I don't understand how one can derive the direction of travel of the wave just using equations for displacement. I believe it might be related to the wave equation which helps with other parameters ...
Vivian Rosas's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
341 views

Upper limit of Schumann resonance harmonics?

This is a re-post from the Earth Science Stack Exchange which was posted two month ago. Due to the nature of the question and the SE site, it might be better to post this question here. As the Earth'...
C-Consciousness's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Solar constant and Energy received by the Earth

I've been reading about black body radiation and I came across the topic of solar irradiance. If we consider the sun to be a perfect blackbody, then the intensity of the solar radiation at a distance ...
Nakshatra Gangopadhay's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
540 views

Energy required for a large tsunami

There has been a recent panic regarding the volcano eruption on La Palma in the Canary Islands. That this volcano might cause a massive tsunami that would kill millions. Wouldn't a 50 meter tsunami ...
dawg's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
25 views

How long do geostrophic currents last?

My professor posed this question, without any relevant material. I suppose the currents last until the density gradient is neutralized, but I can't find any literature nor articles on this, regarding ...
a Ljeonjko's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
65 views

Best latitude to harness solar power during June?

What is the best latitude at which to place a solar panel during the month of June? Assume for simplicity that any any given latitude there is a place without clouds or large mountains to obstruct the ...
Mathew's user avatar
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6 votes
7 answers
1k views

Actual astronomic latitude (direction of gravity) does not match calculations taking into account centrifugal force of earth

ABBREVIATED QUESTION/PROBLEM: The direction of earth's gravity vector does not point towards the center of the earth due to centrifugal force. Theoretically, it should point away by .1 degree. But it ...
Cypress's user avatar
  • 69
2 votes
2 answers
73 views

How can the change of the Earth's temperature be determined with more than 1/10 K accuracy as IPCC suggests?

How can one determine the extent of global warming (expressed as a temperature difference) with such precision? The latest IPCC report states temperature changes to fractions of one degree - without ...
Marie L's user avatar
  • 23
1 vote
1 answer
456 views

Earth's core must be producing light, where is that light energy going?

Earth core is about 5000°C hot. It must be producing light but no one can see it. So where is that light energy going? It isn't escaping to space for sure.
Eclipse239's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

How would I determine the charge density of an active lava flow?

It is my understanding that in molten silicates, such as a basaltic lava flow, electrons are decoupled from solid state structures. If this is the case, as lava is flowing through a tube, how would I ...
thehungrygraduate's user avatar

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