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Questions tagged [gauge-theory]

A gauge theory has internal degrees of freedom that do not affect the foretold physical outcomes of the theory. The theory has a Lie group of *continuous symmetries* of these internal degrees of freedom, *i.e.* the predicted physics under any transformation in this group on the degrees of freedom. Examples include the $U(1)$-symmetric quantum electrodynamics and other Yang-Mills theories wherein non-Abelian groups replace the $U(1)$ gauge group of QED.

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Symplectic group $Sp(2N)$ in Srednicki's book

There is a question in Mark Srednicki's Book (Problem 24.4, p.160) about $Sp(2N)$, but I am not sure I understand the significance (application?) of this group. In that chapter, he talks about $SO(N)$ ...
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Gauge theory in Condensed Matter physics

Always come across these two jargons, namely Matter Field and Gauge Field, please explain what is the difference between them and why it is important in condensed matter physics? There are many ...
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Non-Abelian Gauge Field and Fermions Under Parity?

Under a discrete parity transformation, how does a non-abelian gauge field $A^a_{\mu}(x)$ transform? Is it possible to get mixing between the colors? How about the fermion $\psi_n(x)$ which is coupled ...
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Could electroweak interactions derive from higgsing of gauged chiral symmetry?

A recent question discussed the practice of introducing electroweak interactions into chiral perturbation theory by gauging part of the chiral symmetry. Gauging chiral symmetry is normally regarded as ...
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Silly Question about Supersymmetric Gauge Theory

In $\mathcal{N}=1$ super electrodynamics, one has the following vector superfield $$V(x,\theta,\bar{\theta})=\bar{\theta}\bar{\sigma}^{\mu}\theta v_{\mu}(x)+\bar{\theta}^{2}\theta\lambda+\theta^{2}\...
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Covariant derivative of a composite field and the chain rule

I have a gauge theory with some rather strange covariant derivatives and I am wondering how they act on a composite field like $\psi= \phi\psi'$. In my setup, the covariant derivative acting on a ...
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Showing the form of the covariant derivative of $\phi$, if $\phi$ transforms as the adjoint representation of $SU(n)$

I want to show that if $\phi$ transforms as the adjoint representation of SU(n), its covariant derivative is given by $\textbf{D}_\mu \phi = \partial_\mu \phi + i [\textbf{A}_\mu, \phi]$. (Exercise in ...
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Reference on instantons in gauge theories

Is there a reasonably detailed and systematic exposition of the theory of instantons in non-abelian gauge theories?
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A Question About Vector Superfield

My reference is section 5.2 of BUSSTEPP Lectures on Supersymmetry, page 46. A Vector superfield $V$ is a scalar superfield which satisfies the reality condition $$V=\overline{V},$$ where the bar ...
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Can the Dirac quantization condition be derived within Lev Vaidman's formalism without gauge fields?

Textbooks often claim that phenomena like the Aharonov-Bohm effect require that any local formulation of quantum gauge theory use gauge potential fields. (It's also sometimes claimed that the A-B ...
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Gauge and global symmetries in Chern-Simons/WZW correspondence

I am trying to understand how bulk gauge symmetry in 3d Chern-Simons theory becomes a global symmetry in the boundary 2d WZW theory. In particular, I am trying to understand the papers by Elitzur et ...
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Gauge dependence of the Einstein tensor and the Riemann/Ricci curvature tensors in non-linear general relativity

The Einstein field equations are given by (with assuming $\Lambda = 0$), $$ R_{ab} - \frac{1}{2} R g_{ab} = \kappa T_{ab}. $$ The principle of general covariance states that the form of these ...
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Compactification of space in Hamiltonian formulation of Yang-Mills theory

I am reading David Tong's lecture notes on Gauge Theory where he talks about Hilbert space interpretation of Yang-Mills theories in Section 2.2 of Chapter 2. When discussing the gauge dependence of ...
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Conservation of magnetic charge

It is well known that the electric charge of a system can be thought of as the Noether charge associated with isotropic large gauge transformations. That is, given Einstein-Maxwell theory $$S=\frac{1}...
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Gauge fixing in Ginzburg-Landau simulation

I am developing a computer simulation of the Ginzburg-Landau model of superconductivity. In a few words, I have discretized the domain with finite differences and I am using Nonlinear Conjugate ...
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Covariant derivative in field theory

I'm reading Physics from Symmetry by Jakob Schwichtenberg and in Chapter 7 he introduces the covariant derivative when deriving the interaction Lagrangian density for the spin-half - spin-1 field: $$ ...
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Fields transforming under an exceptional Lie group

We may think of tensors as sections of an associated vector bundle to a principal $\mathrm{GL}(n,\mathbb R)$ bundle, with a fibre chosen to be $\mathbb R^m \times (\mathbb R^*)^n$ - these play a role ...
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Unitary gauge for spontaneous symmetry breaking

I'm given a lagrangian $$ \mathcal{L} = \partial_{\mu} \Phi^{\dagger} \partial^{\mu} \Phi + m^2 \Phi^{\dagger} \Phi - \lambda (\Phi^{\dagger} \Phi)^2 $$ where $m^2 > 0, \lambda > 0$. This ...
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Can we choose polarization vectors freely in any given gauge theory?

When quantizing a gauge theory, we obtain spin-1 particles propagating in space-time. When we want to count the degrees of freedom of the theory or, equivalently, when we are trying to decompose the ...
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Is the supercurrent gauge invariant?

If we consider ${\cal N}=1$ renormalizeable chiral gauge theories, specifically discussed in section 27.4 of Weinberg's Quantum Theory of Fields, Supersymmetry book, should the supercurrent be gauge ...
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A Naive Question about Gauge Theory

I am suffering from a question I encountered from the lecture notes of gauge theory by David Tong. The problem comes from page 67 on the gauge fixing in back-ground gauge method. In David Tong's ...
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What classifies gaugings?

Gauging a global symmetry $G$ introduces several free parameters to the theory. For example, In $d=4$, gauging a simple and simply-connected Lie group introduces a coupling constant and a theta term, ...
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How can I compute the spin texture for a $SU(2)$ gauge model?

I am trying to determine the helicity of 4 Dirac cones in my model, and one way I want to approach it is by plotting the spin-texture. However, I am unsure of how one would calculate the spin-texture ...
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Why quarks in the fundamental and gluons in the adjoint?

I have been told that in gauge theories “fermionic matter goes in the fundamental rep of $SU(N)$, while gauge fields go in the adjoint rep”. I understand how this works, and for instance, in QCD,...
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Gauge singlet under SM

What does it mean when they say something is a gauge singlet under the Standard Model group? I would like to understand this concept of Singlets and Doublets. Thanks in advance.
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Wilson loop and Polyakov loop

As I understand, the Wilson line is the operator $W(x) = P\exp(i\int_{xi}^{xf} A.dx)$, where $P$ is path ordering. The Polyakov loop $P(x)$ on the other hand is the trace of the Wilson loop $W(x)$ ...
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Dependence of BRST Quantization on the Choice of Gauge-Fixing Function

There is a point which confuses me about BRST procedure. One shows that, if we define physical states as the ones that are annihilated by BRST charge $Q$, the scattering amplitudes don't depend on ...
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Is there a connection between these two results on soft hair on black holes?

In 2016 Strominger, Hawking and Perry published the paper "Soft Hair on Black Holes" proposing new results that could have importance to the study of the black hole information problem. One ...
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Path integral measure in Chern-Simons/WZW correspondence

The relationship between 3d Chern-Simons theory on the product of the disk and the real line ($D\times \mathbb{R}$) and the chiral WZW model on $S^1\times \mathbb{R}$ was shown in Elitzur et al Nucl....
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QCD vs. QED gauge invariance

Trying to understand the difference between QED and QCD gauge invariance treatment I found the following paper: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1101.3425.pdf I have the following questions: 1) I understand Eq....
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Gauge invariance in GR perturbation theory

I have been following this video lecture on how to find gauge invariance when studying the perturbation of the metric. Something is unclear when we try to find fake vs. real perturbation of the ...
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Are all solutions of Maxwell's equation related by a gauge transformation?

Consider Maxwell's equation (without source): $$ \partial_\mu F^{\mu \nu} = 0 \implies \partial_\mu \partial^\mu A^\nu = \partial_\mu \partial^\nu A^\mu.$$ Can we find a pair of classical field ...
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QCD gauge invariant amplitude?

In order to keep the correct degrees of freedom (which are 2) for massless gauge fields one imposes, $$p^\mu \epsilon_\mu = 0 \tag1$$ Together with the gauge redundacy/equivalence relation, $$\...
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Does the Vector Potential Coil and Transformer Violate Special Relativity?

"Vector Potential Coil and Transformer" by M. Diabo et al reports the induction of voltage by a time varying curl free vector potential. A refinement reported in "Vector-Potential Coil and ...
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Beta function in the Standard Model

In Srednicki's textbook "Quantum Field Theory", Problem 89.4 asks us to compute the leading terms in the beta function for each of the three gauge couplings of the Standard Model. These gauge ...
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Hodge dual and QED

I was studying the paper Topological massive gauge theories in three dimensions by Deser, Jackiw and Templeton. In the paper, they use Hodge dual for some reason which I don't understand at all. So I ...
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Higgs-Mechanism: Why are gauge boson masses not protected by gauge symmetry

In non-spontaneously broken QFT like QED the gauge bosons cannot have a mass due to gauge symmetry (follows from Ward identity). Also they have only 2 polarizations. However in a spontaneously broken ...
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Duality transformations, such as between a massless scalar field and the Kalb-Ramond field

There is a kind of duality transformations between antisymmetric tensor fields which I learnt from a series of lectures by Gia Dvali on quantum field theory. I have not been able to locate a source ...
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Invariance of Yang-Mills Lagrangian under charge conjugation

The Yang-Mills Lagrangian gauge invariant under an $SU(N)$ tranformation can be written as $${\cal L} = -\frac{1}{4}F_{\mu\nu}^i F^{i\ \mu\nu} \tag1$$ (Sum over $i$ implicit) This Lagrangian ...
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Products of Lie-Groups versus Lie-Group Extensions in Physics

The Standard Model of elementary particle physics is a gauge theory based on the Lie group $U(1) \times SU(2) \times SU(3)$. From the mathematical perspective I read that: Simple Lie groups have ...
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Naive question about lepton/quark energy states

I understand there are 3 energy states for quarks and leptons (electron, muon, tauon... Up, charm, top etc.) And we have 3 forces (not including gravity, em, strong and weak). This naively seems ...
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How do we determine who eats who (or which field gets massive) in a Higgs phase transition?

Consider the following theory in which a $2$-form field $B_{\mu\nu}$ with field strength $P_{\alpha\mu\nu}=\partial_{[\alpha}B_{\mu\nu]}$ is coupled to a $3$-form gauge field $C_{\alpha\beta\gamma}$ ...
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Gupta-Bleuler Condition

I am studying quantum field theory using David Tong's notes available at http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/qft.html and I am stuck at page 135 eq. $6.56$ I fail to see how the following equation: $...
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How many degrees of freedom in a massless $2$-form field?

Consider the Kalb-Ramond field $B_{\mu\nu}$ which is basically a massless $2$-form field with the Lagrangian $$ \mathcal L = \frac{1}{2}P_{\alpha\mu\nu}P^{\alpha\mu\nu}\,, $$ where $P_{\alpha\mu\nu} \...
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Gauge-covariance of the Yang-Mills field strength $F_{\mu\nu}^a$

Accordingly to Yang-Mills theories, after the introduction of a covariant derivative such that $$D_\mu = \partial_\mu - igA_\mu, \tag1$$ you can built the kinetic term for the gauge potential $A_\...
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Gauge Field Transformation Properties

I'm a bit confused about the gauge transformation properties of non-abelian gauge fields, and I just wanted some clarification. I keep seeing the statement that "gauge fields transform in the adjoint ...
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Notation and concepts of Yang Mills Theory

I am studying loop quantum gravity using the book by Pullin and Gambini. I am having some trouble understanding and getting past the chapter on Yang Mills theory, mainly because I am confused about ...
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What does $\mathcal{N}$ refer to in Gauge theories?

Context: I am a second-year (undergraduate) physics major applying for a summer research position. The investigator is working on Quiver Gauge Theories and in response to my inquiry email he told me ...
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Spinning Particles in Background Gauge Fields

A simple model for a spinning particle is $$L=m\int dt\left(\dot{x}^{2}-\frac{i}{2}\psi\dot{\psi}\right)$$ with SUSY algebra $\delta x=-i\epsilon\psi$ and $\delta\psi=-\epsilon\dot{x}$, where $\...
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What happens to the $U(1)$ factor in the $U(N)$ SYM gauge group of the AdS/CFT correspondence?

I'm learning about the AdS/CFT correspondence. I know that from the open string perspective, the dynamics on a stack of $N$ coincident $D3$-branes is given by a $\mathcal{N} = 4$ Super Yang Mills ...