All Questions

Tagged with
45 questions
82 views

What's the meaning of “inequivalent quantizations”?

The notion "inequivalent quantizations" is regularly used when topological terms are discussed. From what I've gathered so far, "inequivalent quantizations" means that there are different quantum ...
27 views

What happens to large gauge transformations in gauges different from the temporal gauge?

There are already several questions regarding the meaning and definition of large gauge transformations. Discussions of large gauge transformations typically only happen in the context of the ...
78 views

166 views

Do higher homotopy groups play any role in gauge theory?

As is more-or-less well-known, the magnetic monopoles of a gauge theory are classified by the first homotopy group of the gauge group, $\pi_1(G)$ (cf. Lubkin (1963)). The second homotopy group is ...
95 views

154 views

Why is the Standard Model gauge group a simple product?

The Standard Model gauge group is always given as $\text{SU}(3)\times\text{SU}(2)\times\text{U}(1)$ (possibly quotiented by some subgroup that acts trivially on all konwn fields). However, at the ...
244 views

What's the difference between a gauge theory with group $G$ and one with its universal cover?

Consider a gauge theory with gauge group $G$, which is not simply connected. What is the difference between this theory, and one with gauge group $\tilde G$, the universal cover of $G$? Sharing the ...
261 views

When is a Wess-Zumino term well-defined?

According to wikipedia, a Wess-Zumino term is well-defined when the Lie group (target space) $G$ is compact and simply connected, because that implies that $\pi_2(G)$ is trivial. But there are Lie ...
366 views

How is the Chern-Simons action well-defined?

The Chern-Simons action $$S = \int_M A \wedge \mathrm{d} A + \frac{2}{3}A \wedge A \wedge A$$ is not obviously gauge invariant. It is usually stated that under a gauge transformation, the action ...
386 views

Axial anomaly in QCD VS axial anomaly in current algebra QCD

I would like to understand the distinction between an axial anomaly in QCD (Theta Vacuum: axion -> 2 gluons) and an axial anomaly in QCD of current (Chern–Simons term: pion->two photons, photon->three ...
235 views

Trouble with Construction of Sphaleron S

Consider SU(2) YMH theory without fermions. Three-space is compactified by adding the sphere at infinity and configuration space is the space of all static finite-energy 3D gauge and Higgs fields in a ...
67 views

689 views

Is there an argument for using the $\theta$-vacuum for a Yang-Mills theory that works regardless of the presence of fermions?

Consider a Yang-Mills theory, possibly including fermions. It has many possible vacua $\{|n\rangle\}$ labelled by integer winding number $n$, defined as the Maurer-Cartan topological invariant: for ...
49 views

Rotating away a constant gauge field

In a few papers (see, for example, here, the bottom of the left column on the page 6, or here, the upper part of the page 5) I've met the strange calculations using the constant gauge field  A_{\mu}(...
155 views

Vacuum Manifold of an $SU(2)$ Theory

I am reading Coleman's book "Aspects of Symmetry", specifically chapter 6 "Classical Lumps and their Quantum Descendants". He gives an Example 5 p. 209 for the topological solutions for an $SU(2)$ ...
661 views

Yang-Mills potential and principal bundles

In section 2.7.2 of Bertlmann's "Anomalies in quantum field theory", it is stated that since a non-trivial principal bundle (based on a Lie group $G$) does not admit a global section, the Yang-Mills ...
118 views

Left-right topology

Are there non-trivial topological solutions (in particular 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopoles) associated with the (local) breaking \begin{equation} SU(2)_R \times SU(2)_L \times U(1)_{B-L} \to SU(...
101 views

Let's talk quantum mechanics. I have a charged particle moving on a sphere. It has a wave function $\psi$. At time $t=0$, there is no magnetic flux piercing the sphere. Instantaneously, I introduce a ...
112 views

Why Dirac monopole is a topological defect in a $U(1)$ gauge theory? [duplicate]

How does $U(1)$ gauge group at long distances, give rise to magnetic monopoles? Also why is it said that Dirac monopole is a topological defect in a compact $U(1)$ gauge theory?
217 views

Integrals of Chern class, $c_i$ in YM theories

I am a bit confused with the definition of the 1st (and 2nd by extension) Chern class in YM theories. I understand that in general $c_i \in H^{2i}(M,\mathbb{Z})$ where $M$ is a smooth manifold. Then, ...
302 views

Gauge group topology

The fundamental difference between spinors and tensors is that spinors are sensitive to the homotopy classes of paths through the rotation group $SO(3)$: \begin{equation} \pi_1(SO(3)) = \mathbb{Z}_2, ...
1k views

Does the existence of instantons imply non-trivial cohomology of spacetime?

Gauge theories are considered to live on $G$-principal bundles $P$ over the spacetime $\Sigma$. For convenience, the usual text often either compactify $\Sigma$ or assume it is already compact. An ...
454 views

What are the definition and examples of topological excitation?

I read topological excitation in wiki, while it's too brief. What is the precise definition of topological excitation? And can give me some examples and explain why they are topological excitation? ...
2k views

What is the conclusion from Aharonov-Bohm Effect?

What is the conclusion that we can draw from the Aharonov-Bohm effect? Does it simply suggest that the vector potential has measurable effects? Does it mean that it is a real observable in quantum ...
357 views

Vector potential $A$ on a 2-sphere $S^2$ of radius $R$ with some points removed

I am preparing myself for an exam and I got stuck with the following problem. If I wanted to calculate the vector potential $A$ on a sphere (not off or in), where some points are removed, how would I ...
195 views

Some questions on the Wilson loop in the projective construction?

Based on the previous question and the comment in it, imagine two different mean-field Hamiltonians $H=\sum(\psi_i^\dagger\chi_{ij}\psi_j+H.c.)$ and $H'=\sum(\psi_i^\dagger\chi_{ij}'\psi_j+H.c.)$, we ...
1k views

Vector Potential for Magnetic field when the field is not in simply-connected region

According to Poincare's Lemma, if $U\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is a star-shaped set and if $\omega$ is a $k$-form defined in $U$ that is closed, then $\omega$ is exact, meaning that there's some $(k-1)$-...
412 views

Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Torus

I had a very brief introduction to the Aharonov-Bohm effect in class. The lecturer introduced the notion that $H(\Phi=\Phi_0)$ and $H(\Phi=0)$ gives identical energy spectrum and that the Hamiltonians ...
403 views

Proof of quantization of magnetic charge of monopoles using homotopy groups

Suppose we place a monopole at the origin $\{{\bf 0}\}$, and the gauge field is well-definded in region $\mathbb R^3-\{0\}$ which is homomorphic to a sphere $S^2$. Then the total manifold is $U(1)$ ...
753 views

7 sphere, is there any physical interpretation of exotic spheres?

Basically an exotic sphere is topologically a sphere, but doesn't look like a one. Or more accurately: homeomorphic but not diffeomorphic to the standard Euclidean n-sphere The first exotic ...
1k views

Large gauge transformations

I would like to understand what is the importance of large gauge transformations. I read that these gauge transformation cannot be deformed to the identity, but why should we care about that?
For the CS theory on a three manifold $M$ with a gauge group $G$, it is said that the gauge field $A$ is a connection on the trivial bundle over $M$. Why the bundle should be trivial? I know that ...