Questions tagged [freezing]

The process of a liquid changing into the solid phase

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Calculating the amount of salt to add to water to obtain a specific freezing temperature for the mixture

I am trying to determine a formula which can be used to determine how much salt (specifically sodium chloride) in grams to add to a liter of water in order to cause it to freeze at a specified ...
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What causes this frost pattern on my windshield?

I was walking back to my car yesterday when I noticed the frost on the back windshield formed these long "straight" lines: The temperature was about -10C and I was wondering what the ...
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River freezing conditions

Quite uncommon -8°C here in Hamburg at the moment I write, and I thought: Surely our local rivulet is frozen over. In retrospect this was silly, the "rivulet" is 3rd order and has a very ...
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Why do some oranges freeze while others don't at the same temperature?

I buy fresh oranges wholesale so I could enjoy fresh juice every morning, I store them in the fridge (not the freezer) so they can last for a few weeks (yes, about 60% of my fridge content at any ...
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What’s the intuition behind snowflake symmetry? [duplicate]

What’s a more rigorous description of why snowflakes are so symmetric? The general explanations of why they’re symmetrical are: Theyre not. The branches actually vary. Snowflakes are somewhat ...
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What do you call a factor that isn't a dependent, independent, or controlled variable?

I'm doing an experiment investigating the Mpemba effect. I measured some factors that may have contributed to the time it took the water to freeze (defined as the point where it becomes a total solid, ...
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How strong is the force of ice expanding when freezing?

Why does water contract on melting whereas gold, lead, etc. expand on melting? reminded me about something I've been wondering myself for some time. We know that water expands as it freezes. The force ...
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Frozen dew explanation

First, look at this picture: This is frozen dew/rain, it was cold this morning and it might have rained during the night but that's not really relevant I think. Here are my questions: Why is the ...
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Froze or freeze bottle Exploding

I kept a bottle in my freezer with full water overnight. When my mom took it out and put it in normal condition, it blasted after a few minutes. More surprisingly the bottle was made of aluminum. Pls, ...
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How could you make realistic Frostwalker boots? [closed]

In Minecraft, as you might know, you can enchant boots with Frostwalker, which freezes water as you walk over it. I've been wondering if this would be possible in real life, and if so, how? My idea is ...
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What happens during freezing?

I did an experiment investigating the Mpemba effect and I found that a contributing factor to why hot water freezes faster than cold water is due to the amount of time the water takes to freeze. As in ...
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Can water in solid state (ice) be at such a low temperature that in contact with liquid water at 0, freezes it and leaves it at a lower than zero C°?

I recently had a discussion with a bio engineer and we are both pretty convinced of different outcomes for the same situation: Say you have a glass half full of liquid water at 0°, could you get a ...
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Can the freezing point of Nitrogen be reduced?

There was an interesting Q/A about mixing helium and nitrogen. Is there anything that can be added to liquid nitrogen to reduce it's freezing point to below 63 kelvin?
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What happens as water gets infinitely close to freezing?

Say, for the purposes of conjecture, that you have the necessary handwavium to uniformly cool it to any temperature you want, and decide to cool the water down to a temperature infinitely close to $0°$...
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Freezing water: in layers or all at once?

(First question here on physics, hope it is OK) Since it is getting cold here in Berlin, Germany and temperatures are falling below the freezing point, we want to make a little ice rink in our back ...
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Do 2 sodas in the fridge cool faster or slower than one soda in the fridge?

If you put 1 room temperature soda in the fridge, will it take longer to chill than if you put 2 in the fridge, or will the 2 chill faster, or does not make a difference? I guess, does the inherent ...
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Is there a difference in speed of ice formation between a thick and thin water layer?

Here in the Netherlands we are always trying to get ice as soon as possible so that got me thinking. If you would build a thick layer of ice by spraying a layer of water and wait till its frozen, is ...
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Frozen liquid mirror space telescope

I saw Liquid-Mirror Telescopes. With care, a liquid mirror can make a diffraction limited telescope. The Wikipedia article on Liquid mirror space telescopes talks about various designs for use in ...
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Why isn't the surface of this frozen iced tea smooth?

Why is the surface of the iced tea in the pictures below so uneven? To give more details, today I tried (and failed) making iced tea. I placed a cup of hot water, after removing the tea bag, in my ...
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Crystals, symmetries in mixture

What would happen to the crystal structure of ice, if i freeze salt water? What changes in symmetry can i expect? I do not know the terminology for this stuff...but in what 'subclass' or 'subfamily', ...
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Why can you find running water lower than $0^\circ \text{C}$?

I was looking at the phase diagram for water: It seems there is not much of a region on the diagram at which you can be in the liquid phase, for temperatures lower than $0^\circ \text{C}$. I am ...
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Does Low Temperature Attract Negatively Charged Particles?

I'm studying the effects of temperature in producing electricity like in clouds that produces lightning. Since dark clouds during a thunderstorm is below freezing point, it attracts negatively charged ...
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What happens if water is prevented from freezing due to pressure; where does the energy go?

Say you have an iron (or whatever strong material) ball filled with water, and you leave it in a frozen environment (say $-100\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$); once it gets cold enough, the water will want to ...
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Can vodka turn to a solid?

How can I turn vodka into a solid? If I boil it, and then cool completely, will it still be a liquid? Is there any way to turn vodka to a solid?
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Melting ice made with tap water

I recently froze some tap water in plastic bottles and I later made the ice melt completely (the idea was keeping ice bottles nearby me to fight the heat). When the water returned to liquid a lot of ...
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Is the Mpemba effect exclusive to water?

Is the Mpemba effect exclusive to water ? So I was reading this post about really cool phenomena where hot water freezes faster than cold water. But it only talks about water. Even online student ...
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Does elevation change the temperature at which snow falls?

I have read that snow falls at 32 degrees F. While at an altitude of nearly 8,000 feet above sea level, I found it snowing, but the temperature was more than 40 degrees F. Perhaps the indicator is ...
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Is the pressure inside a closed refrigerator same as atmospheric pressure?

What is the pressure in my deep refrigerator where water becomes ice. Is it lower than atmospheric pressure or higher or same? And how I can mesure it ?
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How long does it take to cool down a drink with ice?

If I have a bottle or container with X fluid ounces of water at temperature Y (say, fridge temperature or room temperature), and I put ice or ice sticks (composed of water) in it that make up Z fluid ...
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Does freezing point depression also affect the speed at which something melts?

If you have a pure water frozen, then it should begin to melt if you apply 33°F air to it. If you have impure water that's frozen, it's melting temperature might have dropped to 30°F. If you apply ...
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Would a helium ballon pop or freeze in space?

I have read these questions: Why doesn't Helium freeze at 0K? Do objects in space freeze immediately? Now I do understand that a helium balloon cannot float up to space. But let's assume this ...
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Is there any reason to remove the air from a bottle of water before you freeze it?

When you put a sealed bottle of water in the freezer it explodes, (I get this part). I was told that filling it with 100% water (removing the air) first stops the bottle from exploding as this allows ...
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Temperature of items from a freezer [duplicate]

I've read that all items in a freezer are at the temperature at which the freezer are set to (obviously items have to be in the freezer long enough). So, if I put normal tap water in a freezer which ...
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speed of freezing vs. moving [closed]

An idea came to my mind and like to discuss it. We know that out there in the space the absolute zero (aka. -273 C) is almost reached where all the particles and atoms would freeze up and stop giving ...
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How do you calculate the rate of ascent for frozen seawater in seawater?

Assuming 1m3 sphere of seawater were flash frozen at a depth of 1km, how rapidly would it start ascending to the surface given the buoyancy? Assuming we could ignore bonds between the surface of ...
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Are there other properties besides lower boiling point that make isobutane a better refrigerant than butane?

Asked differently, if -1C is low enough for the application is there any reason not to use butane rather than isobutane as the working fluid in a refrigeration system?
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How fast can water from a lake be frozen?

Warning: this question contains spoilers for the first episode of 2018 TV series Lost in Space by Netflix. On the series, the Robinsons spaceship, Jupiter, falls on a planet, and it’s submerged in ...
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Where does the energy of the expansion of frozen water come from?

As you cool a system, you are removing energy, yet as water transitions to a solid, it expands, exerting sufficient force to rip through metal, for example in residential copper water pipes that ...
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Does air have to be oversaturated in order to make resublimation possible?

I am writing a pre-scientific work about the chemtrail conspiracy theory. A part of that is the exact process of contrail formation. There is one more puzzle piece missing. Hopefully the answer to ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Why can a contrail only form below -40 degree Celsius?

I read that contrails can only form if the outside temperature is below -40 degree Celsius. But why not earlier? Water is already super-cooled below 0 degree Celsius. If a condensation nuclei touches ...
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3 votes
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Why doesn't the moisture freeze out of the air when the air temperature is below freezing?

I would think that there would be zero humidity outside right now and it's 21 degrees. The weather site says there is 71% humidity.
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Explanation of the effect of nucleation sites on various processes

It is common knowledge that water can be cooled and superheated in the absence of nucleation sites. Similarly, the well-known explosion of carbonated drinks due to the dropping of mentos is also ...
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Vacuum freezing of water

In this technique Vacuum is created in the chamber and water is placed in the chamber. As the pressure decreases so the boiling point also decreases and water start boiling and evaporation starts. ...
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Does pure water freeze at the same temperature even if there are a mix of gases in the environment?

For example water has a triple point at 670 Pa c.ca.at 0.01°C Could she freeze at this temperature even if there is another gas in the mixture of the vapour,for example He4 at 1Atm? Does the Rault law ...
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Chilling 750 ml liquid (wine, water, etc) in 30 seconds by 20 °F?

There's a crowdfunding campaign which advertises a container like device that you can put in the freezer and after you take it you can pour in 750 ml of liquid and it decreases the temperature of it ...
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What is the form of potential energy in a super-cooled liquid?

According to this page: http://burnanenergyjournal.com/forms-of-energy-motion-heat-light-sound-2/ Potential Energy is any type of stored energy. It can be chemical, nuclear, gravitational, or ...
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To freeze salt water

Does the salt water requires more energy to be freezed with a fridge compared to distilled water? If so, why and how much more?
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Which Liquids freeze when combined? [closed]

Are there any liquids (or liquid and solution) that when combined react to where they will freeze?
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Why is this ice so stubborn? [closed]

In central India summers are extremely hot. So in order to stay hydrated we (a.k.a. me and a couple of friends) have been advised to carry with ourselves a refresher (which is basically a flavored ORS ...
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About observing crystal of ice

While reading a paper about ice crystal growth, they use vapor and seed to create crystal. I thought that I could observe crystal just by freezing liquid water. Is there differences between just ...
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