Questions tagged [equilibrium]

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8
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1answer
304 views

Computational scaling of quantum and classical Monte Carlo algorithms

How does the computational complexity of finding an equilibrium thermal state for a given Hamiltonian at a given temperature scale with system size under classical and quantum Monte Carlo? I know ...
7
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0answers
455 views

Can a substance have zero vapour pressure above absolute zero?

According to this Reddit thread, the answer is no, vapor pressure can't be zero when temperature is above absolute zero. I suspect the answer might actually be yes according to a precise definition I ...
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0answers
84 views

Entropy and equilibrium concepts at astronomic scales

I am always puzzled to read here and there discussions dealing with thermodynamic concepts applied to astronomic scales where gravity matters. To my opinion, there is a certain carelessness to go into ...
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0answers
306 views

Thermodynamic equilibrium or thermal equilibrium and equipartition theorem

In all derivations of the equipartition theorem I can find a thermodynamic equilibrium distribution is used to show it's validity. But more vague sources (physics.stackexchange answer by Luboš Motl, ...
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146 views

What are some good articles on trend to equilibrium?

I am interested in studying systems out of equilibrium that are trending to equilibrium. Trend to equilibrium, entropy production, etc. seem to be very tricky topics. Any suggestions will be ...
4
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0answers
159 views

Is there any example of a real-life system which violates the “third law” of thermodynamics while remaining at equilibrium?

I assume the following statement for the "third law" of thermodynamics: $$\lim_{N \to \infty} \lim_{T \to 0} \frac{S}{N} = 0 \tag{1}\label{1}$$ That is to say, I am considering those systems with a ...
4
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1answer
477 views

Why the convexity of $E(S,V,N)$ implies that at thermodynamic equilibrium the energy is minimal?

I do understand that in the case of mechanics for example, if there is a soccer ball inside a "well", at mechanical equilibrium, the ball will be at the bottom of the well. ball http://electron6.phys....
4
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0answers
245 views

Detailed Balance for Quantum Master Equations from System Hamiltonians with Degenerate Spectrum

Kossakowski, Andrzej, et al. ("Quantum detailed balance and KMS condition." Communications in Mathematical Physics 57.2 (1977): 97-110) gave a proof that the stationary state of a quantum dynamical ...
3
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4answers
72 views

Thermodynamic process

"During this process, the system is always in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings." Does this statement means the process is adiabatic? Since the temperature of both systems is the same, there ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Is there an open quantum system analogue of the equilibration time bounds for classical ergodic Markov chains?

Background For classical ergodic discrete Markov chains, we can bound the time taken to reach the stationary distribution to the spectral properties of the transition matrix. I will outline this ...
3
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2answers
85 views

Are interactions with the environment unnecessary to attain thermodynamic equilibrium?

First of all I apologize for the lenght of this question. I have some basic statistical mechanics facts that I am confused about, and in this subject it is probably better to be precise. When ...
3
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0answers
256 views

Le Chatelier's principle and energy minimization

In Callen's "Thermodynamics" in section 8.5 he asks us to imagine some perturbation $dX$ of an extensive parameter of a system in contact with a reservoir that acts to hold fixed the intensive ...
3
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0answers
132 views

Is it possible to have a line rather than a point where the three states of a substance can exist?

Most of us are familiar with state diagrams that define which of the three states a substance will take given the pressure and temperature. And that some substances, such as water for example, exhibit ...
2
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0answers
21 views

How does thermalisation make incoherent waves into coherent ones?

Thermalisation is the process by which out-of-equilibrium systems reach equilibrium. Coherence refers to the phases of waves being a constant difference apart. While reading a paper on axion stars, I ...
2
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2answers
193 views

Conceptual Question about Suspension Bridge Forces

Two walkways are suspended from vertical rods. In the first scenario, one long rod supports both walkways and is attached to the ceiling. In the second scenario, two shorter rods are attached to each ...
2
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2answers
2k views

Angles in a static equilibrium

I have three masses $\left(F_\alpha, \, F_\beta , \, \text{and} \,F_g \right)$ with 2 pulleys, and a wind variable which is in static equilibrium. I have already calculated the appropriate forces for ...
2
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0answers
311 views

Timescales of physical and chemical equilibrium

Background When describing the behaviour of a reacting systems, we usually don't hesitate to apply property models to relate the local properties of each species. For example, in the case of a gas ...
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0answers
109 views

Why dynamic equilibrium exists?

We know that at equilibrium Gibbs energy is minimum. We also know that at equilibrium both forward and reverse reactions occur simultaneously, and also we know that for a reaction to be spontaneous ...
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1answer
27 views

Proving that motion of an $n$ dimensional oscillator can be written as a linear combination of “sine waves”

Here is a related question which might provide some context: LINK. Let's consider an oscillator with equation of motion in $n$ dimensions: $$ \frac{d^2}{dt^2} \vec{x} = K \vec{x}. $$ Given that $\...
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0answers
20 views

Minimisation of grand free potential at equilibrium?

I have a couple of questions regarding the grand potential at equilibrium. I am well aware that in the grand canonical ensemble, particles and energy can be exchanged. I also understand why the grand ...
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0answers
45 views

Unstable equilibrium due to an arbitrary electrostatic configuration

Suppose n charges are put in an arbitrary electrostatic configuration and a small test is placed at a null point (i.e., where $\vec{E}=0$ ) of the configuration. The task is to show that the ...
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0answers
47 views

Is there a difference between false (metastable) and local equilibria?

Or is it permissible to use the terms interchangeably? If there is a difference, what is it?
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1answer
47 views

Teeter Totter Team Building Game

I recall doing a team building exercise where a team of about 4 people needed to balance a teeter totter, so that neither of the ends was touching the ground. They could achieve this by having the ...
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0answers
30 views

How to get electromagnetic field tensor of photon gas?

Momentum spectrum of ideal photon gas depends on its temperature.But sometimes I need these thermal photons to act like 'electromagnetic field'.I want to take them into charged particles' motion ...
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0answers
27 views

In terms of the greenhouse effect, what is the Earth's heat capacity?

Has the earth’s atmosphere reached an equilibrium at which the input radiation energy roughly equals its output, or is the output significantly lower than the input because the energy is being used to ...
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0answers
60 views

Demonstration that electric current at equilibrium is zero

As it is well known, electrons at equilibrium (no external field) do not conduct electric current, i.e. $\int_{BZ} dk\,v_{k}\,f(\epsilon_k)=0$ where $f(\epsilon_k)$ is the Fermi-Dirac distribution $...
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0answers
97 views

Why does the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate increase with wave number?

It can be easily derived that the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate on the boundary of two fluids (i.e. denser fluid supported by a lighter fluid) under gravity, $g$, is given by $gk\eta$, where ...
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1answer
81 views

Problems with understanding conductors in electrostatic equilibrium

I watched a few videos on conductors in electrostatic equilibrium and all I understood is that the charges stick to the surface of the conductor. So does that mean if I have a copper wire with no ...
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0answers
139 views

How long does it take for a balloon to deflate?

Since gas flows from an area of high pressure to low pressure, upon opening an aperture on say a balloon one would expect the contents to diffuse out until both the inside and outside reach a pressure ...
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0answers
29 views

Thermodynamics - thermal equillibrium

If I got a heat source (water at $100^oC$), the heat reservoir (infinite lake with the temperature $5^oC$) and my thermodynamic process proceeds at $20^oC$ somewhere above the source. The process is ...
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0answers
70 views

What is the meaning of free energy out of equilibrium?

So in statistical mechanics the free energy $F$ (either canonical or grand canonical) can be found from the partition sum $\mathcal{Z}$ as: $$ \mathcal{Z}=\exp(-\beta F). $$ As far as I can read it ...
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0answers
235 views

Summation of Forces through a Lever Linkage

I'm trying to brush up on some of my force and torque stuff so I can do some modelling in software. My problem is, it's been a while and I'm unsure of how correct my work is. I have a system as ...
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0answers
31 views

How to consider another Cartesian axis?

Well, I solved the problem. The point is that I used a x and y axis with x parallel to the inclination of the box, but I wanted to think differently, if one considers the y axis itself containing the ...
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0answers
17 views

Is the unitarity property of the transition probability in transport theory only given in statistical equilibrium?

Is statistical equilibrium a necessary condition for the unitarity property of the transition probability in transport theory, which states that: $$ \int w(\Gamma_1^\prime,\Gamma_2^\prime; \Gamma_1, \...
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0answers
120 views

Can broken time-reversal symmetric system never be in equilibrium?

Detailed balance condition is necessary for equilibrium so as to avoid limit cycles and detailed balance condition implies time-reversal symmetry. Now, if for example, in a 1D lattice of an Ising spin ...
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2answers
150 views

Why does the Gibbs free energy not decrease ad infinitum?

I would like to ask which guarantees if the Gibbs free energy has a minimum in closed system (e.g. in a chemical reaction system) at constant pressure and temperature? Why does it not decrease ad ...
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0answers
115 views

Are these torques correct for a simple balancing/fulcrum experiment?

For my physics lab, they had us do a simple static equilibrium experiment where we rested a ruler on a fulcrum (at its center of mass) and then attached varying amounts of weight on either end at ...
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1answer
855 views

Mechanical equivalent of heat => transfer from work W to heat Q

Consider the following experiment to determine the mechanical equivalent of heat $\mu = \frac{\Delta W}{\Delta Q}$ Not seen in the picture is a weight with known mass hanging down the cord. When you ...
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0answers
58 views

Thermodynamic derivation of condition for equilibrium of triple line

Edit:(4/1/2016) Okay, I get how the required equation arises from force balance. All forces are acting on the same length, so the length cancels out of the equation and what we've got is essentially ...
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0answers
75 views

In an equilibrium of two systems, why is not true that $\frac{\delta S_{1}}{\delta N_{1}} = \frac{\delta S_{2}}{\delta N_{2}}$?

Why is not true that $\frac{\delta S_{1}}{\delta N_{1}} = \frac{\delta S_{2}}{\delta N_{2}}$ across two systems that exchange particles? It is true, instead, that $\frac{\delta F_{1}}{\delta N_{1}} = ...
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1answer
171 views

Earnshaw's theorem and Effective potential

Earnshaw's theorm says "no stable equilibrium for any $\frac{1}{r}$ potential field in charge-free space". Now I am confused in some aspects, and I would like some helping hands. 1.) General physics ...
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0answers
60 views

Is the system in equilibrium?

If the time derivative of the Liapunov functional related to free energy of my system is zero, can I say my system is in chemical equilibrium?
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0answers
61 views

problem about heat in thermodynamics

$$\nabla G=-T\nabla S-T\nabla S_{sur}=-Q+q $$ $$\nabla G=-T\nabla S-T\nabla S_{sur}=-(U-W_{rew})+q $$ $$\nabla G=-T\nabla S-T\nabla S_{sur}=-(q+W-W_{rew})+q $$ $$\nabla G=-T\nabla S-T\nabla ...
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0answers
262 views

Why is it valid to assume that the liquid-vapour interface is always saturated during evaporation?

For steady state evaporation, I read from two textbooks which simply states that the partial pressure of vapour of interest (say water) at the liquid-vapour interface is equal to the saturation ...
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0answers
101 views

Vacancy Generation / Annihilation Time (Relaxation Time)

Vacancy Generation/Annihilation Time, Recombination Time and Relaxation Time ($\tau$) are all synonymously used in atomic physics literatures. They're defined as the time that it takes for vacancies ...
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0answers
98 views

Reconciling Different Vapor Pressure Definitions

In describing vapor pressure, I have often heard the following intuition: Assume a closed container that is partially filled with water. Above the water lies a vacuum. The water will vaporize until ...
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0answers
128 views

Biological Themodynamics - What does an endpoint saturated signal mean. How does it relate to equillibrium constant

I have had a question that has been bugging me for a couple of years in my graduate school career, and I was wondering if perhaps some physicist could help explain it to me. Given an endpoint assay ...
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0answers
1k views

What is the angle of the string with the vertical?

A heavy uniform sphere of radius $a$ has a light inextensible string attached to a point on its surface. The other end of the string is fixed to a point on a rough vertical wall. The sphere rests ...
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1answer
319 views

What is the cause for mechanical equilibrium in statistical mechanics?

In classical thermodynamics, mechanical equilibrium is defined as the state of a system in which there is no net flow of volume as there should be no net pressure within the system. Ok. ...
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2answers
29 views

Pressure of a system at the thermodynamic equilibrium

I'm reading a book in which it says that a system is at mechanical equilibrium if the pressure is constant in time but not necessarily uniform in space at any fixed point (for example it can be caused ...