Questions tagged [elements]

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1answer
36 views

Would both life as well as elementary particles no longer exist upon “heat death?

Would the elementary particles in the standard model still exist upon “heat death”? Would electrons stop orbiting around the nucleus? Would the periodic table of elements still be relevant assuming ...
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1answer
58 views

What is Neodymium?

What is Neodymium? I'm not quite sure why i was redirected here. I was curious about magnets. I wondered how magnetizing a drill bit worked. I originally wanted to know how long the magnetization ...
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1answer
70 views

Everything will not just turn into vapor in the ground zero of nuclear explosions but hydrogen plasma

Calcium atoms can't withstand extreme heat according to this link. http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast122/lectures/lec09.html "Why do some stars have strong lines of hydrogen, others strong lines of ...
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51 views

Can 40Ca II decay or change into something different

I just read the Wiki article on calcium isotopes and it said the stable calcium isotopes such as 40Ca have never been observed to decay. Then, despite the high temperature of stars such as Sun there ...
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1answer
30 views

Heavy elements creation [duplicate]

Would elements heavier than iron not be extremely rare if only created by supernovae? I believe all elements above hydrogen are created in the star's corona. Hydrogen fusion is not possible in star's ...
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1answer
29 views

Can another element “burn” at the same rate as hydrogen does in our sun?

From what I understand our sun doesn't actually "burn", instead a nuclear reaction is taking place, which is the cause of heat, light and a electromagnetic radiation. I believe this is called Hydrogen ...
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1answer
29 views

Color of radium's glow?

Does the radium salt (or metal for instance) glow only because the emitted alpha particles bombard the nitrogen atoms in the air? Still, how does that lead to a glow anyway? What's the color of the ...
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2answers
225 views

Is there a limit of electrons a single hydrogen atom can have?

Is there a limit of electrons a single hydrogen atom can have? If so what is it? why? Is the the answer to why scalable to helium?
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4answers
8k views

Can there be an atomic nucleus where there are more protons than neutrons?

As far as I know, number of protons is less that or equal to the number of neutrons in any atomic nucleus. But is there any possibility that there exists a nucleus where the number of protons exceeds ...
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0answers
15 views

Does emission-spectrum of molecule equal sum of emission-spectrum of its components

Imagine a number of elements with known emission-spectra, that form a primary chemical bond of either * ionic * covalent * metallic type. Does the emission-spectrum of the resulting molecule match the ...
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1answer
43 views

Why does formation of iron in stars doesnt produce any energy?

Why does the formation of iron in the stars doesnt produce any energy, i have a hunch that it might have something to do with the fact that iron has the highest binding energy per nucleon and hence (...
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1answer
45 views

Finding stable superheavy elements

Finding new stable superheavy elements is big interests in nuclear physics. Nuclides with $Z>92$ are not found in nature, but can be made artificially. Usually these nuclides become more unstable ...
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2answers
317 views

Why are helium and lithium so different, while lithium and beryllium are similar?

How is it possible that helium, having 2 protons, and lithium, having 3 protons, are so different in terms of their physical properties? How come one is a gas at room temperature and the other is a ...
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0answers
100 views

Are there names for Helium (He) emission lines like the Lyman/Balmer/Paschen series in Hydrogen?

Just wondering if helium emission lines have names like hydrogen lines. For instance the Balmer series is: $$H_{\alpha}, H_{\beta}, H_{\gamma}, H_{\delta}...$$ The Lyman series is: $$L_{\alpha}, ...
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1answer
99 views

Why do the elements Tc and Pm have such low abundances?

What specific nuclear and electronic properties make these two elements (Tc & Pm) almost disappear from solar and galactic abundance tables?
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1answer
52 views

What units are represented by pr - micrometer?

In studying column abundances, I often encounter the units $pr-\mu m$. What does this stand for? Part per micrometer? how can this be an abundance unit? Incredibility I cannot figure out what it ...
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0answers
41 views

Isn't it entropy (disorderliness) that every atom in the universe is not of iron Fe?

The concept of mass defect and binding energy Iron has most mass defect and the greatest binding energy. It has the most stable nuclei. Nuclei with higher atomic number than iron undergo fission ...
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2answers
272 views

Facts about element 173 [closed]

I am watching a video about element 173 being the biggest and last element that can ever be assembled. The reason given as the last element that can be created is that the electrons would have to ...
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0answers
39 views

Bare Critical Masses of $^{241}$Am, $^{242m}$Am, $^{238}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu

$^{238}$Pu has 144 neutrons, and it has 2.8$\times$10$^{3}$ g$^{-1}$.s$^{-1}$ spontaneous fission neutrons and bare critical mass in 10 kg. $^{242}$Pu has 148 neutrons, and it has 1.7$\times$10$^{3}$ ...
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1answer
134 views

Was helium hydride really the first molecule?

This press release by NASA: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/the-universe-s-first-type-of-molecule-is-found-at-last/ When the universe was still very young, only a few kinds of atoms existed. ...
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2answers
120 views

Why, precisely, do three elements in a row (iron, cobalt, nickel) show ferromagnetism, but not the elements below them on the table?

The same is true for Neodymium, Promethium and Samarium, right? But like the first three, they are consecutive, not above and below each other. Somehow only elements in those two ferromagnetic 'hot-...
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43 views

Element creation in space

In my astronomy magazine I recently saw the periodic system revisited where the elememnts were color-coded according to their production site. For example, Hydrogen was created from the early Universe ...
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3answers
2k views

Why, precisely, is argon used in neutrino experiments?

Why is argon used in neutrino detectors? Other than liquid argon being denser than water or oil, what are its advantages?
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2answers
144 views

Why are man made substances in the periodic table?

Why are man made substances such as Berkelium and Lawrencium in the periodic table if they aren't natural substances? I thought the periodic table was suppose to have elements on it, which are the ...
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1answer
88 views

How many known nuclides are there?

What is the current estimate for the number of nuclides? This is a very basic question, but I'm finding it remarkably hard to get a reliable, up-to-date answer. A few books published in the last 2-3 ...
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34 views

Elements Of the periodic table [duplicate]

Why even-numbered elements, with their even proton numbers are more abundant than odd-numbered elements ?
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11answers
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Why do fusion and fission both release energy?

I only have high school physics knowledge, but here is my understanding: Fusion: 2 atoms come together to form a new atom. This process releases the energy keeping them apart, and is very energetic. ...
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1answer
29 views

How quickly is momentum transferred through an object? [duplicate]

If there was a pole, that was a light year long, out in space. (Away from all physical interference.) If we pushed one end of it, would the other end move instantly? And does it's speed depend on ...
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5answers
915 views

Why is argon a noble gas but not, say, beryllium or palladium?

Why is argon a noble gas given that the 3d subshell is still empty? More generally, why is it that the filling of a p sub-shell makes an element noble rather than s, d, or f sub-shells, or completed n-...
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2answers
15 views

How are the relative abundances of isotopes of elements on Earth estimated?

"For example, of all the hydrogen isotopes on Earth, 99.985% occur as an isotope without a neutron and 0.015% as an isotope with 1 neutron. There is a third isotope with 2 neutrons, and is even more ...
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0answers
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Are any two elements indistinguishable using a single measure? [closed]

According to infoplease.com, elements can be investigated using a range of different techniques to determine their fundamental properties. I'm assuming this list isn't exhaustive. Some properties ...
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0answers
75 views

What would the periodic table look like in 2 spatial dimensions? [closed]

I looked at this question https://worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/q/13094/, and I think it answers part of my question about how atomic physics would work, but I'm not sure. How many orbitals would ...
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2answers
55 views

Where do large deposits of heavy elements come from?

I understand that the heavier elements were produced by a series of fusion reactions in a series of stars. What I've never understood is why the atoms of these elements would ever coalesce together ...
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0answers
106 views

Can any element be a metal?

I was reading that hydrogen can become a metal in some cases, like in Jupiter, and the same for helium. Is this true for all non-metals?
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2answers
114 views

Commercially available material with highest density to cost ratio? [closed]

What are the top 5 commercially available materials (not limited to just the elements) with the highest density to cost ratio? To point to an application, say that my goal was to mass produce a solid ...
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1answer
55 views

Is there a database of emission spectra of wavenumber and intensity for all elements?

Is there a database of emission spectra of wavenumber and intensity for all elements? I have been trying to get the emission spectra of all elements from the Atomic Spectra Database but from what I ...
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1answer
73 views

Why are powdered silver and powdered platinum black?

The quantum-mechanical (relativistic) explanations for the observed colours of copper, silver & gold don't appear to explain the black colours of powdered silver (& powdered platinum). Can ...
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0answers
39 views

What are all the wavelengths of the dueterium spectra?

What are all the wavelengths in the spectrum of deuterium? I've searched and came up with an abstract that only lists the visible part of deuterium's spectrum (see http://myslu.stlawu.edu/~jmil/...
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1answer
3k views

When will hydrogen no longer be the most abundant nucleus?

In a recent question, we learned why hydrogen is currently the most abundant nucleon or element in the universe. Here I ask a follow-up: For how long will hydrogen be the most abundant nucleus? It ...
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3answers
8k views

Why is hydrogen the most abundant element in the Universe?

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in nature. Does cosmological nucleosynthesis provide an explanation for why is this the case? Is the explanation quantitatively precise?
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1answer
81 views

When you see the atomic mass number for an element, does it take into account the atomic mass defect?

Sometimes I read that the official atomic mass number for an element on the periodic table only includes natural isotope ratios, other times I read that atomic mass defect, number of electrons, etc. ...
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1answer
57 views

Are there processes other than fusion which can create very heavy elements? [closed]

Have there been hypothesized processes other than nuclear fusion which could possibly create heavy elements? For example these incredibly powerful particle accelerators we are continuously building ...
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3answers
14k views

If iron can’t undergo fusion, does that mean a black hole is mostly iron?

Since stellar fusion can’t progress beyond iron, and a large enough star collapsed into a black hole because an iron core stalled fusion, wouldn’t that mean all black holes are predominantly iron?
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What is the source for Osmium's colour?

The majority of metals are known for appearing grey to our eyes, cf. e.g. Why are most metals gray/silver? But the main exceptions to this are the "famous" group eleven metals, where their distinctive ...
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1answer
255 views

How can I determine which element is found from an electron count vs binding energy graph

I am given tables of data that I have made into graphs with electron count vs binding energy. The goal of this assignment is to determine the element of the surface material using data that was ...
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0answers
19 views

Which experimental procedures exist for determining the elemental composition of a nanostructure?

I am doing nanostructures on semiconductors with focused-ion beam lithography, and I am interested to know if the elemental composition is changed at the surface where the sputtering occurred. ...
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1answer
500 views

Reason for exponentially(?) decreasing atomic radius

Attached is a graph depicting atomic radius size across the first 20 elements. Why does the radius decrease in size when going from left to right across a period, and why is the decrease exponential, ...
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1answer
278 views

Why is Helium 4 so stable?

I've been looking at stuff to do with binding energies and was wondering why Helium 4 is so stable. The fact everything up to carbon is less stable seems a bit odd. Is there a reason for this or ...
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1answer
60 views

Burning atomic elements

when someone says "the carbon was completely burnt up" eg. in a car's engine. what does that mean?, Where does it go? I know no new elements are formed and of course it really didn't disappeared. so ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do different elements have different number of isotopes?

For example: Carbon-12,Carbon-13 and Carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively. Lithium-6 and Lithium-7 for lithium,etc. My question is that are ...