Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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Fermi Level difference effect on thermionic emission in an open-circuit

The circumstances in which I am asking this: I have two materials, copper and cesium, in which the surface of the two are contacting. The Fermi Energy value for copper is 7.0eV and for cesium it is 1....
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99 views

How are resistivity and tunneling related?

If we consider a sandwich with three nanometric layers: conductor-insulator-conductor and apply voltage (lower than breakdown voltage) from both sides tunneling will occur. Is tunneling dependent on ...
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Is this a good explanation of electron mobility to the layman?

I'm writing an informative paper on graphene for my writing class (layman-oriented), and was describing electron mobility in very simplified terms. Let me know if anything is mistaken, badly ...
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15 views

Number of Atoms in a State with a Constant Time T with Decay

A state of energy E1 with a lifetime of T1 decays into the state of energy E2. The state of E2 then decays with a lifetime of T2 into the state of E3. It is known T1 = 2T2. Initially all of the atoms ...
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What is the frequency associated to the orbitals within an atom?

I was told that there's a vibrational frequency associated to the orbitals within an atoms, but it is a frequency related not to a classical vibration. What Hz frequencies would these be?
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452 views

What is the cause of the time-varying electric and magnetic near-fields around a wire with a 60Hz AC current?

I know that it's the accelerating electrons in an AC current that are the cause of far field effects. But, what about the reactive near field close to a wire that has a 60Hz AC current? What is the ...
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Why don't electron microscopes use huge detectors?

Electron microscopes have limited resolution. I have read experts saying that we need better electron detectors to get better resolution. Why can't we just use bigger detectors? Increase the ...
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154 views

Stacking batteries and electron flow

About Fuel Cells and Batteries: I understand the analogue with increased water height as two cells (battery or fuel) are connected in series. However if we for instance have two batteries contected in ...
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123 views

Trying to understand electron diffraction

I'm trying to understand how electron diffraction works, but I'm not really getting it. Here's an image Here are a couple of questions about it that I can't figure out. Why is the angle of the beam ...
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218 views

Is the screen in CRT connected with a positive pole?

I don't understand this passage would you clarify it? "These electrons are then freed (liberated) from the metal and are then picked up by the screen, which is connected to a positive pole called the ...
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304 views

Calculation of energy deposit of photon beam

Let's say I shoot a 1 MeV photon beam onto a volume. I want to know the ratio of deposited dose per path length for different materials (water and air) at a certain position (e.g. x=0) in the volume. ...
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109 views

In the stern-Gerlach experiement how do we know that the magnets don't change orientation of the electrons to up or down?

I watched this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rg4Fnag4V-E Say the electron's north pole started off 60 degrees from the south pole, since the electron has little mass wouldn't that make it ...
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Is my representation of $\varphi$ Work function correct?

I am a middle-school so my understanding of physics may not be as solid as you professional physicists but never the less thought its worth a try to learn more. I read about photo-electric effect by ...
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Photoelectric effect Experiment - What's the voltage bias of the set up?

What's the bias of the setup? Forward / Reverse? I'm doing a photoelectric effect experiment.The experimental setup involves a photocell, which has an emitter (cathode) Potassium and a collector(...
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346 views

Understanding What A Wakefield Describes?

I am trying to understand the some of the properties of wakefields, namely the energy change. So, as a preface I am interested in primarily the wakefield due to electron beams as they progress through ...
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109 views

Force on an electron at an arbitrary point inside a cylinder (electron gun)

I want to simulate the path of an electron through the anode of an electron gun. I therefore need to calculate the force on the electron due to the electric field from the anode and apply that to its ...
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149 views

Is this picture of the electron dipole moment correct?

It's the electron spinning on its axis, and a magnetic moment shoots up. The direction of the North-South is opposite what I thought it should be. Why is the vector arrow pointing from North to South ...
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70 views

Diffraction pattern of X-ray and electron

Electron diffraction is used to study about wave - particle duality of matter. A beam of electrons directed at a single crystal produced a diffraction pattern like an X-ray diffraction pattern. I ...
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42 views

Do high power (W) elecron beams traveling through air have the same “blooming effect” as high power laser beams?

So I am talking about an electron beam where the electrons have sufficient velocity and the beam is intense enough (for example, beam power of at least 1 megawatt) to produce enough energy to ionize ...
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77 views

What does happen to electrons in the weak force decay?

What happen with the Electrons produced in Stars due to the weak force decay? Do they combine with other atoms? Are they just pushed out of the Sun? Do they help with the electron degenerative ...
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183 views

Is it possible to determine the specific charge of the electron using crossed electric fields?

Experimentally, we tried to find the specific charge, $\frac{e}{m}$ for an electron by using thermionic emission to emit electrons from a cathode, accelerating them using an anode, and then deflecting ...
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139 views

Dirac equation, why not unitary, why not single-particle formalism?

I am reading the first chapter of Akhiezer, Berestetskii QED (1981). They state that Dirac was wrong to assume that the evolution of the wave function is described by $\psi(t) = e^{-iHt} \psi(t_0)$ ...
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81 views

Is it possible to accumulate electrons towards one side of a metal by some means?

On coming to the point that 64 g of copper block contains $6.023×10^{23} $ (avogadro number) of atoms and assuming that from each atom one free electron is taken into consideration, is it possible to ...
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103 views

Electrostatic force between two grains of sand with unbalanced charge placed 30 meters apart

Quote from The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume I: To give an idea of how much stronger electricity is than gravitation, consider two grains of sand, a millimeter across, thirty meters apart. ...
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528 views

What is the difference between atomic density and intrinsic concentration?

If a Si sample is doped with boron impurities in the ratio of 1:10^6, it means that for every 10^6 Si atoms, 1 boron atom is added. I have been given information that atomic density of Si is 5*10^22 ...
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649 views

Electrons and photons at absolute zero?

I know that molecules can't move at absolute zero (hypothetically of course). But what happens to electrons and photons?
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45 views

Query about Heisenberg uncertainty principle

acoording to heisenbergy uncertainty principle if the electrons change the radius of their orbit, then it is like making transition even though the change in radius is small and they should emit ...
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55 views

Electron density in DFT (*ρ*(r)) and probability density (wave function squared)

Are the electron density in density functional theory, ρ(r), and probability density, defined as wave function squared, the same quantities?
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37 views

Energy of electric field in the space between a pair forming a dipole

I'm not studying physics, I was just curious that if the electric field created by electron and positron in a dipole follows the same rules as double slit experiment. That is, for example on the ...
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107 views

The flow of electric current

If positive charges have higher electric potential difference than negative charges then why the negative charges (electrons) are the one that are moving in a circuit? and to my knowledge the ...
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105 views

Current, conductors and charge density

Ok i read that the charge (current) entering the conductor is same as that of charge leaving through the conductor Means current is same at all the points in a conductor having varying cross section....
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73 views

Why do protons in the atom need to communicate with electrons?

Why do the protons need to communicate to electrons via electromagnetism if electrons don’t do anything except orbiting the nucleus?
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92 views

Are the value of the magnetic field of a current carrying coil and the magnetic dipole moments of the involved electrons comparable?

The magentic dipole moment of electrons is a intrinsic property. To get the macroscopic effect of their common magnetic field this moments have to be aligned, like in permanent magnets or in current ...
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748 views

Why is it said that electric current always flow from higher potential to lower potential?

Why is it said that electric current always flow from higher potential to lower potential? It is said that current flows from positive terminal to negative terminal, but it is actually the negative ...
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217 views

how can $r=\frac{1}{n^{\frac13}}$ be used to calculate the mean separation between electrons?

Can $r=\frac{1}{n^{\frac13}}$ be used to calculate mean separation of electrons suppose that Na which has BCC crystalline structure, each atom donate 1 electron to form metallic bonding As it's BCC ...
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246 views

Can photons travel through space independent of time?

I read an article about advanced photons and they stated that photons traveled back in time to hit an electron. Can photons really travel back in time and if so, how?
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5k views

How does a Primary Charge Roller work?

I have been recently trying to get more deeply into the workings of a common laser printer. While the basic concept seems to be fairly simple to understand I have been having trouble finding more ...
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What's the third equation that allows solving the closest approach of two electrons?

Lately, I have been thinking about the following situation: in one-dimensional space, if we have two electrons, and one of them is stationary while the other approaches with some velocity, what would ...