Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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Meaning of electron displaced to another quantum state in another location

For example, in a p-n junction scenario where the electron is displaced from LOCATION A, due to diffusion to a lower quantum state at LOCATION B in the p-type silicon, as seen in the following diagram ...
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What differences would be observed in the Stern-Gerlach experiment when using neutral fluorine (Z=9) and neutral sodium (N=11)

I have been working through some past exam papers for my Quantum Mechanics module, and one of the questions is what would be different about observing the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment when ...
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Relation Between Current and velocity of electrons

In a conductor, all the electrons are few to move to conduction bands. If we say that magnitude Current is increased (I= dq/dt) can we infer that the velocity with which the electrons flow also ...
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Photon-Electron interaction (Compton and Photoelectric effect)

(Some context : I am a first year engineering student and i have conceptual doubts in Compton and photoelectric effect. I have read a book "Concepts of modern physics"-Arthur Beiser and talked to my ...
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Working out the radial arc of a magnetic field to get mass of electron

We have an experimental setup as below, the magnetic field strength, Bq/30s, and distances (magnet distance, Geiger counter height, Geiger to magnet centre distance) have all been recorded. The energy ...
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Charge on an electrical conductor

Consider we have very precise equipment (s) needed for this question. There's a finitely big uncharged conducting sphere. Suppose we had an extra electron from an external source and we plan to keep ...
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Does electron affinity decrease with charging?

Lets consider two materials A having higher electron affinity than B while both are not too far off. If they are both insulators and A accumulate charges due to triboelectric effect. Than after a ...
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How does a particle's energy determine interaction behavior?

I have been trying to get my head around Electron-Beam Lithography and have a small issue with what has been said in the linked YT video. At 11:35 Chris Mack says that The more energy the ...
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What will happen if I bombard electron beam on metalloid?

I know when we bombard electron beam on metals it gives out X rays, but my question is that what will happen if I bombard electron beam on metalloids?? please give answer
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In the ground state properties of electron gas, is $V$ the volume of all the metal or the volume of a cell of the lattice?

In the ground state properties of electron gas (Sommerfeld theory), is $V$ the volume of all the metal or the volume of a cell of the lattice? I thought the latter because the Born—von Karman boundary ...
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Benefits and Drawbacks of Swapping Associations of Positivity and Negativity of the Proton and Electron

For historical reasons, I understand that a proton's charge was assigned the label of "positive", the electron's charge was assigned the label of negative, and, crucially, equations of current in E &...
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Dependence of radial probability function on quantum numbers

I was reading the book "Quantum Physics" from Eisberg & Resnick about the expected value of the electron radial coordinate, which it defines as \begin{align} \overline{r_{nl}} = \int_{0}^{\infty}...
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Franck–Hertz experiment question

Greetings fellow Humans. I have been given a problem as the following. In a Franck–Hertz experiment, the jumps in Voltage in the characteristic Curve are U=2.104 volts. a) What color does the Gas ...
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Velocity Selector Question with Unknown Voltage

In a diagram, electrons are emitted from a hot coil with initial velocity 0 at plate A and then pass through a uniform field between two plates (A and B) where $V=1.00\times10^4$ volts. After, they ...
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Does charging any electrical device in exterme temparature affect the current flow?

Recently in an Electric vehicle(EV) charging station, the charging time to charge a particular vehicle was 1 Hour (18V capacity of battery), but now in temperatures beyond 40 Degree Celsius, it is ...
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The electric and magnetic field, reaching to infinity

I have difficulty’s to accept that the electric and magnetic field components of photons as well as of electrons and the other subatomic particles are extended to infinity. For practical use that does ...
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How do electrons exit LEDs? Aren't they in the valence energy state?

If a conducting electron reduces to the valence band in an LED, where does it get the energy to go back to the conductance band upon leaving the diode so current can flow? I'm confused as to how ...
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Do delocalized electrons have different energies?

Consider a molecule with alternating single and double bonds between carbon atoms, such that multiple resonant configurations are possible, e.g. beta-carotene. While using UToko's edx course about ...
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Does a spinning electron stop spinning

An electron caused to spin in a magnetic field gives off synchrotronic radiation (Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when ...
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Electrical neutrality in photoelectric effect

In photo electric effect ,if electrons escape, shouldn't that leave the metal positively charged ??. How does it maintain its electrical neutrality ? And if it doesn't , shouldn't the work function ...
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Electron gun design

I have a question about electron guns. I have read a lot, and all designs use high NEGATIVE voltage ($-1000$ V for example). Is possible to use high POSITIVE voltage like this drawing? Or do you think ...
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What happens when we use Faraday induction on a coil that already carries a current?

Consider the following experiment: (1) Attach a coil to a current meter, and run a magnet over that coil, measuring the current generated. This is ordinary Faraday induction. (2) (i) Attach the coil ...
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Should the mass of the electron be included in the mass of products when calculating mass defect?

In a physics question, I encountered a beta minus decay reaction. If I were to calculate the mass defect, should the mass of the electron be included in the mass of the products?
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Electron beam physics

I am looking for good resources to learn about electron beam optics to be able to characterize electron guns.
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Electron Tunneling

An electron dot is a Quantum confinement where the motion of the electron is constrained in all the three dimensions ,which means that the electron has zero potential energy and supposed to be at rest ...
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Will an electron move in a photoelectric effect apparatus if the electrodes have 0 potential difference?

So I was reviewing for my test but I was struck by this question and it has been bothering me ever since. What if I have 0 potential difference between the electrodes in a photoelectric effect ...
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Would a block of doped semiconductor connected to a metal wire gain electric charge?

Consider a block of negatively doped semiconductor connected to a large section of metal wire. (I am assuming a negatively doped semiconductor for specificity, while implying a similar, though ...
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How many pions can be accomodated in an orbital?

electrons have a spin of 1/2 and 2 electrons are accomodated in an orbital pions have a spin of 0 so how many pions can be accomodated in an orbital? i thought that since no two electrons (or pions) ...
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By recombination ion/electron does predominataly the ground level form?

When an electron is near an ion and has small velocity it will be certainly captured and both form an atom. I think that the electron will predominantly release energy dE just the proper quantity ...
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Electrons cannot sense electrostatic force?

Why there is not voltage or current just for 1ms if I connect a multimeter ground to the negative terminal of a DC power supply or charged capacitor? Why electrons in measure lead and DMM device ...
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How is the effective mass of electrons related to the specific heat of an electron gas? (in uniform magnetic field)

Just to make it clear, this is related to solid state physics. QUESTION How is the effective mass of electrons in uniform magnetic field related to the specific heat of an electron gas? DETAILS ...
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Confusion about average KE in free electron model via Density of States (DOS)

Assume a low temperature regime in which levels up to the Fermi Level, $E_F$, are populated. I have evaluated the density of states in energy space as $$D(E)=\frac{L^3}{\pi^2\hbar^3}(2m_e^2E)^{1/2},$...
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Deriving effective interactions, e.g. phonon-mediated electron-electron interaction

Upshot of the question: how can I derive the effective electron-electron interaction brought about by the electron-phonon interaction? I've read derivations of the electron-phonon interaction and ...
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Why electron can go through PVC insulator

I connected a PVC insulated alligator clip test lead to a 12V (give 20V) DC power supply positive terminal and a multimeter. After that I connected an other one to the multimeter ground, and a third ...
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How do you combine wavelengths of particles in an atom?

As the problem below results in the wavelength of a single electron, how would this combine/interact with other particles? In an atom, for example.
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Energy levels of electrons in an arbitrary element?

Let's say I want to calculate the wavelength of the photon emitted when an electron of an arbitrary element (let's say Carbon) drops from $n=4$ to $n=3$. Correct me if I'm wrong, but I think I would ...
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Are the microwaves in an ECRIS plane polarized?

Or randomly polarized? Are the photons in phase, like in a laser or maser? What is the theory behind how an electron in an ECRIS responds to a microwave photon?
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Question about the integrity of a TEM analysis result

I have a question concerning the integrity of a particular TEM analysis that was done. The specimen was household dust that may or may not have contained asbestos, and was sampled with Ghost Wipes, ...
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electron free mean path understanding

I am having difficulties to grasp the idea that the probability a particle is absorbed between $x$ and $x + dx$ is given by $$dP(x) = \frac{I(x) - I(x+dx)}{I_0} = \frac{1}{l} e^{-\frac{x}{l}}dx$$ ...
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How are free electrons reincorporated into orbits?

In particular, I'm curious about what happens to beta particles once they lose most of their kinetic energy. As I understand, they'll eventually find their way into orbits of surrounding atoms, but ...
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Question about the diffraction of electrons

This question concerns the diagram on the left. This is the set up. My question is that, why is collector current not an increasing function of the KE of the electrons? I can understand the graph ...
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Why is a maximum value of current observed in Davison and Germer's experiment?

While studying matter waves, we were discussing Davison and Germer's experiment on electron diffraction when we learnt that a maximum value of current (measuring the intensity of electron diffraction) ...
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Why and how do holes in the valence band of the p-type material of a p-n junction diffuse through to the valence band of the n-type material

tl;dr -- See the question title I quote from this Wikipedia article on the depletion region: By definition, the N-type semiconductor has an excess of free electrons (in the conduction band) ...
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Elastic electron scattering

In an electron diffraction pattern, the elastically scattered electrons are distributed over resolutions in the pattern corresponding to resolutions considerably higher than 1 Å. What does this ...
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Question about point particle vs. wave equation location

Another uncertainty question, this came up in another forum. As I understand it an electron, for example, is a point-like particle. I take this to mean it exhibits dimensionless properties, but ...
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Claim of high order electron-electron repulsion

A member of staff at uni once claimed in an interdisciplinary seminar that electron-electron repulsion can be to the 11th power of the reciprocal of displacement. I have tried to find this mentioned ...
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How do we know how much charge is in an object?

It's a little science history question but I really wonder how did peoples measured the amount of charge in an ball or something or like in coulombs case how did he measured the electrical force ...
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How looks the “overarching” wavefunction of a number of electrons in an insulating sphere?

I changed my question after reading the comment of Anna. If we put a huge number of electrons inside a non-conducting sphere, what will the total wavefunction describing all electrons look like? I ...
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Does hydrogen reflect all visible wavelengths other than the wavelengths it absorbs?

I'm confused how reflection and absorption of photons work. For example hydrogen absorbs 4 wavelengths of light, but then that energy is emitted once the electron falls back to its ground state. So ...
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Why does previously rotating DC Motors not generate sparks?

Yesterday I was playing around with a small DC Motor ,(ones which you can find inside a toy) and found something interesting. I took a cell and fixed one terminal of the cell to a terminal of the ...