Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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The need for a 'particle description' of electrons

Is there any phenomenon where the 'wave description' of the electron's motion is not applicable? The reason for this question is to find out if there are any situations were quantum wave theories ...
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Cause behind photoelectric effect [duplicate]

In the photoelectric effect, a light ray of sufficient wavelength causes electrons to be released from metal surfaces. By what process do photons do that? In my textbook, I have seen that the photon ...
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If protons and electrons had similar masses

If electrons and protons had the same mass, would they still be in a stable orbit around their barycenter, or would they eventually collide? Similarly, a positronium(or protonium) only lasts extremely ...
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Is gravity non-negligible compared to the electromagnetic force?

Consider two electrons approaching each other at rather fast speeds, maybe even coming close to colliding. Does gravity play any role in this event? If so, how much influence does it have? Do we need ...
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How many states can a n qubit quantum computer store?

A classical computer composed of '0' or '1' transistors stores $2^n$ states. Is it true that a quantum computer composed of '0' or '1' or '0 & 1' qubits stores $3^n$ states?
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Why does electricity need wires to flow?

If you drop a really heavy ball the ball's gravitational potential energy will turn into kinetic energy. If you place the same ball in the pool, the ball will still fall. A lot of kinetic energy will ...
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What stops charges from jumping across a capacitor?

I've learnt in class that charges store up on capacitor plates (the electrons). But why don't the electrons just jump across capacitor, what stops them? At first I thought perhaps it might just be the ...
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Is there strong interaction between electrons?

I am not familiar with quantum mechanics at all. But I remember when I was at high school, we learned that strong interaction keeps protons next to each other while they repel each other because of ...
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How to think about speed or velocity of an electron (in an atom)?

One answer to this question explains that "velocity of electrons has no meaning" while another says that "it can be argued that they don't move around atoms at all". And then in another post it is ...
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Frequency of light versus frequency of electron vibration

I've been trying to understand photons and light, although entirely conceptually (layman with not much of a background here, but I really want to understand this a bit better) and there's a couple of ...
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Why is the electron magnetic moment always parallel to the spin for an electron?

Consider the Hamiltonian $$\hat{H}=\frac{1}{2}\omega\vec{B}\cdot \vec{\sigma}$$ where $\vec{\sigma}$ is the Pauli vector $=\begin{pmatrix}\sigma_x & \sigma_y & \sigma_z \end{pmatrix}$, $\...
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The size of an electron

Considering that an electron is a quantized excitation of the Dirac field, why are there still discussions regarding the "size" of an electron? Isn't the "size" of an electron simply defined as the ...
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Do battery electrons only move if there is a positive terminal at the end of the wire?

I'm sorry if this question may seem wrong in many cases. What would happen if we had a wire with the length of 1 kilometer that connected the two terminals of the battery? Do electrons care if the ...
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Transfer of electron energy to atoms (heating up of matter by absorption of photons)

If an electron absorbs a photon to get exited to a higher energy level, it should either come back to same state or any other lower state by emitting the required photon. How then can there be a net ...
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Joule heating due to the (slow) electron drift velocity?

I understand the concept of why the signal speed is higher than the electron drift velocity, but I can't understand the concept of joule heating. If electrons move slow then how do they produce a lot ...
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Stability of a rotating ring of multiple electrons at relativistic speeds

There was a time when physicists where concerned about electron internal structure. The rotating ring model was one of the proposals to explain how a charge density could become stable against ...
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How does Cooper pairing work?

Cooper pairs are one of the models how superconductivity is explained. What still baffles me is how a vibration of the crystal lattice (the so-called phonon) can interact with the electron (an actual ...
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Do “shape” and “volume” in “space” have any meaning for an electron?

The Standard Model (SM) predicts an "aspherical" electron due to its possesing a non-zero electron electric dipole moment (EEDM). An experiment by Hinds (2011) placed an upper bound on the ...
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Ratio of electrons and protons in Universe

What is the relation between amount of electrons and protons in Universe? I expect that the Universe should not be charged, so the estimation is 1:1. But then, why there should be the same amount of ...
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How does the Higgs boson give mass to other elementary particles like electrons? [duplicate]

So, the nucleus of an atom can be broken to protons and neutrons, and those can be broken down to quarks. Electrons however are a different story, they can't be broken down since they are elementary ...
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What does it mean to talk about electron's “orbital speed”, quantum mechanically?

I am wondering about this. I have often encountered a claim that the electrons in an atom have an "orbital speed", and in some cases that even so much as a number is assigned to this supposed "speed", ...
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Is it that electron of an atom can be found anywhere in the space?

Simple pictures showing orbital shapes are intended to describe the angular forms of regions in space where the electrons occupying the orbital are likely to be found. The diagrams cannot, however,...
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Is “microbunching” in a free electron laser limited by the Pauli exclusion principle?

As I understand it, a free electron laser can basically be pictured as a synchrotron light source with an undulator which by the particular setup causes the electrons to self-attune so that they ...
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Drift velocity of electrons with changing area

What would happen with the drift velocity of a cylindrical resistor's diameter increases, with a given voltage between its terminals? According to the expression: \begin{align} R&=\rho\frac{L}{A}\...
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Why photons are emitted because of changes to electron behavior

Explanations I have read of why photons are emitted from atoms mention electrons being 'excited' to another energy level, and then returning to their base level, releasing a photon. I have also seen ...
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How do electrons in a lower energy level have more kinetic energy?

From what i've read, electrons in a lower energy level have more kinetic enery and momentum to stop "falling" into the positive nucleus. However, when an electron falls from a higher energy level to a ...
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Electron model under Maxwell's theory

I was not able to recall my memories, so: What is the formula that states the frequency of electrons revolving around nucleus is equal to the frequency of light (or photon) emitted (or radiated)? (I ...
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Can neutrons be synthesized purely from protons and electrons?

Can neutrons be synthesized purely from protons and electrons? Note: I'm looking for reactions that do not require neutrinos or any particles besides just protons and/or electrons as reactants.
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Exclusion principle in electron orbitals

If a 1s or 2s orbital is to be occupied by two electrons, their spins must be antiparallel. If we start with single occupancy: if a second electron is added to the orbital (as, for instance, in a ...
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Photoelectric effect – What is the probability of a photon absorbtion by an electron?

Is it correct that each photon above threshold frequency is absorbed by an electron What is the probability of a photon absorbtion by an electron? Can a quantitative example be given?
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Measuring the magnitude of the magnetic field of a single electron due to its spin

Is it possible to measure the magnitude of the magnetic field of a single electron due to its spin? The electron's intrinsic magnetic field is not dependent upon the amount of energy it has does it? ...
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Does the gravity affect voltage in a circuit?

The electric current is a flow of electrons, which have mass (small, but it is still a mass). So, considering a planar circuit, do the properties of the electric current (voltage, intensity) change ...
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Continuous vs. Discrete Spectra in various materials

I read that the reason solids emit continuous spectra is that they don't have time to let their electrons decay-they are too close together. Given that electrons decay on the order of 100 nanoseconds ...
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Proof of de Broglie wavelength for electron

According to de Broglie's wave-particle duality, the relation between electron's wavelength and momentum is $\lambda =h/mv$. The proof of this is given in my textbook as follows: De Broglie first ...
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Is there a way to “hold a molecule still”?

Is there a way (even if only theoretical) to hold all the nuclei of one single molecule in place, stoping them from vibrating and stoping the molecule completely (0 kinetic energy)? If so, what ...
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What is energy band gap?

Explanations for graphene's high electrical conductivity often discuss energy band gap. What is energy band gap and how does it relate to the conductivity of a material?
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What causes an electron to return from a higher orbit to a lower orbit

Ultraviolet light can cause electrons from Hydrogen gas to jump from a lower energy orbit to a higher energy orbit. What causes the electrons to return from the higher energy orbit to the lower energy ...
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What is Quantum jump of an electron?

Can any one define quantum jump 9 quantities jump of an electron ? I know it it is a silly question but can anyone please explain me in detail.I am a learning about the structure of atom and I want ...
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Electron behavior changes when observed?

I saw this video of the double slit experiment by Dr. Quantum on youtube. Later in the video he says, the behavior of the electrons changes to produce double bars effect as if it knows that it is ...
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Does the re-arrangement of chemical bonds happens due to electromagnetic interactions?

The question is of some interest because the storage of energy in a recharable battery is not caused by gravitational (potential) nor by kinetic energy. From this question Why is current the same in ...
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Can electrons within a positive ion absorb and reflect light?

I understand that in a crystalline metallic structure, such as one making up a bar of gold, there are one, or more, valance electrons of each atom that have left their outer shell (became free ...
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What does a subatomic charge actually mean?

I was recently reading a popular science book called The Canon - The Beautiful Basics of Science by Natalie Angier, and it talks about subatomic particles like protons, neutrons and electrons in ...
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Strong nuclear force vs. neutralization of electric charges in electron-proton interaction

I'm curious of which inconsistencies in observable phenomenons will there be if the model of strong nuclear force between protons in the nucleus will by changed by a model in which the proton's and ...
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If electrons have less mass than planck mass, do they still exert gravitational force?

If electrons have less mass than planck mass do they still exert gravitational force? What about atoms and other subatomic particles with mass?
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Why aren't electrons waves by “default”?

I was reading "The holographic universe" by Michael Talbot and it said that most scientists believe, and there is proof of the fact that an electron is only a particle when we are observing it. Now, ...
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Why would an electron in an orbit be accelerating continuously and would thus radiate away its energy and fall into the nucleus in a classical model? [duplicate]

I was reading this answer by madame anna v: You are right, the planetary model of the atom does not make sense when one considers the electromagnetic forces involved. The electron in an orbit is ...
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Do electrons in a wire, actually jump across two metallic wires twisted together? [duplicate]

Whenever we twist two wires together to make a circuit, there's no soldering or fusing-together of wires involved. So, in such a case do electrons jump across the microscopic air gaps which are ...
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Can two electrons attract each other?

Due to electrostatic repulsion the two electrons will repel each other as they both possess similar charges (lets leave gravitational attractive force out of the picture). My question is: can ...
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What happens when fast moving electrons hit hydrogen molecules?

Just like the creation of X-rays. Where fast moving electrons are bombarded on some heavy element. What happens if the we keep compressed hydrogen instead of the heavy metals? Surely it will form ...
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Is the electron of carbon identical to that of hydrogen? How to prove it? [duplicate]

I am still confused with whether, for example, the electron of carbon is exactly identical to that of hydrogen. How can the scientist confirm this?

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