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Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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What makes a atom more likely to become a cation (lose electron)

What makes an atom more likely to lose an electron and become a cation? Does the exact location of the electrons maybe influence that? I know that you can't know the exact position of an electron ...
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How did scientist get photos of wave function of electron in the double slit experiment?

In the double slit experiment I know that the electron fires as a particle one at a time then splits goes through both slits and recombined and interferes with itself and hit the wall creating a ...
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Why do atoms interact differently? [closed]

We live in a 3-dimensional Universe, so why don't atoms (electrons) follow the same rules as humans, planets and other 3-dimensional objects? So does that mean electrons and other quantum objects pop ...
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How do electrons exit LEDs? Aren't they in the valence energy state?

If a conducting electron reduces to the valence band in an LED, where does it get the energy to go back to the conductance band upon leaving the diode so current can flow? I'm confused as to how ...
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Can electrons fly off a conductor?

This is probably a stupid question, but what if you made an electron flow through a superconductor so that the electrons build up speed flowing through the wire, and then cut the wire. Would the ...
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1answer
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What is Electron Excitement in the Bohr model?

Is electron excitement the absorption of a photon thereby causing an electron to move to a higher energy level? In my textbooks, electron excitement is implicitly implied to mean that an electron ...
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Do delocalized electrons have different energies?

Consider a molecule with alternating single and double bonds between carbon atoms, such that multiple resonant configurations are possible, e.g. beta-carotene. While using UToko's edx course about ...
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3answers
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Only one electron?

If it is true that an electron can be anywhere in the cosmos at any given time, then is it even theoretically possible that there is only one electron, instead of multiple electrons in the cosmos? If ...
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What it means that there is only one electron in universe? [duplicate]

Could someone explain if this statement is and what could possible mean?
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Does a spinning electron stop spinning

An electron caused to spin in a magnetic field gives off synchrotronic radiation (Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when ...
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1answer
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Photoelectric effect in space floating metal

I have read this question: Electrical neutrality in photoelectric effect Now the answer by HiddenBabel says: Metals are conductors. As electrons escape, new electrons easily flow from ground ...
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Electron gun design

I have a question about electron guns. I have read a lot, and all designs use high NEGATIVE voltage ($-1000$ V for example). Is possible to use high POSITIVE voltage like this drawing? Or do you think ...
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Electrical neutrality in photoelectric effect

In photo electric effect ,if electrons escape, shouldn't that leave the metal positively charged ??. How does it maintain its electrical neutrality ? And if it doesn't , shouldn't the work function ...
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Do electrons have shape?

According to the Wikipedia page on the electron: The electron has no known substructure. Hence, it is defined or assumed to be a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. Does ...
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3answers
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Do Maxwell's equations predict that electrons have no internal structure?

As far as I know, Maxwell's equations can't be derived from anything more fundamental. Does this indicate that electrons have no internal structure? I mean to say that, in my view, the entire nature ...
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What happens when we use Faraday induction on a coil that already carries a current?

Consider the following experiment: (1) Attach a coil to a current meter, and run a magnet over that coil, measuring the current generated. This is ordinary Faraday induction. (2) (i) Attach the coil ...
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2answers
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Why does decreasing the wavelength of light while maintaining intensity decrease current in photo electric effect [duplicate]

I understand a photon with a smaller wavelength is more energetic so for a given intensity, less photons are incident on the electrons and so less photo electrons reach the detector per second. ...
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Pair production problem, how is energy not conserved here?

The problem is asking me to find the minimum photon energy that would produce an electron-positron pair when it collides with a free electron at rest. This is my attempt at trying to conserve both ...
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2answers
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Why do electrons revolve around the nucleus? [duplicate]

Why do electrons revolve around the atom's nucleus? Where does it get the energy for the revolution? Do the electrons stop revolving at absolute zero temperatures?
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4answers
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Can every mass obey the Newton's 3rd law?

As in, if we were able to produce a very huge amount of force on a very small body, would it push back with the same force? Given it doesn't break or disintegrate. Like if we electromagnetically put ...
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Why is the photon emitted from a bound electron dropping energy levels not exactly equal to the difference in energy levels [duplicate]

In a problem sheet there was a question asking us to guess why a photon released from an electron dropping energy levels does not have the exact difference. My guess is that the electron needs some ...
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4answers
111 views

Confusion about electron flow and current

So, I learned in class that current is defined as positive charges moving from south to north. However, in all reality, the negative charges are moving, but the convention of positive to negative wors ...
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3answers
346 views

Where do electrons get or lose the energy that allows them to change energy levels?

How do electrons gain energy and hop levels? Does it come from shooting it with a laser or introducing heat, or some such method? By the same token, why do electrons lose energy? I assume they don'...
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Absorbing Photons or Re-Emission

When the electron absorbs radiation, it can seemingly do 2 things. Firstly, the electron can become excited and jump to a higher energy level before collapsing and releasing that energy as a photon. ...
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In solids, is it phonons, or is it the oscillations of electrons in bands, that emit most of the blackbody radiation?

In solids (most any object we see), which tends to emit most of the blackbody radiation: phonons (atomic, or molecular dipole, lattice vibrations) or oscillating electrons in their energy bands?
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Circular vs Sinusoidal Cyclotron Radiation

Why is the wavelength of circular cyclotron radiation different than that emitted by a non-relativistic electron passing through an undulator? From what I understand, the wavelength of circular ...
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Should the mass of the electron be included in the mass of products when calculating mass defect?

In a physics question, I encountered a beta minus decay reaction. If I were to calculate the mass defect, should the mass of the electron be included in the mass of the products?
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Why does the electric flux through the surface of a cube with a point charge inside it remain unchanged when the point charge is moved? [closed]

Why does the electric flux inside a cube remain unchanged when the charge is moved within the cube (not on vertices/faces/edges) but just in volume?
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Lightning in space, would it be a perfectly straight line?

I have read this question: Can lightning happen in a vacuum? I do understand that here on Earth lightning consists of electrons moving in space and some of these electrons are tracing path, and ...
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Electron beam physics

I am looking for good resources to learn about electron beam optics to be able to characterize electron guns.
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1answer
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What is the most energy efficient source of electrons?

Wanting to build a cathode ray tube, and I see there are a few electron sources such as thermionic emission and field electron emission. Since my project is small scale, since I don't want to go to ...
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Can Compton scattering increase a photon's energy?

I've read (in Hagai Netzer's book The Physics and Evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei) that "Comptonization in the [black hole's accretion] disk atmosphere can increase the energy of some photons..." [...
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1answer
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Is it possible to create and control a magnetic field in a dielectric material?

A capacitor is usually formed by an insulater between two conductive plates. By applying voltage difference between the plates we create an electric field within the insulator in one direction. If you ...
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1answer
364 views

Reason for gold being the most malleable and ductile of metals

I understand how fcc structure enables plastic deformation in metals, but why is gold, in particular, the most malleable and ductile of fcc metals? Is there something about the electronic structure ...
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2answers
135 views

What came first, neutrons or electrons? [closed]

I wonder if electrons were first (at an early stage of the cosmos) embedded into neutrons, making it easier to understand why they would fit so well with protons later, or if the genesis of electrons ...
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What is the reason for extremely high speed of electric current?

I know that electric current is the flow of electrons but electrons have a very slow drift speed (about 2mm/s). How is it that electric current reaches its destination at almost the speed of light?
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How do solar panels generate infinite electricity?

We know that solar cells generate electricity utilizing the energy of the photon, but how can they generate electricity forever? In a n-type terminal we have the bond of silicon and phosphorous so ...
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0answers
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Are / Why are the H II regions positively charged?

One of the questions in our recent astrophysics course homework was to find the general opacity $\kappa$ of H II regions. We know that the H II regions are almost entirely ionized hydrogen and I ...
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4answers
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How does an electron move around in an orbital? Is it “wave-like” or random?

When an electron is moving around in its orbital, is it actually moving around like a wave, like this video shows? (By wave-like, I mean, the 'electron' in this video is showing it following a ...
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1answer
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Can free electrons in a cathode ray pair up?

I read Wikipedia articles "Cooper pair" and "Electron pair" among others. In an atom electrons can be in the same orbital only if they have a different spin (Pauli exclusion principle). In Cooper ...
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1answer
63 views

Faraday cages and what constitutes the minimum number of atoms to build an optical mirror

I recently asked this question: What is the minimum number of metal atoms necessary to make a mirror? However it seems I did not make myself clear enough about what I was looking for, even though the ...
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0answers
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What are the prerequisites for a free electron and an atom/ion to recombine?

I'm mostly interested about recombination not in plasma (e.g., recombination of beta particles with atoms that they pass by), although the rules are probably the same. Say, there's a free electron ...
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In electrodynamics, why do we say $\mathbf J = \sigma \mathbf E$ and not $\mathbf J = \sigma (\mathbf E + \mathbf v \times \mathbf B)$?

Griffiths notes it's because charges have an extremely low $\mathbf v$, so it's essentially an approximation, but aren't charges meant to be electrons? How can they be moving slowly? I usually think ...
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1answer
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Does wave-particle duality rely on accepting the Copenhagen interpretation?

If you're a scientist that subscribes to the many worlds theorem, does that mean you do not accept wave particle duality? Seeing as MW postulates that the wave or particle form has always existed that ...
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Quantum mechanics of refraction and reflection? [duplicate]

I learnt that light bends when passing through different mediums is due to the epsilon which is how much the strength of electric and magnetic field in the direction of travel changes in the material, ...
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2answers
111 views

Is a “classical” electron surrounded by 31,6 GW electromagnetic energy-vortex? [closed]

Electromagnetic energy-momentum circulation around the dipole-axis of a "classical" electron can be substantiated by determination of the amount of passive power [W] assignable to such energy-...
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1answer
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Atomic model - absorption [duplicate]

I have a question regarding the absorption of light in e.g. hydrogen atoms: I didn't quite understand how the electron knows that it can only absorb photons of the right energy. I thought that when ...
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Electron Tunneling

An electron dot is a Quantum confinement where the motion of the electron is constrained in all the three dimensions ,which means that the electron has zero potential energy and supposed to be at rest ...
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4answers
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How does light appear from electricity?

I have a question and I was just thinking that you can help me out with that. I was studying how to create simple circuit, that is involving bulb, wire and battery and came up with question, how does ...
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Are photons “born” travelling at the speed of light? In what manner do they propagate through space? [closed]

When an electron jumps from a high to a lower energy level and a photon is created, can the photon be detected from all vantage points or only from a discrete position? Does the atom nucleus cast a ...