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Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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2answers
48 views

What happens if you connect a wire to the anode of a battery, but not the cathode?

My understanding is that the anode of a battery is positive while the cathode is negative. If you connect a wire between the cathode and the anode, then the electrons in the cathode want to flow to ...
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Electron falling into proton approaches infinite kinetic energy why?

Foreword I believe this question to be different from the usual "Why don't electrons fall into the nucleus" because this A: asks about the details of explanations for why electrons don't fall into ...
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Nature of metallic bonding in solid state

What is the reason behind attraction of metal kernels & free electrons in electron sea model?
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39 views

Electromagnetic field of a point charge seen from a rotating reference frame

Let us consider a point charge sitting in the origin of our coordinate system. If we change to a rotating system, will the field of the point charge still look the same? Intuitively I would say yes, ...
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If air is an insulator, how does an ungrounded electric generator move electrons?

Firstly, this is NOT a duplicate question. There have been similar questions asked, but no one has adequately explained this particular aspect of electric generators. Yes, they act as an electron "...
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Are individual atoms inside a molecule (covalent) still really EM neutral?

I am not asking about ionic bonds. I am in this case asking about covalent bonds. I have read this question: Why do atoms repel when closer but attract when farther apart? Where Swike says: ...
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Constant term in the periodic Poisson equation [closed]

When we solve the Poisson equation with periodic boundary conditions we have to ensure that the integral of the right hand side is zero. That is, we neglect the constant term of the Fourier expansion ...
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What would happen if I bring an electron near a conductor

What would happen if I bring an electron near a conductor ?? Charges should be induced, but since a charge cannot be smaller than that of an electron, what could possibly happen ?? Eg : Say I bring ...
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Orbital wavefunction for a system of two electrons

I am new to this forum! I write here hoping someone can help me. I have found a statement in my quantum mechanics book that I really don't understand. We have a system of two electrons. If both are ...
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1answer
63 views

Electric field of electron in alternating potential

I am considering the case of an electron placed in an alternating sinusoidal potential, of frequency 13.56 MHz (frequency typically used for RF plasma generation). Suppose I have a simple 1D set up, ...
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1answer
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Benefits and Drawbacks of Swapping Associations of Positivity and Negativity of the Proton and Electron

For historical reasons, I understand that a proton's charge was assigned the label of "positive", the electron's charge was assigned the label of negative, and, crucially, equations of current in E &...
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Electrostatic force between two grains of sand with unbalanced charge placed 30 meters apart

Quote from The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume I: To give an idea of how much stronger electricity is than gravitation, consider two grains of sand, a millimeter across, thirty meters apart. ...
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Do electrons really perform instantaneous quantum leaps?

This is not a duplicate, non of the answers gives a clear answer and most of the answers contradict. There are so many questions about this and so many answers, but none of them says clearly if the ...
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How is the envelope of a wave derived from the wave equation?

I'm reading this book about electrical properties of materials where the electron is introduced as a wave. Using the equation of a wave, they bring about the "envelope" of a wave. So here is how the ...
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4answers
363 views

What happens to the spin when photon is absorbed by an electron?

Photon is spin 1 and electron is spin 1/2, so when a photon is absorbed by an electron it is destroyed and the electron becomes excited by that amount of energy. The next moment the electron will go ...
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Are the plates of a battery really charged?

In a zinc/copper Daniell cell correct me if I am wrong : Zinc has 2 valence electrons. So it wants to get rid of them. To do so it sends them to the copper which needs 2 to complete its valence ...
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Why Bohr atom model is still being tought in high school? [duplicate]

Bohr atom model is still the textbook content of today's high school physics. We all know that the Bohr model is only suitable for single electron hydrogen atom, not suitable for other atoms. For ...
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What happens when an electron collides with an atomic nucleus?

Say an electron is shot towards an atom at such a speed that a violent collision (or just a regular collision) is unavoidable, what happens to electron and the nucleus? (Also, I'm a mere highschooler....
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How do you get max kinetic energy from photons hitting electrons?

I read if you increase the frequency then you can get the max kinetic energy and if you decrease the wavelengths you can get enough energy to knock the electron out of its atom of a gas. Is this true? ...
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Would a flow of current (of positrons) zap us?

I have read this question: Will Positron Cause flow of electricity? To your question, yes, positrons are just as good as electrons for carrying a charge. There is no difference between "...
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Why can't an electron be observed?

I was watching a show on Netflix hosted by Neil Degrasse Tyson and he mentioned that one of the fundamental particles that we know of, the electron, is something we have never even observed directly. ...
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Dependence of radial probability function on quantum numbers

I was reading the book "Quantum Physics" from Eisberg & Resnick about the expected value of the electron radial coordinate, which it defines as \begin{align} \overline{r_{nl}} = \int_{0}^{\infty}...
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Special conditions at layer F2 ionosphere

I saw this graph about the electrons density in different altitudes and difference between night and day, the difference between the 2 electron densities (day and night) decreases till 300 Km (F2 ...
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1answer
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Band gap vs QM energy level gap between electron orbitals

I have read this question: What is energy band gap? What is the reason for formation of energy bands? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_shell_model If I understand correctly, the band gap (...
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Using uncertainty principal to estimate electron energy

I'm trying to estimate the energy of an electron, using the uncertainty principle. Not sure if I did it right. The problem is estimate the energy of electron confined to a .1nm box and report answer ...
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1answer
51 views

Recombination of hydrogen

Suppose a slow-moving electron and a slow-moving proton are injected into a chamber, such that the two approach each other and are likely to combine to form an atom of hydrogen. How would one ...
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What makes north pole of a magnet north pole in the first place? [duplicate]

This question might seem absurd and illogical to many. But it just popped out in my mind while I was reading about magnetism. -Like in case of charges, positive and negative charge on an atom means ...
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An electron moving through a magnetic field [closed]

An electron, that has been accelerated from rest by a potential difference of $250\ \rm V$, enters a region of magnetic field of strength $0.12\ \rm T$. Show that speed of the electron after ...
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Franck–Hertz experiment question

Greetings fellow Humans. I have been given a problem as the following. In a Franck–Hertz experiment, the jumps in Voltage in the characteristic Curve are U=2.104 volts. a) What color does the Gas ...
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1answer
52 views

Covalent bonds are EM (electrostatic/electronegativity) or not?

This is not a duplicate, I am not asking why covalent bonds form or how they form. I am asking whether the covalent bond itself can or cannot be classified as a EM interaction (or if it is caused by a ...
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1answer
249 views

Electron mass from “Higgs-like” interaction with $Z$-boson?

I was watching a Leonard Susskind video, "Demystifying the Higgs.." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JqNg819PiZY At some point he is discussing the Z-boson and what he terms the Zilch field. (weak iso-...
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How can the velocity of electrons in graphene be measured?

I'm trying to understand how one can measure the velocity of electrons in graphene, from an experimental point of view. Does anyone have some clue?
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1answer
121 views

Why cannot electrons be accelerated by cyclotron?

I was reading about cyclotron and it's working. I found out that electrons cannot be accelerated by this device. The reason I found was that they are too light. But I want to know why exactly ...
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494 views

Do battery electrons only move if there is a positive terminal at the end of the wire?

I'm sorry if this question may seem wrong in many cases. What would happen if we had a wire with the length of 1 kilometer that connected the two terminals of the battery? Do electrons care if the ...
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Diffraction pattern of X-ray and electron

Electron diffraction is used to study about wave - particle duality of matter. A beam of electrons directed at a single crystal produced a diffraction pattern like an X-ray diffraction pattern. I ...
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2answers
213 views

Difference between Phonons and heat?

1, if these two were the different then how we differentiate with one another?. 2, if these two were the same, then what is really vibrating?, atom in the lattice or electron in the atom or the bond ...
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Velocity Selector Question with Unknown Voltage

In a diagram, electrons are emitted from a hot coil with initial velocity 0 at plate A and then pass through a uniform field between two plates (A and B) where $V=1.00\times10^4$ volts. After, they ...
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How can light travelling forward send an electron forward?

Light travels along the x-axis and strikes a stationary free electron. Its E field oscillates along the y-axis. The electron moves off at an angle with respect to the x-axis less than 90 degrees. ...
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1answer
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Do photons “bounce off” of electrons?

I’ve been reading a book, and in one part the author explains how electrons only absorb the wavelengths of light that can take them to an excited state, i.e. that can take the electrons to a higher ...
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How are cloud chamber tracks consistent with the uncertainty principle?

I have read about the uncertainty principle. As it applies to electrons, how is it that we can get exact tracks of electrons in cloud chambers? That is to say that how is it that the position is fixed?...
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Joule's heating effect

Can we derive joule heating effect or heating of current using energy conservation for electrons when current is varying with time ?Like using concept of drift velocity,potential diffrence across ...
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1answer
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The electric and magnetic field, reaching to infinity

I have difficulty’s to accept that the electric and magnetic field components of photons as well as of electrons and the other subatomic particles are extended to infinity. For practical use that does ...
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1answer
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Does charging any electrical device in exterme temparature affect the current flow?

Recently in an Electric vehicle(EV) charging station, the charging time to charge a particular vehicle was 1 Hour (18V capacity of battery), but now in temperatures beyond 40 Degree Celsius, it is ...
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3answers
243 views

Why are there $1 / 1.602176634 \times 10^{-19}$ electrons in a coulomb?

Why that exact number of electrons in one coulomb? who decided it? there is nothing wrong with the number, it just seems slightly messy. Why didn't the scientific community just settle on an easier ...
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1answer
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Why is there no B-field parallel force on an electron orbiting a magnetic field line?

If an orbiting electron creates a toroidal magnetic field like a ring of current does, and this field is oriented opposite to the magnetic field line the electron is orbiting, then why is the electron ...
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1answer
50 views

What makes a atom more likely to become a cation (lose electron)

What makes an atom more likely to lose an electron and become a cation? Does the exact location of the electrons maybe influence that? I know that you can't know the exact position of an electron ...
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1answer
82 views

How did scientist get photos of wave function of electron in the double slit experiment?

In the double slit experiment I know that the electron fires as a particle one at a time then splits goes through both slits and recombined and interferes with itself and hit the wall creating a ...
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2answers
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Why do atoms interact differently? [closed]

We live in a 3-dimensional Universe, so why don't atoms (electrons) follow the same rules as humans, planets and other 3-dimensional objects? So does that mean electrons and other quantum objects pop ...
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1answer
52 views

How do electrons exit LEDs? Aren't they in the valence energy state?

If a conducting electron reduces to the valence band in an LED, where does it get the energy to go back to the conductance band upon leaving the diode so current can flow? I'm confused as to how ...
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Can electrons fly off a conductor?

This is probably a stupid question, but what if you made an electron flow through a superconductor so that the electrons build up speed flowing through the wire, and then cut the wire. Would the ...