Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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What differences would be observed in the Stern-Gerlach experiment when using neutral fluorine (Z=9) and neutral sodium (N=11)

I have been working through some past exam papers for my Quantum Mechanics module, and one of the questions is what would be different about observing the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment when ...
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Fractional electric charges

Since the Oil droplet experiment we are talking about elementary electric charges: Charge quantization is the principle that the charge of any object is an integer multiple of the elementary charge....
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Interaction between electrons in which the magnetic dipole moments interact more strongly than their electric fields

Asking a question Has anyone tried to incorporate the electrons magnetic dipole moment into the atomic orbital theory?, I was curious whether anyone has attempted to relate the intrinsic property of ...
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Is Einstein's Photoelectric effect a reversible phenomenon?

If one emits a light beam in a given frequency (obviously there is a threshold frequency) over a metal plate, even on low energies, some electrons could be ejected and one could been measuring an ...
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From where do electrons gain kinetic energy through a circuit?

Supposing an ideal wire, How do electrons accelerate and gain kinetic energy? What I understand: When a circuit is opened ,electrons are crowded at the negative term of the battery and have high ...
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Electron to electron interaction

I am interested to know if it would be possible to calculate the magnetic attraction between two electrons at zero space between their magnetic poles against electrostatic repulsion between them in ...
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Puzzle of electron radius [on hold]

Research here confirmed that electrons are actually spherical. Now i wonder if the classic electron radius formula is still valid. The paper i introduced didn't mention anything about the electrons ...
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Are the electrons' orbitals the same for all atoms?

Are the electronic orbitals of an atom always quantified in the same way (i.e. the same energy required to reach the next level), or does each atom have its own values for each level? If the ...
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Relation Between Current and velocity of electrons

In a conductor, all the electrons are few to move to conduction bands. If we say that magnitude Current is increased (I= dq/dt) can we infer that the velocity with which the electrons flow also ...
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Multi electron interference in double slit experiment

Electrons have negative charge, and therefore repel each other. That should mean that their position, and momentum probabilities should get skewed away when in the presence of some other electron. I.e....
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Photon-Electron interaction (Compton and Photoelectric effect)

(Some context : I am a first year engineering student and i have conceptual doubts in Compton and photoelectric effect. I have read a book "Concepts of modern physics"-Arthur Beiser and talked to my ...
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What is actually being removed when a metal conductor is grounded?

I found this image earlier this morning, and yes, there are a lot of diagrams/illustrations about this, transferring charges by induction has been introduced since the very beginning of high school ...
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Working out the radial arc of a magnetic field to get mass of electron

We have an experimental setup as below, the magnetic field strength, Bq/30s, and distances (magnet distance, Geiger counter height, Geiger to magnet centre distance) have all been recorded. The energy ...
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Does an electron emit radiation the instant it absorbs it?

I was reading on the electromagnetic spectrum when I thought if an atom/electron is absorbing the energy from the light ray falling on it, how and by when will it get rid of the excess energy to ...
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From where does the radiation come from in an inverse-Bremsstrahlung process?

I'm trying to know more about Bremsstrahlung and inverse-Bremsstrahlung processes. If you know any good references that treat theses topics with a good mathematical and physical basis, please let me ...
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Why is order of electron orbital filling not completely sequential? [duplicate]

Orbitals fill in the following order, 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, etc. Its a nice pattern that many elements follow, but there are exceptions to. For example: V: 1s2 ... 4s2 ...
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Software for calculating particle irradiation (electrons/protons) induced desorption

I would like to calculate the sputtering rates of different materials when irradiated with charged particles, can someone recommend a good software for doing this.
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Has anyone tried to incorporate the electrons magnetic dipole moment into the atomic orbital theory?

The Pauli exclusion principle is related to the electrons spin. The quantum numbers are complete only with the spin quantum number. I am curious whether anyone has attempted to relate the intrinsic ...
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Charge on an electrical conductor

Consider we have very precise equipment (s) needed for this question. There's a finitely big uncharged conducting sphere. Suppose we had an extra electron from an external source and we plan to keep ...
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How do electrons keep moving when bare copper wires are rolled? [closed]

How do electrons keep moving when bare copper wires are rolled? When someone strips the wires and coils the copper, does that not affect the communication between the devices, that is, the bits do ...
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Does electron affinity decrease with charging?

Lets consider two materials A having higher electron affinity than B while both are not too far off. If they are both insulators and A accumulate charges due to triboelectric effect. Than after a ...
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What is the exact mechanism of flow of electricity?

When a steady current flows through a conductor, the electrons in it move with a certain average ‘drift speed’. One can calculate this drift speed of electrons for a typical copper wire carrying a ...
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Why doesn’t the focussing anode diverge the electron beam again?

Consider this diagram of a focusing anode in a CRT: Question: Why does the electron beam not diverge again when it enters the focussing anode (or accelerating anode) while leaving the pre-...
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Why are 2 gamma photons created? [duplicate]

When a positron and an electron come together they annihilate and produce 2 gamma photons $$e^+ +e^- \rightarrow 2\gamma$$ I can understand that they must be produced in pairs to conserve momentum. ...
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Analogy What is the difference between AC light and DC light or is there such a thing? [closed]

Is there a constant non changing static light? See analogy Analogy As AC is for alternating current DC is for direct current AC for sine Waves/Movement/Varies to light DC for + or - straight line/...
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Are Cooper pairs (of electrons) entangled?

I have read this question: Does a normal torch emit entangled photons? where Quantum Journalist says: Although all the particles of a BEC are in a single quantum state, they are not ...
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How does a particle's energy determine interaction behavior?

I have been trying to get my head around Electron-Beam Lithography and have a small issue with what has been said in the linked YT video. At 11:35 Chris Mack says that The more energy the ...
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How did J. J. Thomson establish particle nature of electron? [migrated]

I've read about how the electron was discovered on Wikipedia and they have said that Thomson and his students performed experiments which suggested that cathode rays were negatively charged "particles"...
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How does a heated object lose thermal energy in a perfect vacuum?

Suppose I heat up an arbitrary object to an arbitrary temp and then place it in a near perfect vacuum (let’s assume inter-galactic space). If there is essentially nothing for the object to transfer ...
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Calculating force on electron

How do we calculate force on electron, knowing that it behaves both as particle and wave.
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Electrons direction in cathode ray tube

This image below show the movement of an electron in a magnetic field, it's taken from the video [Histoire des sciences] La découverte de l'électron explaining the experience of J.J. Thompson when he ...
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What will happen if I bombard electron beam on metalloid?

I know when we bombard electron beam on metals it gives out X rays, but my question is that what will happen if I bombard electron beam on metalloids?? please give answer
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Electric current and drift velocity

I have seen in several textbooks that say that when we connect a conductor with a battery then electrons start moving (drifting) in the battery in random up and down motion in the opposite direction ...
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Single electron in conductive cavity

It is a basic result in electrostatics that a charge $q$ in an arbitrary cavity of an ideal conductor will generate a total charge $-q$ on the surface of the cavity in such a way that the electric ...
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Is a purely Electron or Proton bomb possible?

Since electrons repel other electrons and protons repel other protons, if you had enough of either of these in an enclosed space, and suddenly removed the enclosing barrier, would the repelling force ...
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In the ground state properties of electron gas, is $V$ the volume of all the metal or the volume of a cell of the lattice?

In the ground state properties of electron gas (Sommerfeld theory), is $V$ the volume of all the metal or the volume of a cell of the lattice? I thought the latter because the Born—von Karman boundary ...
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In a circuit, do surface charges get influenced by external electric fields? [duplicate]

Hello ,This image represents surface charges in a circuit caused by the battery's electric field, if you were to place an other electric field source of the same magnitude (but not connecting it to ...
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When an electron changes its spin, or any other intrinsic property, is it still the same electron?

I am not asking why an intrinsic property, like spin can have more then a single value. I understand particles (electrons) can come to existence with either up or down spin. I am asking why it can ...
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Electromagnetic field of a point charge seen from a rotating reference frame

Let us consider a point charge sitting in the origin of our coordinate system. If we change to a rotating system, will the field of the point charge still look the same? Intuitively I would say yes, ...
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If air is an insulator, how does an ungrounded electric generator move electrons?

Firstly, this is NOT a duplicate question. There have been similar questions asked, but no one has adequately explained this particular aspect of electric generators. Yes, they act as an electron "...
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Are individual atoms inside a molecule (covalent) still really EM neutral?

I am not asking about ionic bonds. I am in this case asking about covalent bonds. I have read this question: Why do atoms repel when closer but attract when farther apart? Where Swike says: ...
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Constant term in the periodic Poisson equation [closed]

When we solve the Poisson equation with periodic boundary conditions we have to ensure that the integral of the right hand side is zero. That is, we neglect the constant term of the Fourier expansion ...
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Orbital wavefunction for a system of two electrons

I am new to this forum! I write here hoping someone can help me. I have found a statement in my quantum mechanics book that I really don't understand. We have a system of two electrons. If both are ...
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Benefits and Drawbacks of Swapping Associations of Positivity and Negativity of the Proton and Electron

For historical reasons, I understand that a proton's charge was assigned the label of "positive", the electron's charge was assigned the label of negative, and, crucially, equations of current in E &...
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Electric field of electron in alternating potential

I am considering the case of an electron placed in an alternating sinusoidal potential, of frequency 13.56 MHz (frequency typically used for RF plasma generation). Suppose I have a simple 1D set up, ...
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Are the plates of a battery really charged?

In a zinc/copper Daniell cell correct me if I am wrong : Zinc has 2 valence electrons. So it wants to get rid of them. To do so it sends them to the copper which needs 2 to complete its valence ...
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Why Bohr atom model is still being tought in high school? [duplicate]

Bohr atom model is still the textbook content of today's high school physics. We all know that the Bohr model is only suitable for single electron hydrogen atom, not suitable for other atoms. For ...
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Is the magnetic dipole of the electron an intrinsic property?

The profound answer to the question How permanent magnets work? starts with Sub-atomic particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons (and many others) have a fundamental quantity called a spin ...
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Do electrons really perform instantaneous quantum leaps?

This is not a duplicate, non of the answers gives a clear answer and most of the answers contradict. There are so many questions about this and so many answers, but none of them says clearly if the ...
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Would a flow of current (of positrons) zap us?

I have read this question: Will Positron Cause flow of electricity? To your question, yes, positrons are just as good as electrons for carrying a charge. There is no difference between "...