Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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What is the relationship between an electron's wave-like and particle-like qualities? Is "Electrons are waves and particles" the whole truth? [duplicate]

Upon researching the double-slit experiment, it seems to me that electrons are somehow cloaked in wavelike behavior (not at all like my previous idea that electrons were waves and somehow were also ...
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Confusion regarding quantum point contact conductance

In the Wikipedia Quantum Point Contact (QPC) page the conductance is described as a function if the gate voltage, and has discrete jumps of the size of the conductance quantum $G_0 = 2 e^2/h$. In this ...
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Is there any reason for the mass of the electrons? [duplicate]

I've recently read Feynman's QED in which he mentioned the possibility that the seemingly random numbers that correspond to the mass of the electron and heavier charged particles (mu and tau electrons)...
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How exactly classical electrodynamics fails to explain the Compton effect?

EDIT: This is a more precise version of an old post Classical Theory explanation of Compton Effect by someone else. Standard textbooks explain the Compton effect using the notion of photon. It is ...
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How do charged particles accelerate away from an oppositely charged substance? Like in a cathode gun or gridded ion thruster

Like in the case of a gridded ion thruster, the positive ions are accelerated due to their attraction to a negatively charged gird at the back end of the thruster. Why don't the ions just stay by the ...
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Electric current density definition

I'm just wondering why the current density $J$ is always defined as the amount of electric current traveling per unit cross-section area $J = \frac{I}{S}$, and not per volume unit $J = \frac{I}{V}$ so ...
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What new experiment could be done using CERN proton-antiproton beam and DESY's electron-positron beams? [closed]

I have an opportunity to go to CERN/DESY lab and access proton-antiproton beams and electron-positron beams. Would be really helpful if you all could suggest some experiments. Thank you!
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von Foerster's Doomsday Equation [closed]

Physicist Heinz von Foerster wrote down an equation that gives an estimate on the date when human civilization will collapse.[1] The equation was presented in the 60s and according to it, this event ...
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Plane Wave in a Periodic Lattice

From Introduction to Superconductivity; Second Edition; A.C. Rose-Innes and E. H. Rhoderick; Page 3 Electrons have, of course, a wave-like nature, and an electron travelling through a metal can be ...
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Does the proton do anything in a simple electric DC circuit? [closed]

Since the valence or free electrons and doing the flowing guided by electromagnetic field, what about the protons that are still stuck in the nucleus inside the wire, battery, resistor what have you ...
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Electric fields created by electrons

If I want to calculate the electric field inside the $1s$ cloud of an atom. Do I have to consider the protons only or the electrons too? If I take the electric field created by protons only then won't ...
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How is the energy per electron in Sommerfeld Theory interpreted?

I'm having a hard time understanding the way the energy per electron is calculated in Sommerfeld Theory. From the N.W.Ashcroft book on solid state physics it is done by first calculating the ground-...
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Can two electrons co-moving in a vacuum form a combined pair if the magnetic field is stronger than the electric field? [closed]

Can two electrons co-moving in a vacuum form a combined pair if the magnetic field is stronger than the electric field? Quantum numbers are same except for magnetic value. When electrons are first ...
Mobius Electron's user avatar
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If an electron is an elementary particle, where is charge "stored"?

In particular, how can you have both positrons and electrons if there is no "bit" to set or unset? I hope this is not a stupid question, but if a particle has no internal structure, where ...
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Coherent spin state (CSS) for an electron with spin

Standard definition for the spin coherent state (CSS) for the system of $N$ identical particles reads $$ |\theta, \phi\rangle = \bigotimes\limits_{k=1}^{N} \left[ \cos\frac{\theta}{2} |0\rangle_k + e^{...
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Are QED Feynman diagrams readable in any order?

I have somewhat of a basic question regarding QED Feynman diagrams. To expose my doubts let's take the Feynman diagram of the Compton scattering (at the second order) as an example: With the solid ...
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What happens to a single photon in case photoexcitation doesn't occur upon "hitting" an electron of a single atom

I'm having trouble finding sufficient answers that don't boil down to discussing materials. Some people say that if a photon does not excite an electron it doesn't interact with it at all and just ...
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Why can each electron only absorb one photon in the photoelectric effect? [duplicate]

Studying the photoelectric effect for the first time, and can't find many answers as to why the ratio of electrons to photons absorbed has to be 1:1. Is it possible for an electron to absorb more than ...
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How come two electrons interfere?

This is something I have read many times that the double slit experiment done with electrons produce the same pattern that we get with light i.e. the electrons undergo superposition similar to that of ...
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Does the current increase in a wire if a surplus amount of electrons is added to the wire?

Assume that an LED is placed in a closed-loop of wire (ring) being located on the table. A bar magnet located a specific distance away from the table/ring is released to fall under the influence of ...
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De Broglie waves and standing waves

I have a conceptual misunderstanding/confusion, for which I will give two examples to illustrate my problem. Example 1: In Bohr's atom, de Broglie describes the atomic electrons as waves, where the ...
Anky Physics's user avatar
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In JJ Thompson's experiment, why are electrons not making U turns?

In JJ Thompson's experiment, Why are some electrons able to pass through the slit of the anode, rather than hitting the anode plate itself? Even though electrons manage to get past the anode, will ...
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If the electron has no spatial dimensions based on QM, does not it violate the Planck length as the minimum admissible length for physical entities?

I think the question is self-explanatory: Quantum mechanics insists that electrons have no dimensions as point-like entities, while there is a minimum (non-zero) boundary for length called the Planck ...
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Born Oppenheimer approximation and screening

In the Born-Oppenheimer approximation we take the full Hamiltonian of a solid, given by $$H = T_e + T_{ion} + V_{ee} + V_{e-ion} + V_{ion-ion}$$ where the T are the kinetic energy of electrons and ...
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Doubt in derivation of the classical electron radius [closed]

At the "derivation" section of wikipedia page for the classical electron radius I am not able to follow the last step (citation follows): Integrating for $r$ from zero to the final radius $r$...
Juan Moreno's user avatar
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If I shoots an electron in empty space and never measure it, is the electron still there?

Imagine there is an electron gun that is capable of emitting 1 electron at a time, the gun emits an electron directed at an empty space, no dust, no matter or anything that could interact with the ...
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Can there be an electron without photons?

Can the electron field be excited while the photon field is not? I'm guessing the answer is no, because electrons are supposed to interact with their own electric field. I don't know about ...
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How would I calculate the minimum and maximum wavelength of the Bremsstrahlung released by an electron as it goes through a magnetic field?

Say, I have an electron gun and ground below it (with a potential difference of U) and two coils side by side between them producing a relatively homogenous magnetic field B. If I shoot an electron ...
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Which effect leads to the same electrical current in a closed circuit consisting of different resistive materials?

Suppose you connect two wires with different resistances to form a single wire. When you apply a voltage, a current will flow. Do the electrons in the wire with smaller resistance move with a higher ...
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Are electrons in higher energy orbits less entangled with the nucleus?

I understand that an electron in orbit is technically entangled with the nucleus. Is an electron with higher energy (further away from the nucleus) less entangled with the nucleus? Does a free ...
Chinmay Nagarkar's user avatar
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Is the axis of symmetry of electron orbitals arbitrary? Can it rotate?

The radial wavefunctions of electrons in hydrogen atoms, the electron orbitals or "clouds," is a topic covered in almost any quantum mechanics course or textbook. Something that has always ...
YaGoi Root's user avatar
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Does temperature cause electrons to vibrate more?

I read in textbooks that the mobility of electrons is affected by lattice scattering caused by vibrations of the lattice and by impurity scattering caused by impurities because they disturb the ...
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Is electric charge dependent on mass of an object? [closed]

I got this question while reading about electrons and protons where electrons having less mass than protons but possess the same amount of electric charge,though negative. Could you please elaborate ...
Aditi Seth's user avatar
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Flow of electrons in wire

If we apply potential difference through wire we know that there is an electric current which is the flow of electrons.I want to know how do electrons move do they move within wire like in the picture ...
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Is the number of electrons in the universe always the same?

My teacher just said the number of electrons in the universe always stays the same, that's not how I understood weak force interactions and electron capture. Is there some rule that states that the ...
The Burger King's user avatar
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What forces are responsible for the conservation of momentum at the subatomic scale?

When I throw a ball at a wall and it bounces off of it and there is conservation of momentum we can say that the springiness of the ball and the wall is the action reaction force responsible for the ...
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Isotopes and electron transitions

Do neutrons in the nucleus (isotopes) affect the frequency of electron transitions through valence shells?
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Is there a misinterpretation of NIST data, in this conclusion about the order of 4s and 3d, in neutral scandium, contradicting HF calculations?

Is there a misinterpretation of NIST data, in this conclusion about the order of 4s and 3d, that contradicts Hartree Fock calculations? I understand that it is a clear conclusion based on Hartree Fock ...
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Is the electric charge of a bound electron measurable?

What gives us the certainty that the unit charge of a free electron - measured and confirmed with the highest precision in numerous experiments - is retained even when approaching and integrating into ...
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Does electron moving in a circular motion inside a magnetic field experience acceleration? [closed]

I always thought that object turning means acceleration but what if an electron is caught inside a magnetic field that simply changes it path into a circular one so no electric field is allowed. The ...
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Why is the charge of an electron defined as a percentage of itself? [closed]

An electron is usually defined to have a charge of 1.602 × 10-19 coulombs. But a Coulomb is the amount of electrons accumulated in 1 second = 6.24 x 10^18 charge carriers. An electron charge is ...
Yogi Bear's user avatar
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Why doesn't a metal get ionized (lose electrons) when heated for melting?

If we heat a metal at high temperatures to melt it, its outermost electrons should also gain some energy so as to get excited to a higher state and eventually become free from the metal atom. But that ...
Adwit Kumar's user avatar
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Does quantum mechanics explain the behavior of subatomic particles to the exclusion of classical mechanics, or are they both applicable? [closed]

On the one hand, the cathode ray experiment conducted by JJ Thomson seems to indicate that the radius of path deflection of an electron beam is also governed by the same centripetal force equation ...
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Will a metal rod kept under very bright light for a huge amount of time, be able to conduct electricity?

I was just sitting when it came to me - will a metal rod that has been kept under bright light for a very long time, be able to conduct electricity? I was thinking that because of photoelectric effect,...
Adwit Kumar's user avatar
9 votes
1 answer
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Electron dynamics in a periodic potential: Why wavepackets? Why $\vec{v}=(1/\hbar)\nabla_{\vec{k}}E_n$ is its group velocity?

Electrons in a periodic potential, $V(\vec{ r})$, satisfying $V(\vec{r}+\vec{R}) = V(\vec{ r})$, are described by Bloch states $$\psi_{n,\vec{k}}(\vec{r})=e^{i\vec{k}\cdot\vec{r}}u_{n,\vec{k}}(\vec{r}...
Solidification's user avatar
11 votes
5 answers
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How can a free electron "oscillate" in the presence of em waves?

I have been told a many times that in a region with oscillating electric and magnetic field, a free electron if left will also oscillate. But I don't think its true. I actually asked this to my ...
Ankit's user avatar
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2 votes
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Confusion about EM absorption [duplicate]

I have now encountered various explanations on how matter interacts with electromagnetic waves (EM) but it still seems like an unconnected mess. The best way I can demonstrate my questions is with an ...
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What does the energy of the electron in the energy level of an atom really mean?

I am confused about the meaning of the energy of the electron in the energy level of the atom. How does an electron have a higher energy in a higher energy level and at the same time, it can be ...
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Higher dimension observer

In Quantum Mechanics (double slit electron experiment) a third dimension observer could only see two kinds of patterns in a screen: -Two lines behind each slit if one chooses know the electron ...
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Change in atomic energy levels with motion

How do the energy levels associated with electron orbitals in an atom change with the velocity of the atom? If the atom is moving at, say 0.9c, will the difference between the 1st and 2nd energy ...
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