Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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Why is n-p-n transistor typically “slower” than p-n-p transistor?

I know that the n-p-n transistor is faster than p-n-p transistor. My book explains it with 'the hole is faster than an electron. But I think the hole is empty space of electron, so these speeds should ...
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How many hot electrons are in solar cells that do not thermalize?

When an electron in a solar cell is excited beyond the conduction band edge, it will most likely thermalize which can only be counted as a heat loss. But in a few cases the electron will directly ...
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Electronic specific heat capacity using free electron theory

While considering the contribtution of the electronic specific heat capacity, it is stated that, when the temperature increases from 0 K , only the electrons with energy range of the order of $k_bT$ ...
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Can hydrogen atom exchange induce attractional forces between $e^-e^-$?

G. Feinberg and J. Sucher showed that neutrino-pair exchange can induce long-range repulsive forces between electrons that is proportional to $r^{-6}$. In the paper, they also stated that changing a ...
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Do electrons interact attractively?

I read that electrons could interact attractively in superconductors and form Cooper pairs. This attraction is due to the electron–phonon interaction, with the phonon being the collective motion of ...
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Which atoms are orbited by shared electron?

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the ...
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What will happen to you if I hit you with an electron after accelerating it to the maximum speed possible?

Electrons have very small mass and they are charged particles so they can be accelerated using strong electric fields. Also the mass of the electrons' mass will change significantly if it is ...
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(Closed) Counter example to show that the electron spin cannot be correlated to rotation [closed]

I have been asked a question in my assignment which is: What I did so far: I tried to answer it in the following way: I equated the angular momentum of the ring to the intrinsic angular momentum (...
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Photoelectric effect question

I am currently working on the photoelectric effect. I had an idea that we could measure the spread of kinetic energies by measuring the current as a function of the voltage for a single wavelength of ...
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Why ray goes down when applied a magnetic force between it in the JJ Thompson experiment?

I have a question! I was learning about JJ Thomson's Cathode Ray Tube experiment and I understand why the ray goes up when it passes through a Wien's filter, but I cannot plenty understand why it goes ...
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How do you calculate the theoretical work function of an alloy?

Given a combination of metals or metals combined with one or more other elements, how do you calculate the theoretical work function of the alloy?
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Question on negative energy solutions to the photoelectric effect

the photoelectric effect was explained by Einstein as $$\frac12mv^2=\hbar\omega - W$$ where $W$ is the binding energy of the atom that the electron is in, and $\hbar\omega$ is the energy of the photon ...
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What is neutrino pair exchange? Can neutrino pair exchange deduce stronger-than-electromagnetic attractive forces between electrons?

I read recently about neutrino pair exchange. What is neutrino pair exchange? Can this exchange induce forces stronger than electromagnetic forces between electrons which in turn form attractive ...
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Can static holes really act as positive charge carriers? [closed]

The electrical characteristics of semiconductors require there to be positive charge carriers, the positive ‘hole’. But a positive hole is a temporal cation created by the removal of an electron from ...
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Are protons bigger than electrons?

In every text/ physics book that I've read, Protons are mentioned as particles that are bigger, way bigger 2000 times to be precise, than electrons...I believed that until a few minutes ago when I ...
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Proton as viewed from an orbiting electron's perspective

When I see depictions of the electron orbital of a hydrogen atom, I see a static proton in the center surrounded by an electron cloud. What would it look like if we shifted the reference frame to the ...
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Is it theoretically possible that electrons are made up of quarks just like protons and neutrons? [duplicate]

Before closing it as a dupe of this. Please go through the question once . Is it theoretically possible that quarks make up an electron ( like you may get a particle with the same electronic charge $(-...
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Do electron-electron collisions have an associated scattering cross section?

Various texts (1,2) state that electrons are point particles, but if this is the case then when two electrons collide, one of them knows the others position with exact certainty (treating one as an ...
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Are the orbits of electrons always the same for P & S Orbits

I watched a cool video today on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and electron orbits. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMIvWz-7GmU) Are S orbitals always a cloud around the atomic nucleus and a p ...
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What is the reason for the appearance of absorption lines in the spectrum of light coming from the sun?

If your answer was that the sun's atmosphere absorbs some photons, I don't think so. Because the atom, after absorbing a photon, it seeks stability and emits an electron in a short time compared to ...
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Can only two electrons be in ground state? Are the energy levels the same thing as the energy shells? I can't find a straight answer

So for a model like this one, can there be two electrons in one energy level? And I don't understand the Pauli principle that two electrons can't be on the same energy level when there are 2 electrons ...
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Solid state problems (phonons conductivity)

I took a quiz where i got two answers wrong and i want to know what the correct answer is and why. Q1) In a material where both phonons and electrons contribute to the thermal conductivity, the ...
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Why does a p-type conduction band have higher energy then n-type conduction band in a p-n junction?

In an energy band diagram that represents the p-n junction (during equilibrium) the p-type conduction band has greater energy then an n-type conduction band. Why does the p-type have greater energy ...
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In an energy band diagram the p-type semi-conductor is shifted 'up' when attached to a n-type semi-conductor. Why does this happen?

When a p-type semi-conductor is attached to a n-type semi-conductor the p-type semiconductor shifts 'up'. Why does this occur? Also, the energy of the electrons in the conduction band increases for ...
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Imagine if the electron had a spin $s=3/2$. Would atoms in their ground state still display the Electron shell structure? [closed]

My answer would be yes, since instead of starting with $2s+1=2$ electrons in the first shell you would have $2s+1=4$ electrons. This is a question my quantum mechanics prof posed in the last lecture, ...
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Why is the energy in the conduction band in the n-type lower then the the p-type?

In an energy diagram of a p-type and n-type semiconductor we see that the conduction band in the n-type is lower then the energy in the conduction band. How is this possible when the 5th electron in ...
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Why is Fermi level the same in p type and n-type semi-conductor when they are connected?

In an energy band diagram the Fermi energy for both p-type and n-type are the same. Shouldn't the Fermi level be higher in the n-type because it holds the 5th electron very loosely therefore having ...
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Why can't excess charge built up in a conductor escape the object?

When you add electrons to an insulator the electrons stay where you place them and are unable to move whereas in a conductor they repel each other and move to the edges. Why don't the charges just ...
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How do I reduce proton number of an atomic nucleus?

I know that one can increase proton number of an atomic nucleus by proton bombardment as Cockroft and Walton bombarded elements with protons and managed to increase the atomic number. However, how can ...
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In a LED the electrons from the n-type combine with the p-type which creates a photon. Are the electrons 'lost' or gone when this process takes place?

In a LED the electrons in the n-type move to the p-type where they are then 'combined' with the holes in the valence shell of the p-type which produces photons. My question is that when this happens ...
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Electron interference

As I have understood, as per QM, electrons could behave as waves in a double slit experiment, i.e. form dark and bright bands, albeit after sufficient electrons have been shot from the source. Also, I ...
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Why an electron does not get stuck to nucleus?

An electron remains in its orbit because of electrostatic and centrifugal force. But when a reaction takes place some electrons are gained or removed. Then how they still are stable?
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When excess electrons are in an insulator they don't move. Why is this?

Let's say you have an insulator that is electrically neutral(has no net charge). Let's say you are able to add additional electrons into the same insulator resulting in the insulator having a net ...
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Why can't charge spread out in a insulator? [closed]

When you add charge to an insulator the electrons don't spread out and stay in one place. Why don't they spread throughout the insulator since electrons repel each other? I know that electrons in a ...
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Does turning a circuit on increases its gravitational pull?

I've been taught that things that have mass "create" a gravitational pull, and that an electron has mass, even though it's really small. So I was thinking, does the electron's gravitational ...
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When you introduce excess charge into an insulator the charge stays still. Why is this?

When you add charge to an insulator the electrons stay in the same place whereas in a conductor they spread apart. Why is this? What force is making the excess charge stay in one place in an insulator?...
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Can electrons switch their spin direction?

Electrons have a definite spin but I read somewhere that when an electron gets subjected certain types of electromagnetic waves they can switch their spin direction... Is that true?(wouldn't that ...
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If an electron-hole pair is formed, where does the electron “go”?

I've seen the explanation before that holes are basically electron deficiencies in an atom and that the hole "moves around" by electrons from surrounding atoms shuffling to fill that spot ...
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Can why electrons exist in shells be explained by the Pauli exclusion principle?

Do you know the Pauli exclusion principle?-'No two particles could be in the same quantum state at once'. Well can you use that principle to explain why electrons stay in shells and electrons in ...
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Why can't excess charge travel through an insulator?

Lets say you have a closed circuit connected to a battery made of copper wire. Lets say that at one point of the copper wire there is plastic. The electrons can't flow through the insulator and back ...
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Compton scattering electron recoil energy [closed]

I need to show that the recoil electron energy is: $$ \varepsilon = mc^2 + \frac{(2\alpha \cos^2\phi)h\nu}{(1+\alpha)^2 - \alpha^2\cos ^2 \phi}$$ Where $\alpha = h \nu_0/mc^2$ and $\phi$ is the ...
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Why can't electrons flow in the depletion region of a semiconductor?

In a semiconductor when there is a depletion region electrons can't flow through this and acts as an insulator. This depletion region can expand when a battery is plugged a certain way. Why can't ...
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Have there been any experiments that examine the collision between an anti-down quark and an electron?

Like many people, I've been chasing down idle curiosity, trying to get a better understanding of how certain particles interact with each other. I have been particularly unsuccessful in trying to pin ...
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When electrons move at high speeds, why is their mass LARGER than their rest mass? Why isn't it the opposite? [duplicate]

When an electron moves at a high speed, it has a large kinetic energy. I know that E = mc^2 and so if an electron was travelling at a high speed, wouldn't the mass decrease in order to increase the ...
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Can electrons pass through human skin and tissue?

I was wondering if for example you rub a balloon on a wool surface and create a negative charge by getting some electrons from it and put the balloon near your arm for example, is it possible for the ...
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What evidence is there for the gravitational acceleration of a free electron?

According to Newtonian gravity (in the absence of other forces or obstacles) a free electron (not moving at high velocity) should (because it has mass) fall towards the Earth's centre with the same ...
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How does having free electrons make something a conductor?

My question is how does having free electrons make something a conductor? I know that the flow or movement of electrons create a current but can't you just add free electrons (such as a battery) to an ...
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Can a single electron slide down a smooth glass incline plane?

It is said that there are detectors that can detect the impact of a single charged particle in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that do not rely in the conversion of electrons into photons. In ...
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Why can't an insulator let electricity pass?

I have read about this: Essentially in an insulators there is a big energy gap between the (valence) and the conduction band which is why there aren't many free electrons in a insulator. How does ...
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What makes a conductor able to pass electricity?

My question is what makes a conductor able to pass electricity? I know that conductors have free electrons where as insulators don't have as many but can't you just add free electrons to the insulator ...

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