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Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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What is the wave nature of electron? [duplicate]

Is electron a standing wave or a probabilistic wave? or is it both? can someone explain me also what wavelength we calculate from de Broglie's equation? also does electron spin around itself? or is ...
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Can an electron absorb a photon even if it exceeds the energy required for the electron to jump up an energy level?

To clarify my question, consider the hydrogen atom. An electron on the ground state needs 10.2 eV to be excited to the second state (first excited state). If a photon with less than 10.2 eV strikes ...
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Could electrons with a certain wavelength pass through a hole, or chamber, smaller than their wavelength? [duplicate]

I always thought, an electron could not pass through a hole, with a diameter, which is smaller than its wavelength. Just like microwaves could not pass through a metal mesh with small holes, but ...
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Electrostatic force between two grains of sand with unbalanced charge placed 30 meters apart

Quote from The Feynman Lectures on Physics Volume I: To give an idea of how much stronger electricity is than gravitation, consider two grains of sand, a millimeter across, thirty meters apart. ...
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How can an ion ever capture an electron if an electron requires a precise momentum to match a subsequent orbital?

Suppose an electron approaches a proton with greater energy than the hydrogen ground state. Will the electron scatter? If so, how could an electron ever be captured given it would require exactly the ...
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Can a charged particle interact with its its own electromagnetic field? [duplicate]

Say an electron begin moving with velocity V back and forth very quick or at the speed of light, could it interact with its own previous pre existing electromagnetic field?
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Magnetic effect of electric current [closed]

A proton moving with a speed of $5×10^6$ m/s is subjected to a magnetic field of 0.4T inclined at 30° to the direction of the proton. What is the acceleration of the proton? Mass proton=$1.6×10^{-27}$....
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Why ferromagnetism requires exactly 2 electrons in the last orbit?

All magnetic materials like iron, cobalt etc.. have 2 electrons at the last orbit. But magnetic field occurs even if a single charge moves. Why exactly 2?
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Contradiction? Electron mass, speed $c$ vs electrons being all the same [closed]

I understand that all matter increases in size when approaching speed c I also understand that all electrons are exactly the same. Assuming the mass of the electron is also effected by approaching ...
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Electron falling into proton approaches infinite kinetic energy why?

Foreword I believe this question to be different from the usual "Why don't electrons fall into the nucleus" because this A: asks about the details of explanations for why electrons don't fall into ...
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Electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic theory

My school book says "according to classical Electromagnetic theory, an accelerating charged particle emits radiation in the form of Electromagnetic waves and the frequency of the Electromagnetic waves ...
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1answer
58 views

Reasons behind de Broglie hypothesis

What reasons does de Broglie had when he proposed the idea that electrons behave like waves?
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Electron distribution in Low Earth Orbit

I have been searching online for some kind of pdf function that describes the charged electron distribution in Low Earth Orbit in regards to their energies. Any ideas on whether something like that ...
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Different energy levels of an atom vs. electron shells

I am confused about the following point: When studying graphs such as the one below, which depicts the different energy levels of an atom (Mercury in this case), I always thought that the different ...
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Why does an electron not emit energy when it is in a stationary state?

The Bohr's postulate states that an electron does not emit energy when it is in a stationary state. My question is, is it only a postulate or does it have proof? Also on what basis did Bohr come to ...
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The formula to calculate the life of a battery in a given circuit is calculated by the formula: E.E=V.I.t

The formula to calculate the life of a battery in a given circuit is calculated by the formula: E.E=V.I.t, using this formula, how can the time the battery will work be compared in different circuits?(...
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J J Thomson experiment for electron discovery [closed]

Thomson noted that his values for the charge to mass ratio for the electron were about 2000 times larger than those for the lightest known ion, that of hydrogen. Could he distinguish from his data ...
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Formulas re quantised energy of photons emitted by electrons

I am confused about the difference between two formulas I have come across in relation to the quantised Energy of photons emitted by electrons. $E_{mn}=hcR_H(\frac{1}{m^2}-\frac{1}{n^2})$ $E_{mn}=R*...
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Electron density of atom in laser field

I would like to consider the atomic or molecular electron density dynamics in some laser field. But the explicit numeric solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation seems complicated to ...
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Force between nucleus and electron [duplicate]

Let's say we have a hydrogen atom in electric field. If the field is strong enough, electron will be separated from nucleus. How to determine the value of $E$ at which it happens? To my understanding,...
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Motion of an electron near a proton [closed]

Statement of the problem: Consider an electron and a proton that are initially at rest separated $a$ meters. Do not take into account the movement of the proton, because its mass is much greater ...
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Hydrogen energy state transition times and probabilites

How correlated is the energy absorbed to the later energy emitted, and hence to the transition type? What is the scale of time it takes to make a downward transition in energy level? In a very cold ...
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What happens when a photon does not excite the eletron in hydrogen [duplicate]

Let's say the energy carried over (photon) is not enough to change energy level of electron in hydrogen, or, it is a tad too much and we instead refer to the extra energy as the insufficient carrier ...
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How does the coating work when using an electron microscope?

When a non-conductive sample is viewed with an electron microscope, it can happen that some electrons from the beam can be trapped (absorbed) by the sample so it acquires a charge. This is called "...
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The model of photon scattering, is actually about a complete absorbtion?

I was wondering about the things like Compton scattering. As I understand, it is an inelastic scattering of photon on free electron. Inelastic means, that photon changes it's angle and frequency. As ...
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What type of scattering happens, when the “free” electrons in conductor receive the em wave?

We know for sure, that antennas(depending on their parameters), or just simple wires can receive(and emit) a large spectrum frequencies of em waves(from 1 Hz to 300 GHz for sure). But to excite an ...
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If electrons are waves, how do they repel each other? [closed]

Louis de Broglie said that electrons are waves. But how they repel each other?
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Compton effect for H2+?

I've been asked to find an expression type compton that describes the elastic dispersion of the incident radiation considering a gas of h2+ But i have no idea where to begin If you could guide me a ...
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What determines the direction of a photon emitted by an electron?

When an electron loses energy and emits a photon, what determines the direction that this newly-created photon will travel? The electron, being a point entity, has no internal physical structure, so I'...
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2answers
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Why the free electrons in space can not be excited by photons? [duplicate]

Any electron (in the shell) at any orbit of around of an atom can be stimulated by photon (of course as depending on the energy level of photon). So that, it can change its orbit and come back ...
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In photoelectric effect, what is effect of frequency? [closed]

So what does the frequency of the light in photoelectric effect does ? Does it increases number of electrons?
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Electron gas and the infinite potential well

I want to fully understand the electron gas but I am sometimes confused about its behaviour, due tho its models. So the materials like metals got its ionts periodically arranged in the crystal ...
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3answers
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Confusion about how an electron gun works

I'm a little unclear about the charge balance aspect of an electron gun. Referring to this diagram and similar diagrams I've seen, what I don't get is wouldn't the target of the electrons have to be ...
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4answers
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Do electrons have a size or mass? [closed]

Do electrons have any size if not then how do they collide with positive fixed in in wires?
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Can a Black hole only have negative EM charge?

I understand that Black holes can have EM charge, they can have EM fields around them. But is that possible that a black hole has more positrons and protons inside it (or that these have more EM ...
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Free (unbound, so not bound to a nucleus) accelerated electron cannot emit/absorb a real photon?

I have read these questions: Can a free electron absorb a virtual photon even though it cannot absorb an ordinary photon? Where Michael Seifert says: It is entirely possible for a real electron ...
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If mass produces gravity, and gravity curves the part of space, then why you say, that electron has no form\scale? [closed]

Using Einstein's equation we can calculate the space-time curving(but I'm too stupid to do this). Hence, why everybody say that electron has no form\scale (although has spin at the same time)?
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1answer
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Is the probability density of an electron in a hydrogen atom static?

Probability densities are illustrated in text books and on Wikipedia as static pictures. Is the probability density of an electron within an isolated Hydrogen atom static or does it oscillate in some ...
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Can the periodicity in k-space of the electronic band structure be understood as a result of aliasing?

Discrete sampling in the case of phonons In the case of phonons in periodic solids, the picture is quite intuitive. The motion of the atoms in the lattice is described as a continuous wave (amplitude ...
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2answers
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Why do electrons move in a straight line in a Crookes Tube? [duplicate]

(edit: I found it was already answered here Maltese Cross Tube and the anode, sorry about that.) In a Crookes Tube, electrons are accelerated from cathode to anode, and overshoots the anode in a ...
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How can magnetic field change direction, do not changing the velocity of particle?

I know that electron has spin and momentum. Momentum is $vm$ and $v $ is $\dfrac {dx,y,z}{dt} $. So how it could be possible to affect the particle the way it will change only direction, instead of ...
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Probability Density Function vs Radial Distribution for 1s Orbital

What is the difference between the probability density function for the 1s orbital of hydrogen and the radial distribution function? I know that the radial distribution function is 4πr2(Rnl(r))2 but ...
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Reason for gold being the most malleable and ductile of metals

I understand how fcc structure enables plastic deformation in metals, but why is gold, in particular, the most malleable and ductile of fcc metals? Is there something about the electronic structure ...
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Does Newton's first law of motion apply to a single moving electron?

That is in a zero electric field, if an electron moving, does it follow rectilinear propagation? Does it follow Newton's first law of motion? I not asking about newtonian mechanics. I am asking ...
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2answers
159 views

Mass of the electron

In the classical limit, three quarters of the mass-energy of the electron come from the energy of the electromagnetic field of its charge (see Electromagnetic Mass). Intuitively one would expect that ...
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1answer
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Violation of KVL ,KCL at high Frequencies

question: How can we prove mathematically that KVL (Kirchoff's volatage law) and KCL (Kirchoff current law) become invalid at very large frequencies? i have read this statement in my book but it ...
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2answers
63 views

What actually happens during metallic conduction?

My book mentions that when an electric field is applied to a conductor the electrons get accelerated in a direction opposite to that of the field. These electrons however collide with the atoms on the ...
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1answer
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Is the phase of the photon which photoemits the electron anyhow reflected in the photoelectron wafeunction?

Imagine you have a carrier-envelope stable optical pulse. You use it for photoemission of an electron wave-packet. This electron wave-packet can be considered as a superposition of plane waves, with ...
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Can electron/holes be contribute to the photocurrent when absorbed outside depletion region

I am not convinced by the common interpretation that photons can only contribute to the photocurrent when they are absorbed in the depletion region. For the photodiodes I have been studying, the A/W ...
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Why do electrons abide by Hund's rule?

Is the reason why Hund's rule exists, that when electrons are in different orbitals (such as 2px, 2py, or 2pz), they are most stable (lowest energy)? If the purpose is stability/lowest energy, ...