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Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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What force is responsible for the movement of electrons in a current caused by an electrochemical source?

From what I have read, batteries provide an electrochemical potential that causes electrons to move from the negative terminal through a conductor to the positive terminal. I have read numerous ...
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How do we know electron have wavelength?

I know many people thought that light is a wave in the past before Einstein came along but what about electron, the scattering experiment could only hint at their existence so how do they know that ...
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When electron falls in the jungle and there's no observer, does it emits light? [on hold]

I'm trying to make sense of how observations can affect how small things behave, imagine countless electrons accelerating toward the ground my question is would the jungle glows when nobody is there ...
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37 views

How did Coulomb arrive at value of electron charge?

Charge of one electron is known to be as $1.6$ x $10^{-19}$ C or alternative 1 Coulomb contains charge of $6.24$ x $10^{18}$ electrons. I am just wondering if these numbers are arbitrarily chosen or ...
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The force that opposes the short circuit terminals from getting separated? [closed]

if u have observed whenever u short two wires u can experience that sometimes it requires effort to separate those live terminals even if they have not welded but stuck pretty close to one another ...
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Inverse work function?

The work function is the "work necessary to get the electron out of the metal" [Millikan] and plays an important role in the photoelectric effect. I assume that the "work gained by absorbing an ...
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+250

Micro-channel Plate Detectors - do they or don't they degrade?

Micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors are microscopic holes in a plate. They get put in an electric field and there act like many tiny dynodes, amplifying any electrons that enter. This makes them ...
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Semantics problem with physics definition [closed]

Definition of current: Rate of flow of electron then, " The electric current is flowing" would be a wrong phrase due to the above definition if we replace the current in the above phrase with Rate ...
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1answer
50 views

In which direction does the positron's magnetic moment point?

Suppose I have an electron, with its spin pointing in some direction, so that the magnetic moment caused by the spin is pointing upwards. Then, I hold a positron next to the electron so that their ...
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2answers
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Two questions about electron's magnetic spin

Does electron's magnetic spin mean that we can think of it as having the two magnetic poles? Does the spin mean that it generates magnetic field even if it is at rest? I expect to get 'no' to both ...
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2answers
190 views

An electron moving through a magnetic field [closed]

An electron, that has been accelerated from rest by a potential difference of $250\ \rm V$, enters a region of magnetic field of strength $0.12\ \rm T$. Show that speed of the electron after ...
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1answer
32 views

Energy of not absorbed photon

If a photon was incident towards an atom colliding with its electron without being absorbed by it because it has less or more energy from the required, then what will happen to the Photon next? Will ...
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1answer
29 views

Electric force between two parallel plates one of which got a rough surface

So if I have two parallel metal sheets separated by 0.1 meters with air as a dielectric with a breakdown strength of 3MV/m and I'm applying a voltage pulse that goes from 0 to 100kV in few ...
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Firing an electron towards a proton

Suppose I have an electron and a proton. If i fired the electron towards the proton, due to the attraction between them the path of the electron will change. How should I shoot the electron so that it ...
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0answers
26 views

Why do salts form ions?

For example, sodium chloride is formed because a chlorine atom "takes" one electron from a sodium atom, thus forming a sodium+ and a chlorine- ion which stick together because of their different ...
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1answer
34 views

Movement of electrons in a circuit

Electrons move from negative to a positive terminal, but their path seems unusual. They seem to be taking the longer path to get to the positive terminal, The electrons could have gotten closer to ...
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Modeling the secondary electron path/direction in SEM

I'm trying to computer-generate 3D models (surface or mesh) from electron microscope pictures. I'm new to this field and I have a few questions for which I did not find satisfying answers on the web ...
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TEM diffraction analysis- imaging artifact or distorted crystal structure

I've got some "nanobeam" diffraction data from TEM (transmission electron microscope). Analysis is a challenging because I forgot the golden rule... I didn't measure a "standard". Hence, I don't know ...
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3answers
73 views

How much electricity can a kilo of electrons produce?

I know how stupid this question sounds. I heard my grandma say something close to it in a phrase "It's a 1000€ aircondition, it's not gonna consume 200 kilos of electricity !" Made total no sence ...
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1answer
63 views

Nuclear reaction – What is the asterisk an indication of?

I've been observing the two-step decay of iodine-131 and can't quite determine what the asterisk above Xenon-131 indicates. I'm currently unsure as to what precisely the superscript asterisk on Xenon ...
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1answer
195 views

String behavior in electron orbitals?

It feels like this should be a incredibly easy question to find an answer to, but I’m coming up zeroes in my search - if I’ve overlooked a parallel question please feel free to close this. ...
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1answer
26 views

If the electric force is the exchange of virtual photons, how can free electrons be accelerated by it?

I know that free electrons can't absorb photons. It is, however, known that electric forces can accelerate electrons. But if electric interactions are merely an exchange of virtual photons, how can ...
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0answers
33 views

Faraday, Avogadro's Number and Atomic Mass/Size

I'm currently rereading "An Introduction to Quantum Physics" by A.P. French, and confused myself. The text reads along the lines of (paraphrased): Making the assumption that e is equal both to ...
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1answer
37 views

Problem in derivation of Rydberg Equation

In deriving the Rydberg Equation I found that $\delta E=E_2-E_1=hf$ where $E_1$ is the energy the orbit in which the electron was and $E_2$ is the energy of the orbit in which the electron is ...
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2answers
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Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Is it true that an electron is fundamentally probabilistic in nature? That the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is not describing our limited ability to measure the particle's position and momentum ...
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2answers
68 views

How are Quantum Mechanical energy levels related to atom shells?

I'm currently taking Quantum Mechanics in school and I came across a table displaying the following in the given order: $E_n (\text{energy levels}), g_n (\text{eigen functions})$ $n \ l, [m]$ $E_1, ...
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How to induce electrons to polarize objects at a distance

I have no clue if it is possible. Is there a way to send electrons to polarize objects inside a plastic recipent? What I'm trying to achieve is to induce negative current on objects inside the ...
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Charged sand particles in the ocean

Sand particles can get carried away by the waves into ocean and as they are, do the sand particles get charged? Is this one of the reasons why there isn't any mud on the ocean floor?
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2answers
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Do empty orbitals have energy?

Suppose we have the Na (Sodium) atom. It has half-filled the 3s orbital and unfilled 3p orbital. Does the empty 3p orbital have energy? also does the energy of 3p change if an electron occupy it?
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51 views

Can electron be polarized?

I know that electrons split into two beams when passed through a non-homogeneous magnetic field. But is electron polarized when passed through some substance? For example, light the polarization can ...
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5answers
74 views

What stops a free electron from 'using' part of its own mass to generate radiation?

The explanation I've read on why a free electron can't emit a photon goes like this: Let there be a free electron of mass $m$ moving with constant velocity $v$. We may enter a new reference frame ...
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1answer
83 views

How far can a moving object embed itself

Let's say we have an electron moving at 10% the speed of light toward a 10 cm thick block of pure carbon. How do we calculate the distance that the electron travels into the carbon? Even though there ...
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2answers
52 views

How are line spectra explained after rejecting/improving Bohr's theory?

I learned that Bohr explained line spectra by postulating that electrons can only be at certain discrete distances from the nucleus. Later, this theory was refuted/improved by de Broglie and ...
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1answer
28 views

What happens if we consider at the level of calculation-definition (not physically) the photon have charge $\pm$ $1$ and the electron charge = $0$? [closed]

Warning: physically you do not have to change anything, photon still remain 'photon' and electron still remain 'electron'. I'm interested configuring an behavior in particle function exchange, not ...
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3answers
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Is there an electric dipole moment in an electron?

I just read an article in Science News (p7, 11/10/2018, link here) where researchers looked for an electric dipole moment in an electron. They spoke of charge separation between the positive and ...
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What is the electrical resistivity of air during breakdown?

There is a well-documented theory for breakdown voltage vs pressure in the form of Paschen's law. But what is the trend of the electrical resistivity of air as a function of the electric field ...
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1answer
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Fermi-Hubbard model: adiabatically change tunnelling

Consider the 3D Fermi-Hubbard model in a cold-atom setting (harmonic confinement, $\epsilon_i$): $ H = - t \sum_{\langle i, j\rangle, \sigma} c^{\dagger}_{i, \sigma}c_{j,\sigma} + U\sum_{i}n_{i,\...
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Does anybody know the Quanta of electrons? [closed]

I am trying to find out how to entangle electrons and change their energy levels. Does anybody know how to change the energy levels in the electron?
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6answers
127 views

Wave behavior of particles [duplicate]

When people say that every moving particle has an associated wave, do they mean that the particles will move up and down physically, for example when we say that a moving electron has a wave ...
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4answers
93 views

Is it possible to have non-integral multiple of $e$ as charge?

We have 2 similar balls. On one ball there is charge $e$ and on other no charge. I connect the balls using a metal wire. We know that the charge gets shared until they have the same charges. Thus we ...
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2answers
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Touching single line of AC Power and charge oscillation in body

If a person touches a single line of AC(Only on the live line, and no where else. Say he/she is hanging on the power line using one hand) as shown in the attached image, Do the ions in his/her body ...
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1answer
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How can the derivation of the energy of an electron in a Fermi gas using the Heisenberg uncertainty principle be made rigorous?

When modeling a large number of non-interacting identical fermions in a potential well of volume $V$ as a harmonic oscillator and assuming the Pauli exclusion principle, it is easily seen that the ...
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3answers
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Do magnetic lines of force depict path of moving charges [closed]

What are the magnetic field lines basically depicting in terms of moving charges or charge carrier particles or currents. What do those circular loops around a straight current carrying wire actually ...
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1answer
42 views

Does the positron prove that Dirac's electron sea must exist? [duplicate]

Does the fact that the positron exists in cosmic rays prove the existence of Dirac' s 'sea' of spin-paired electrons in space.
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1answer
23 views

Doubt regarding direction of movement of electron wrt a field [closed]

An electron with an initial speed of $4.0 × 10^ 6 m/s$ is brought to rest by an electric field. The mass and charge of an electron are $9 × 10 ^{-31} kg$ and $1.6 × 10 ^{19}C$, respectively. Identify ...
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0answers
38 views

How does quantum field theory pridict spin of electron? [closed]

How does quantum field theory pridict the magnetic moment of electron (spin). How does QFT interpret it? What is the actual mechanism of origin of spin of fermions as well as bosons according to QFT?
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1answer
24 views

What exactly happens to other electrons during an x-ray process?

What happens to the electrons that were knocked out where do they go? What happens to the electrons in the higher orbitals that are knocked out of orbit, I am sure they release photons as well as they ...
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1answer
31 views

Electron correlation - difference between correlation and dependence

When we talk about electron correlation in condensed matter physics or chemical physics, we usually refer to the fact that the pair-density $$ P(r,r') = N(N-1) \int |\psi(r,r',r_3,...,r_N)|^2 \; \...
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What are Cooper pairs in superconductivity? [duplicate]

At low temperature how does electron become Cooper pair and why can they pass through a superconductor without resistance? Please give quantum mechanical explaination.
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4answers
51 views

Are probabilities of a measurement in quantum mechanics absolute?

Consider an experiment in which an electromagnetic wave whose polarization is along an angle $a$ with the $x$ axis is sent through a polarizer whose polarizing direction is along $y$ axis. The ...