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Questions tagged [electrons]

Negatively charged particle with spin 1/2. A component of mundane terrestrial matter, and part of all neutral atoms and molecules. It has a mass about 1/1800 that of a proton. Its antiparticle is the positron.

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Could the kinetic energy of electrons be quenched by destructing coherence? in quantum mechanics

For electrons in crystall lattice, the itinerant electrons behave as wave and can be decribed by wave function. Is coherence of electrons' wave related to the kinetic energy of electrons? What's more, ...
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Why should an electron falling into the nucleus, according to the Maxwell's laws of electrodynamics, destroy the atom?

It is often said in physics and chemistry classes and textbooks that atoms must be unstable when the electron continuously loses energy and finally fall into the nucleus according to classical physics....
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Why is current the same when batteries are connected in series? [closed]

I struggle to understand why the current remains the same in the circuit when batteries are connected in series. Update I can reason with it if someone can confirm the update. If the speed of ...
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Can impact offset of an electron on an ion affect the resulting particle velocities?

A free electron, of mass $m_e$ and velocity $v_e$ collides with an ion of mass $m_i$ and velocity $v_i$. When they recombine, a photon of exactly the ionization energy $E_i$ will be emitted, moving in ...
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Do we have to provide energy to move electrons in an electric field?

In the positive and negative terminal of a battery, there is potential difference due to the accumulation of charges in their respective terminal, so it created a potential difference, and if we ...
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Photoelectron and electron in photoelectric effect [closed]

Could you please help me find some answers, as I have been stuck in this for a while and didn't get understandable answers. what is the difference between the photo electron and an electron. The ...
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When two neutral atoms collide, and one atom ionizes, how does the speed of the ejected electron compare to that of the atoms?

When two neutral atoms collide, and one atom ionizes, how does the speed of the ejected electron compare to that of the atoms? Context is, I was trying to do the calculations for the velocity of the ...
Hugh Perkins's user avatar
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3 answers
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Do we see an interference pattern when we send two electrons?

If we steer two electrons toward a screen, do we see the interference pattern? Do electron waves combine to produce an interference pattern? In this situation, how does the wavefunction look?
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Internally, what defines whether a material is magnetically hard or soft?

I know that magnetically hard materials hold magnetic fields (magnetic moment alignment) for longer, while soft metals do not. However, what, internally, causes these properties to arise?
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Can an atom absorb a photon that matches the ionization energy of the atom, without ionizing? What would the resulting orbital state be?

Can an atom absorb a photon that matches the ionization energy of the atom, without ionizing? What would the resulting orbital state be? Let's take as an example atom argon (or hydrogen, if that is ...
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Cross section along the single transmission path of electron

I am studying this research paper "Forecasting of ionospheric vertical total electron content (TEC) using LSTM networks" about ionosphere, but in introduction section I phrase I didn't ...
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Why does charge reside on the outer surface for a conductor but inside in case of an insulator? [duplicate]

So from what I understood, in case of a conductor there are free electrons and when its charged there is maximum repulsion between the like charges which causes the electrons to reside on the surface ...
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About exchange energy

Electrons of the same spin in degenerate orbitals undergo exchange and make the atom more stable. Why do they release energy during exchange? We can calculate the number of possibilities in which the ...
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Does one electron in superposition repel itself?

Consider Quantum Electrodynamics, and consider the electron field to be in a state which is a superposition of two wavepackets, each located in a different spatial position. Explicitly: $$|\psi\rangle ...
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Understanding the Electron-Positron Transformation in Dirac's 2-Spinor Notation - Penrose

Penrose in his book, the road to reality, chapter 25, it says: non-standard way, by re-examining the Dirac equation in terms of the ‘2-spinor notation’, briefly introduced in §22.8. As remarked in §...
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Scalar QED atoms - will they pass through each other?

Atoms generally do not pass through each other. This is usually attributed to the Pauli exclusion principal between the electrons (see links below). If the electrons and nucleons were switched with ...
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Why do closed shells have a SOC split?

Why do the energy states of closed shells behave like in the one electron case? Imagine an atom with one electron in the $2p$ orbital. $l=1$ and $s=1/2$, so spin orbit coupling leads to two levels ...
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What exactly happens to the "Unabsorbed" Photons? [duplicate]

Things that you can assume that I am familiar with as a high school student. I know that only Photons/EM-Waves with "Specific" Frequency/Wavelength/Energy has chances/probability to --> ...
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Are electrons in CRT classical objects?

Electrons in CRT seem to behave like classical objects with well-defined classical trajectories. But at the same time, it's elementary particles living in quantum world with weird quantum rules. How ...
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4 answers
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Why do particles tend to collapse to *energy*-eigenstates (rather than some other basis)?

My understanding from reading about quantum mechanics is that the state of a particle such as an electron can be kept in a superposition of energy states for an extended period of time, when it is not ...
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Trying to solve the energy levels of a spin 1/2 particle in a one-dimensional box using Dirac Equation

I was studying the problem I asked above in the title and found the article P Alberto et al 1996 Eur. J. Phys. 17 19. The wave function inside the walls is: $$ \psi(z)=B\ exp(ikz) \left[\begin{array}{...
Joao Pedro Medeiros's user avatar
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Are electrons still present in dead batteries?

After the end of chemical reaction in battery which makes voltage and flow of current, do the electrons existing in copper wire remain there or not?
RUCHI Goyal's user avatar
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1 answer
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Will the number of electron be conserved during Density functional theory self-consistent field calculation?

I am confused about the concept of charge neutrality in DFT calculations. Let's say I have two silicon atoms in a primitive unit cell. Since the silicon has 14 protons and 14 electrons in a charge ...
T.H. Kim's user avatar
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Maximum mean distance electrons can travel in ballistic conduction?

How far in mean distance can electrons reasonably travel via ballistic conduction according to the current model and what is the current mean or average distance or length record for ballistic ...
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Will every material with strong electron-phonon coupling ($\lambda > 1$) have polarons?

Does polaron formation need only strong electron-phonon coupling? Or does it need something else?
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If someone moves with a velocity $v$, relative to a conductor carrying current $I$, will the current change with respect to the observer?

If someone moves with a velocity $v$, relative to a conductor carrying current $I$, will the current change with respect to the observer? I feel that the drift velocity of current is independent of ...
Maths lover's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
130 views

Electrons repel each other forever - why? [closed]

I.e. charge is conserved. How? Why? Background I am coming here with only my intuition, and a desire to learn. My intuition "feels" that if an electron keeps on repelling other electrons, ...
Rabbi Kaii's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
106 views

Why does it not matter which way electrons flow in a circuit? [closed]

If electrons flow from negative to positive in electron flow, why do we put a resistor in a circuit on the positive side of the conductor before it reaches the LED or light or whatever? I heard people ...
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1 answer
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Why don't the delocalised electrons in a metal emit light when they hit an atom and change their velocity very quickly (i.e. accelerate)

We know that in metals there is a sea of delocalised electrons which can freely travel around the lattice of metal ions and that these delocalised electrons move around at large speeds, sometimes ...
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Why isn't the original EM wave in a beam of light in a medium not still detectable from a distance as if it were moving at the speed of light?

I'm learning optics and I've been told that the reason light slows down in glass is because the Electromagnetic field of a beam of light interacts with and accelerates charged electrons in glass ...
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Why does the energy (and thus frequency) of a photon entering glass stay constant if some is used up to accelerate electrons and slow down the light?

I'm learning optics and have been told that when light enters a medium (e.g. glass) and slows down the frequency of the light stays constant while it is the wavelength which is reduced. The ...
Hadi Khan's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why can't we measure different properties of an electron in accordance with its frequency?

sorry if this is a stupid question but its my first one.. Why cant we just observe and electron in accordance to its frequency. Like during one frequency peak we could observe position, next could be ...
omgcchheeessee's user avatar
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2 answers
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Image of an electron

Suppose we are trying to see the image of an electron with a microscope. Is it possible? And if it's possible then what do we see? A point at a time, or a blurry spot, or something else?
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About lightning and lightning conductor

Lightning not only strikes on a lightning conductor installed on the building... Lightning can strike anywhere on the surface roof of the building even though that building has installed a lightning ...
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2 answers
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How could free electrons flow in a conductor? If electrons actually flow in a conductor, then won't the atoms of the conductor become unstable?

I've read in many physics books that electrons flow due to a potential difference across a conductor, and that the flow of electrons is opposite to the current direction. But, if electrons move from ...
Doodieman360's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Density of states - as a function of electron velocity

A condensed matter textbook states that in a 3D gas of electrons obeying the Fermi-Dirac statistics the number of electrons per unit volume having velocity components in the ranges $u, u+d u$, $v, v+d ...
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How does a wireless charger work if there is no transfer of electrons?

I have read this: the definition of electrical current is the flow of charge. Now, it is also possible to transfer energy (and therefore power) through either free space or a conductor by ...
Árpád Szendrei's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
33 views

In magnetrons, is it the accelerating electrons or alternating fields within the anode that produce the microwaves?

Doing a report for a school project and want to get to the bottom of the radiation source within a microwave oven: According to Maxwell's equations don't the accelerating electrons (accelerating ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Questions about batteries and circuits

If the electrical potential difference is the difference in potential energy over charge Say we have a circuit, we plug it into a 1.5V battery, does that mean that for every coulomb of electrons ...
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Theoretical Electron Bunching paper, variable question

What exactly is $\varphi$ referring to in this paper: Electron bunchers for industrial RF linear accelerators: theory and design guide? Specifically, within the context of this equation: $$\frac{dW}{...
Jais's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do alpha particles excite the atoms in the zinc sulphide?

I understand that when a photon is absorbed or when an electron collides with an atom the electrons may gain energy and become excited if the energy corresponds to a difference in energy levels. In ...
lemonmeringue 's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
788 views

Why do charges exist in the first place?

Why do charges exist, how did they come into existence? (if any theories exist, then please explain them in somewhat detail) What would happen if charges never existed? Please explain the answers at ...
Adwit Kumar's user avatar
3 votes
6 answers
2k views

Is electric current actually the flow of electrical charge?

In my high school, the definition of electrical current is "the flow of charges" but I have seen a video about how electricity actually works and it seems to me that electrical current is ...
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Will a charged body generate current in this situation?

Suppose we charge a body with negative charge. We then place it inside a Faraday shield that has openings in the form of vertical slits. A coil surrounds the shield. If we start rotating the Faraday ...
Artur Zagraienko's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
216 views

Nature of a superposition of states: is it true or only theoretical?

For quantum mechanics, a certain property of a subatomic particle, e.g. the spin of an electron, which can be either up or down, is a "superposition of states," and one of the two conditions,...
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2 answers
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What is actually electric current? [closed]

Electric current is the rate of flow of charges (electrons) or the rate of flow of positive charge. Okay, I get it. But here's my question. The electron flows in the wire and then the current flows in ...
Moksh Singh Dangi's user avatar
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1 answer
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How do electrons absorb photons?

I understand that atom-bound electrons can absorb photons (explanation for why they are typically atom-bound). However, what is the particular mechanism for this occurring? I am familiar with the idea ...
EngineeringMind's user avatar
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2 answers
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Can it be disproven that an electron is a wave packet of photons? [closed]

When an electron collides with a positron, both are destroyed and pure energy in the form of photons is released. It seems then that electrons are composed of photons, if photons were released on ...
EngineeringMind's user avatar
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1 answer
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Electrons and atoms

Electrons do not follow fixed orbits around an atom's nucleus but exist within "clouds of probability" (orbitals), where there is a high chance of finding them. As one extends the search for ...
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2 answers
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What is the relationship between an electron's wave-like and particle-like qualities? Is "Electrons are waves and particles" the whole truth? [duplicate]

Upon researching the double-slit experiment, it seems to me that electrons are somehow cloaked in wavelike behavior (not at all like my previous idea that electrons were waves and somehow were also ...
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