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Questions tagged [electronics]

Electronics is the study of electric circuits and electrical components, and the design of useful devices. Some questions in this tag may be more appropriate for the [Electrical Engineering(https://electronics.stackexchange.com/) SE site.

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How to check experimental data against a theoretical curve in python?

I am trying to check the agreement of a dataset against a theoretical curve, specifically a bandstop filter in an RLC circuit. I have generated a function which describes the curve we expect from the ...
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1answer
28 views

Electron gun design

I have a question about electron guns. I have read a lot, and all designs use high NEGATIVE voltage ($-1000$ V for example). Is possible to use high POSITIVE voltage like this drawing? Or do you think ...
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0answers
14 views

Can we find capacitance of following capacitor [on hold]

cosider a parallel plate capacitor of area A and d be distance between plates of capacitor and a dielectric of dielectric constabt K let its thickness be t such that t less than d and the dielctric ...
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0answers
24 views

Question about the purpose of a transistor [migrated]

I've been studying about diodes and transistors and something made me wonder about the purpose of transistors. In the examples we were talking about increasing current by using two batteries with a ...
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0answers
32 views

Adequate Power Supply for 300 Daisy-Chained LEDs [migrated]

I have 300 LEDs (ws2812b) wired in a series. They were sold as 150 LED/5 meters and rated to power at 9W/m, so 45W/5m strip. I would need 90 Watts to power my entire 300 LED strip. I have a 3-rail ...
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0answers
19 views

Open circuit voltage gain of JFET transistor circuit [migrated]

So this is one of the questions from my previous past papers, I worked out my Vgs and Vds value correctly (-1.25v and 10v). However, when calculating my open circuit voltage gain, I use the quetion Av=...
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0answers
10 views

Operational amplifier characteristics [on hold]

What are the differences between the Open and Closed loop gain of an operational amplifier? Also, what is the concept of “feedback resistance” in amplifiers?
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1answer
29 views

How does the stud finder work?

My textbook explains how a type of stud finder works by an illustration. What I can’t understand is how does the piece of wood have an effect on the capacitance of the plates when it is so far away ...
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0answers
28 views

Lagrangian Mechanics to solve arbitrary maximization problem

I've been thinking for some time about how to better find the optimal weights for neural networks and it struck me that when solving Lagrangian mechanics problem you are optimizing the action function....
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0answers
32 views

Electronics and junctions

In a p-n junction, is it only the electrons that move from the n-type part to the p-type part in order to create a depletion region or is it the movement of both electrons and holes from the n-type ...
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0answers
30 views

${}$Transformer efficiency

I know the relationship between number of turns current and voltage of a transformer, but is there a formula linking the relationship between number of iron cores and output voltage of a transformer? ...
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0answers
28 views

Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and charge sensitive pre-amplifier

I have an H7195 assembly type Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) used to be tested for single photon measurement. I would like to use the dynode output to check the spectrum by connecting to a charge ...
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1answer
73 views

Why do we have to switch off mobile phones during flight in airplanes? [closed]

During take offs the flight attendant makes sure that mobile phones are switched off (or maybe turned in airplane mode), why is that necessary? (I suspect that there is something to do with physics ...
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1answer
15 views

Resource recommendation for spintronics

What are some good beginner level books to understand spintronics. I am looking for some sources in which basic mathematics of spintronics is properly explained.
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0answers
37 views

Analysis of a simple system consisting of a transformer

Considering a transformer whose second winding is connected to a resistor, such that alternating electric current is induced in the secondary winding by the primary, an attempt of analyzing the ...
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2answers
42 views

Electromagnet produces sound from hollow pipe

I have wrapped around a 80cm metal pipe some copper wire and attempted to produce an electromagnet. The electromagnet works nonetheless from the extremities of the metal pipe a sound is being produced ...
0
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1answer
49 views

How does the $I$-$V$ curve for bulk metal look like?

For semiconductors, the current (I) vs. voltage (V) relationship is as shown in the picture below. As we increase the applied voltage, the electron-hole pairs generate increases too, so we see an ...
2
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1answer
31 views

Unknown pulses from SiPM without any source or detector?

I have a SiPM set up with its PCB, no amplification at all, reading out to an oscilloscope. If I supply 29.8 V, which is the maximum power (with overvoltage), I get some random peaks on the ...
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1answer
24 views

MOSFET Body terminal

What is the point of the body terminal in a MOSFET. If we assume Vsoure=0, Vdrain>0 then we will have a linearly changing voltage from drain to source. Then if Vgate>0 , depending on the difference ...
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1answer
39 views

Please tell me how to solve star resistance network [closed]

Please tell me how to solve star resistance network I have tried solving it, but the connection between the crossed resistances is confusing me.
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0answers
30 views

Why does applying a voltage through the gate on a transistor help lower the potential barrier?

At the potential barrier, all that atoms are "satisfied"; they each have the appropriate number of electrons in their valence shell since the free electrons on the n-type side fill the holes on the p-...
2
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2answers
43 views

What makes quartz oscillators vibrate?

I understand that the principle behind it is piezoelectricity and electrostriction (inverse piezoelectricity), but how does one make the crystal vibrate? The only thing I can think of is using an ...
2
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0answers
28 views

What is phase sensitive detection?

The lock-in amplifier is said to have a phase sensitive detector which compares the phases of the reference and incoming signal and is thus able to recover a weak signal from an overwhelming ...
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0answers
30 views

How to choose the method of circuit analysis?

I was just doing some revision, and I was wondering how to figure out which method to use for solving a given circuit? I tried using mesh analysis on the attached circuit but I got it completely wrong....
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0answers
31 views

Derive the formula for a capacitive voltage divider?

I've seen the derivation for a resistive voltage divider, Vout = Vin * R2/ (R1 + R2). For a capacitive divider, Vout is reported as Vout = Vin * C1/ (C1 + C2) - for example see https://en.wikipedia....
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1answer
46 views

Why does an LED reduce the amount of current flowing in a circuit

Am new to electronics and am trying to make sense of something am not able to understand. I have the following setup When i measure the current between the LED and the 220 ohms resistor am getting 1....
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0answers
29 views

Can anyone help me to clear some questions about diodes and transistors?

i don't understand the basic of the working of diodes, because i imagine that if we have a n-p junction and we want to pass current through from side of n region to p region, if we beat the potencial ...
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3answers
84 views

Summing up very basic terms in basic electricity [closed]

My attempt to define following terms as per my understanding. I am currently at high school. Electromotive force (EMF): Potential between two terminals when open circuited. Wikipedia's ...
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1answer
82 views

Are holes electrons moving in the same direction of the electric field?

Holes are electrons, but with negative mass. That's said, so by applying electric field, electrons(n) move in the opposite direction of the field, while holes(other electrons) move in the same ...
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0answers
23 views

Magnetic moment of copper

I am told that copper is diamagnetic and all diamagnetic materials have a magnetic moment of 0 or less than 0 due to their fully paired electron. Now the main question is copper being diamagnetic ...
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0answers
21 views

Will stacking 2 peltier coolers on top of each other reach a lower temperature quicker?

I'm working on a project where I'm trying to get freezing (<0 degrees Celsius) temperature as quickly as possible. Clearly, stacking 2 peltier coolers on top of each other will be less efficient ...
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3answers
56 views

Question about full wave bridge rectifier

Sorry if this is a stupid question, what I know is when a diode is forward biased, it conducts current, when it is reverse biased, it acts as an open branch if its $ PIV \geq V_{in}$ But in this ...
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0answers
19 views

Why does nMOS using N+ gate have lower Vth than nMOS using P+ gate ? (w/o band diagram)

I understand it from band diagram.(Band bending is more stiff in N+ gate case) However, I don't know what's essentially happening. If P+ gate and N+ gate have same dose, their poly depetion will be ...
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2answers
74 views

Difference between diode and LED

What is the difference between a diode and a led? I know a led is a diode and I know how they are used and so on but I'm not really sure why a regular is not also light emitting. Therefore, what is ...
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1answer
18 views

What does the phase discriminator portion of the Costas Receiver do mathematically?

What does the phase discriminator portion of the Costas Receiver do mathematically? The output of the $I$-channel is $ \frac{1}{2}A_C \cos \phi \, m(t) $. Which means for small deviation of phase $ \...
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1answer
84 views

How do I connect a four way key in a potentiometer?

How do I connect (which wire to which terminal) a four way key to a Potentiometer to compare the EMF of two cells. Circuit diagram and a four wayway key is shown in the pictures.
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0answers
32 views

NPN transistors reverse biased

How is a pn reverse bias junction is formed in a NPN transistor? In a normal pn diode during a reverse bias junction an 'internal battery ' is formed which counteracts the movement of electrons . But ...
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1answer
48 views

How do you calculate the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with multiple dielectrics? [closed]

My question is how would you go about calculating the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor which has two mediums in between the parallel plates. I am aware that for a regular parallel plate ...
0
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1answer
39 views

In which region of diode breakdown starts?

i confused about in which region of a diode breakdown start, in some books it is given that breakdown starts in depletion region but in some other is said that it start in p-side or n-side of diode (...
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1answer
26 views

Acoustics - tiny ultralow impedance speaker? [closed]

Here's a theoretical question that hopefully someone will be able to shed some light on. Apologies if this is the wrong forum, I figured the electrical engineering community would be more into ...
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0answers
28 views

Splitting of energy levels in solids [duplicate]

when atoms are well seperated energy spectrum is discrete, but when they come together energy levels split and they form bands, upto this i can understand. where im confused is that these splitting ...
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2answers
46 views

Voltmeter connection across motor

I want to measure the voltage(potential difference) acorss the motor A. Where should I connect the voltmeter? I am confused between two possibilities: between X and Y (between two ends of the motor ...
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3answers
60 views

Why would Low Voltage produce HIGH current with the same resistance? Transformers

We always see in Ohm's law that $v=IR $. So if $R$ is fixed for a wire, how can the electrons with High P.D have low current. Isn't it the electrons bumping into the resistor that creates the heat? ...
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1answer
23 views

Uncertainty estimation of a quantity after its calibration

I have to calibrate power output of a diode to its input voltage. The voltage source has negligible error but the power meter has significant uncertainty (a couple %). I take a number of power ...
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2answers
212 views

Common potential of two capacitors

I read in my textbook that when two isolated capacitors are connected to each other, redistribution of charge takes place in such a way that they both acquire a common potential. My question is why ...
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1answer
39 views

Why can I hear the treble sounds through a speaker, such as on my phone, better than I can with headphones?

I'm not sure if this is related to my hearing loss, or if anyone else has noticed it, but I find it easier to hear higher frequency sounds coming out of a speaker that I hold up against my ear versus ...
1
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3answers
468 views

Non-ohmic conductors

Non ohmic conductors are said to be the conductors that do not obey Ohm's Law. The V-I graph for them is not a straight line unlike ideal ohmic conductors. According to me Ohm's Law states: The ...
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2answers
48 views

How does a sound box amplifier work?

I read in a few places that in a guitar for example, the vibrations are passed through the connectors to the wood and the wood with its bigger surface is more efficient as a coupler to the air, ...
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2answers
96 views

Principle of potentiometer

I could not understand why the emf of the main cell (labelled E) in the circuit (can be a battery eliminator) should be greater than the emf of the cells (E1 and E2) used in the secondary circuit. ...
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0answers
16 views

How to produce Sratic RAM using 10nM technology [closed]

If I want to produce 2GB SRAM module using 10nM or smaller than 10nM technology, what should I do? Please state step by step and also how much would it be?