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Questions tagged [electromagnetism]

The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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Hamiltonian formulation of the semiclassical Model of electrons

I'm currently reading the book Solid State Physics by Neil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin. In Chapter 12 they introduce the "Semiclassical Model of Electron Dynamics". In short: After having solved ...
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What experiments confirmed Poynting's Theorem?

Actually, I have two related questions. The fist is the above question. The second is, what experiments confirmed that $\varepsilon_0\left(\frac{E^2}{2} + c^2 \frac{B^2}{2}\right)$ is the ...
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What is capacitance, in general?

In circuit analysis software capacitance can be measured between any two nodes of a circuit or of a multiterminal device. In practical terms we take $C_{ij}$, the capacitance between $i$ and $j$ as ...
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Force on an electric or magnetic dipole

The formulae for the force on an electric dipole and the force on a magnetic dipole seem to be closely related: $$\mathbf{F}_{e} = (\mathbf{p} \cdot \mathbf{\nabla}) \mathbf{E}, $$ $$ \mathbf{F}_{m} ...
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How to get the inverse of the propagator?

For a free EM Lagrangian, the propagator is as below in momentum space: $$ S[A]=\int d^4kA_{\mu}(k)\underbrace{[-k^2g^{\mu\nu}+k^{\mu}k^{\nu}]}_{M}A_{\nu}(k). $$ It is easy to calculate the $\det(M)$ ...
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question about Blandford-Znajek original paper

I'm trying to follow the original Blandford-Znajek paper (found here), and I can't find how equations 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 are obtained: 2.1 refers to "the charge density required to ensure that $E \cdot ...
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209 views

MRI and precession

A lot of explanations of the quantum mechanics of MRI discuss the precession of a proton in an external magnetic field, for example here: http://www.physicscentral.com/explore/action/mri.cfm Doing ...
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226 views

Why does this 'Quantum Pinned' superconductor allow easy repositioning

I'm confused by videos such as this (popular demonstration of 'Quantum Levitation'): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws6AAhTw7RA So my current understanding of superconductors is that when in the ...
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371 views

Opacity/transparency of conductive meshes to charged particles (electrons/ions)

When using a conductive (metal) mesh, effectively a metallic woven fabric, in vacuum applications as a "grid" for charged particle optics, how does one calculate (or at least estimate) the opacity or ...
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288 views

Ohm's Law for Accelerated Conductors

My questions are about the Ohm's law for a moving conductor in a stationary magnetic field. As we know this law is stated based on following relation with respect to the fixed frame of reference ...
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654 views

Building a Faraday cage for mobile networks that is transparent for optical wavelenghts

A friend of mine is working on an architectonic project, where she designs a Faraday cage type of open space built in parks or other public places. The initial thought is to build it from some sort of ...
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2answers
598 views

Boltzmann Distribution of Electrons in Confining Potential

I have a particle simulation wherein many non-interacting electrons are trapped in a electric potential well. I would expect, and therefore I initialize according to this, that the electrons would ...
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166 views

What are the parameters for Pauli's repulsion pseudo-force?

I have found the following formula for the repulsion potential due to the overlap of the electron clouds arising from Pauli's exclusion principle: $$V = A\exp(-r/\phi)$$ where r is the distance ...
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127 views

Accelerated electromagnetic system leads to divergent calculation?

Consider the above system comprising a pair of oppositely charged parallel plates, connected by a rigid rod of length $r$, constrained to move in the x-direction. The forces on the plates from the ...
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129 views

How does the Earth's magnetic field protect it from the solar wind?

Several sources (see linked questions at the end) say that earth's magnetic field shields us from the solar wind. The general consensus is that without earth's magnetic field, the atmosphere would be ...
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246 views

electromagnetic waves accelerating reference frame

A charge is at rest in an inertial reference frame. Consider this situation: From the point of view of an observer who is accelerating relative to the charge. Would the observer observe ...
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330 views

Is it possible to create arbitrary shapes of magnetic fields?

I've been reading about Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) which can activate neurons using a magnetic field, which got me thinking... what if we can pick and choose exactly which neurons to ...
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118 views

Can we talk about velocity field and acceleration field in 1D?

It's well know that a charged particle radiate when it is accelerated. We can rely on two different formulas. The first one it's from Jefimenkos : $$\mathbf{E}(\mathbf{r}, t) = \frac{1}{4 \pi \...
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How does $\psi(x) =\exp(\frac{iq}{\hbar}\int^xA(x')\cdot dx')\phi(x)$ remove the gauge field for a free particle?

In what sense does writing $$\psi(x) =\exp(\frac{iq}{\hbar}\int^xA(x')\cdot dx')\phi(x)$$ "formally remove the gauge field" for a free particle in the Hamiltonian $$H\psi=\frac{1}{2m}(-i\hbar\nabla -...
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Stability of a dipole magnet undergoing eddy current braking in a cylindrical tube

Consider a cylindrical dipole magnet with strength $B$ undergoing eddy current braking in a conductive cylindrical tube with the axis of the magnet aligned with the axis of the tube. The magnet ...
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Charge distribution for three connected conductor spheres

In the auxiliary material of the physics textbook of Halliday, first chapter about electrostatics, there is an example that has the following statement and solution: basically there are three ...
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Poynting vector flux in a tube (geometrical optics)

Let's consider the following tube (defined as the solid described by two arbitrary surfaces dA1 and dA2, and by all the rays which connect their boundaries): I read in a textbook that, because of ...
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Why is the generalized momentum replaced by the momentum operator but not the ordinary momentum?

I was trying to understand the derivation of the Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamiltonian_mechanics#...
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Inducing coil current by falling?

Typically, if a rod or coil is moved at a constant velocity through a constant magnetic field, a motional EMF will be induced by Faraday's Law but no current because there is no net emf or no closed ...
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What would electromagnetic field of concentric ball magnets look like?

What is the scientific consensus for what electromagnetic fields of concentric ball magnets look like? This here is a few assumptions, poles on inside diameter of hollow shell reverse polarity to the ...
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How is it possible that one face of my electromagnet produces stronger magnetic field than the other?

I work in an experimental research lab. I made an electromagnet by having the machine shop cut through a toroid core and hand-winding wire around it. The objective is to have a region of uniform ...
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Explain why the magnets move towards eachother in this setup

I have two bar magnets (actually stacks of small magnets, but I believe they should behave the same) attached to a stack of (presumably conductive) coins, and not diametrically opposite. When I ...
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Why can infinite planes be approximated as Gaussian surfaces?

A little background: I'm an undergraduate studying Electrodynamics, currently in Chapter 8 of Griffiths. A question I came across (8.4 part a for those curious) asks for a calculation of the force ...
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In Einstein's 1905 paper on electrodynamics, what he meant by energy of electromotive force?

In his 1905 paper, Einstein says that when the magnet is in motion and conductor stationary, changing magnetic field in space develops electric field "of certain definite energy", and this starts ...
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Electromagnetic field conversion in non-inertial frame

I found these equations for electromagnetic field conversion in inertial frame for non relativistic case. If I have permanent static magnetic field with 3 components $B_x, B_y, B_z$ and permanent ...
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96 views

When do Lorentz transformations take straight field lines to straight field lines?

If you look at elementary examples, it seems like a Lorentz transformation takes a field pattern with a lot of straight field lines to another field pattern with a lot of straight lines. Examples: an ...
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Why do paramagnetic materials require large fields to achieve magnetic saturation?

I'm performing an experiment on a paramagnetic sample, and the field strengths we are applying range from -7T to 7T, which are impressively large field magnitudes. However, we still are not observing ...
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Maxwell theory : How to justify the potential gauge fields if there are magnetic monopoles?

Without magnetic monopoles, the Maxwell equations are these (I'm dropping vector notations and all constants, for simplicity): \begin{align} \nabla \cdot E &= \rho_{elec}, \tag{1} \\[12pt] \nabla \...
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Is there an alternative to SIMION?

Is anyone aware of an alternative, possibly open-source, to the SIMION software? From their website: SIMION is a particle optics simulation software primarily used to calculate electric fields ...
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Dot convention inductors in series: what is going on

So I'm really confused with mutual inductors and dot convention. If your answer is going to be a link to any website I can assure I read them all and that only left me more confused. So here are my ...
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How do you measure and distinguish between E and D fields, and B and H fields

I’m pretty familiar with maxwells equations, light waves, fields and materials etc, but I’m not clear on how the the various fields are actually measured. How is this typically done? Can the fields ...
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Magnet pulling/repelling another magnet beyond the event horizon

I have read this question: If a Kerr-Newman black hole is like a charged, spinning, heavy magnet, what kind of magnet is it like? If you are carrying a magnet, can you tell when you cross the event ...
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Can the Taylor expansion of Energy/Intensity be explained more in-depth?

In reference to the question, "Why is energy in a wave proportional to amplitude?" Ben Crowell answered with the answer attached. The original post is linked here. I did not respond to the original ...
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508 views

Is the Hamiltonian of a relativistic charged particle in an electromagnetic field only an approximation?

Consider a system of two relativistic charged point particles 1 and 2 which interact through their electric and magnetic fields. The equation of motion for the first particle is then given by the ...
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Is a dipole fusion reactor feasible?

It is well known that the earth's dipole-like magnetic field is able to confine charged particles to paths that spiral along the field lines. That's why we have auroras and the Van Allen radiation ...
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Force caused by the magnetic field on the electron spin

I have read there are two ways to express the force caused by a variable magnetic field over a magnetic moment depending on the source of the magnetic moment since it can come from a dipole or a loop ...
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Non-linearities in Lagrangian of a scalar field coupled to point-like source

I have an exercise where I did not manage to understand the questions. Basically, I have this Lagrangian \begin{equation} \mathcal{L}=\frac{1}{2}(\partial \pi)^2-\frac{1}{\Lambda^3}(\partial \pi)^2\...
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What causes diamagnetism?

What makes a diamagnetic substance repel a magnet? If one explains it on the basis of cancelation of dipole moments in an atom and Lenz's law, shouldn't the diamagnetic substance be attracted to the ...
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Frequency spectrum of bremsstrahlung

I have tried to find a method to derive the spectrum of the emitted radiation of accelerated relativistic charged particles but I've never found such a method in any books. Does anyone know a method ...
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How does the “Electromagnetic Position Tracking” work, exactly?

I've been searching the web for the technology of the "Electromagnetic Position Tracking1," and have found the web to be surprisingly ineffectual! I've just came up with some preliminary and basic ...
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344 views

Inductive sensor - How does it work?

I can't understand how the system sketched here physically works: 4 = permanent magnet, with residual magnetization $B_r$ 6 = ferromagnetic core with a coil around it 7 = ferromagnetic toothed ...
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Poynting theorem on an example?

I understand the basic statement of Poynting theorem of conservation of energy relative to electromagnetic field. However, I fail to apply it to an example. Consider this classical case: ...
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Four vector potential and discrete parity transformations

I am having trouble understanding the effect of parity transformations on the four-vector gauge field (for example). I am working in three dimensions, but the analysis is probably not that different ...
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How can we calculate the number of photons in the Universe, yet a state of defined photon number has zero electric field?

The expectation value of the electric field of a state with defined photon number is zero, so any electromagnetic wave (with non-zero expectation value) must be in a superposition state of definite ...
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Does a homemade evacuated tube produce X rays?

Recently, I've bought a tiny USB powered spark gap bipolar Tesla coil (rated at 15 mA and (35-50)kV). I am a pretty interested in spectroscopy, so I played around with the tesla coil and a couple of ...