# Questions tagged [electromagnetism]

The classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, both in the static and dynamic case. Also covers general questions about magnets, electric attraction/repulsion etc. Distinct from electrical-engineering.

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### Electrodynamics textbooks that emphasize applications

Please recommend undergraduate-level textbooks on electrodynamics which emphasize practical applications and real life examples. Please describe the book's level and contents and its intended audience ...
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### What do we mean with magnetic monopole and dipole?

What do we mean with magnetic monopole and dipole? I can not find a way to relate magnetic monopoles and dipoles with electric ones. I do not understand their outcomes. Also,what is their role in ...
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### Magnets arranged in a sphere

If I was to take a bunch of magnets and arrange them in a sphere (And keep them there with glue or plastic or something) so that the north pole faces the outside of the sphere and the south pole faces ...
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### What happens to an embedded magnetic field when a black hole is formed from rotating charged dust?

Black holes have no-hair so there are uniquely specified by a mass, charge and angular momentum. Imagine a cloud of charged rotating dust. There will be a magnetic field associated with the current ...
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### Euclidean geometry in non-inertial frame

Refer, "The classical theory of Fields" by Landau&Lifshitz (Chap 3). Consider a disk of radius R, then circumference is $2 \pi R$. Now, make this disk rotate at velocity of the order of c(speed of ...
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### Expanding electromagnetic field Lagrangian in terms of gauge field

The electromagnetic field tensor is given by $F_{\mu \nu} = \partial_{\mu}A_{\nu} - \partial_{\nu}A_{\mu}$, and it appears in the Lagrangian as $$L = -\frac{1}{4}F_{\mu\nu}^2 - A_{\mu}J_{\mu}.$$ ...
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### How does a magnet work?

I'm having trouble understanding how a magnet (not the field that is generated as a result but the material itself) work. The particles are aligned in a specific direction to give rise to force but I ...
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### Why does it seem like a broken magnet's poles flip?

I just took a rare earth magnet out of an old hard drive. Lacking an appropriate screwdriver, force was used, and the magnet broke into two pieces; one about a quarter of the original size and one ...
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### Manganese has more unpaired electrons than Iron so why is Iron ferromagnetic Manganese paramagnetic?

Manganese has five unpaired electrons, but Iron has four, then why is Iron ferromagnetic and Manganese paramagnetic? What's that property I'm missing?
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### How does a photon mediate both electric attraction and repulsion?

The answer to this question probably lies in QFT, which I know just enough about to appreciate my current lack of understanding of the subject, if you follow me. About a year ago I asked our ...
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### Home experiments to derive the speed of light?

Are there any experiments I can do to derive the speed of light with only common household tools?
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### Can the Lorentz force expression be derived from Maxwell's equations?

The electromagnetic force on a charge $e$ is $$\vec F = e(\vec E + \vec v\times \vec B),$$ the Lorentz force. But, is this a separate assumption added to the full Maxwell's equations? (the ...
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### Classical EM : clear link between gauge symmetry and charge conservation

In the case of classical field theory, Noether's theorem ensures that for a given action $$S=\int \mathrm{d}^dx\,\mathcal{L}(\phi_\mu,\partial_\nu\phi_\mu,x^i)$$ that stays invariant under the ...
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### Do moving charged particles have both magnetic and electric fields?

Consider a charged particle (electron or proton) at rest. It is surrounded by its own electric field. Now consider an electron moving with certain velocity. Is there still an electric field around it?...
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### Why do accelerating electrons emit radiation?

I know how you can emit light with an alternating current, running back and forth, creating an electric field in addition to the magnetic field. But why does an electron emit light when it gets ...
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### How many photons are needed to make a light wave?

What is the smallest number of photons needed to make a "light wave"? In other words, how many (coherent?) photons start to exhibit classical behavior? For example, how many photons are needed to get ...
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### Electromagnetic field and continuous and differentiable vector fields

We have notions of derivative for a continuous and differentiable vector fields. The operations like curl,divergence etc. have well defined precise notions for these fields. We know electrostatic and ...
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### The equivalent electric field of a magnetic field

I know that Lorentz force for a charge $q$, with velocity $\vec{v}$ in magnetic field $\vec{B}$ is given by $$\vec{F} =q \vec{v} \times \vec{B}$$ but there will exist a frame of reference where ...
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### Why doesn't this perpetual motion machine using magnets work?

See image: If I'm not totally dumb the car would move when the right magnet would not be attached to the car, at same distance of the booth magnets. So why would it not move?
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### What is the mechanism by which magnetic fields do work?

I've seen some conflicted answers to this question in texts and on the web, in the case of a dipole, for example. Do magnetic fields do work directly, or is it their induced electric fields that do ...
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### Charging a black hole?

What would happen if we have a black hole and we start shooting at it a single electron at a time, and go on doing it forever? Would the electrons start to bounce off eventually?
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### Do composite particles that are electrically neutral but have charged constituents radiate?

For example an electron radiates when accelerated. So does a positron. But is the radiation emitted by accelerated positronium the sum of the radiation emitted by each separately? If not, why not? If ...
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### Can magnetic fields be redirected and focused at one point?

I know that magnetic fields can be redirected, but... given a situation where you have static magnetic field over a large area, and you want to quickly change the magnetic field strength. Is it ...
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### Can a light be bent by a magnetic field?

I'm struck with two competing ideas on the question in the title. Listing #1: How far can a magnetic field bend light? A: Unfortunately, the path light takes is not affected by the presence of a ...
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### Gauge Invariance of the Hamiltonian of the electromagnetic field

The Hamiltonian for an electron of mass $m$ and charge $e$ in an exterior electromagnetic field is $$H=\frac{1}{2m}(p-(e/c)A)^2+e\varphi.$$ The corresponding (via canonical quantization) quantum ...
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### Why doesn't this magnetic perpetual motion machine work?

I know that this machine does not work, via thermodynamics. I am asking for an analysis in terms of mechanics and magnetism. Anyway, so here is the machine: (source: cabinetmagazine.org) The ...
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### How does quantum trapping with diamagnets work?

I just saw this demonstration by someone from a Tel Aviv University lab. What they achieved there is mind blowing. I myself own a levitron that uses the Hall effect to levitate a magnet, the problem ...
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### What prevents an atom's electrons from “collapsing” onto its protons? [duplicate]

Forgive me if the answer to this is obvious. I have no formal physics training, and I remember that when I asked my physics teacher this, she just frowned and said "Good question." An electron is ...
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### Popular depictions of electromagnetic wave: is there an error?

Here are some depictions of electromagnetic wave, similar to the depictions in other places: Isn't there an error? It is logical to presume that the electric field should have maximum when magnetic ...
### How do we prove that the 4-current $j^\mu$ transforms like $x^\mu$ under Lorentz transformation?
Given that the position vector $\textbf{r}$ to be a vector under rotation, we mean that it transforms under rotation as $\textbf{r}^\prime=\mathbb{R}\textbf{r}$. Now, taking two time-derivatives of it,...