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Questions tagged [electrochemistry]

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution).

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Batteries operation [on hold]

Why anions created from ionization are reduced to neutral atoms since the electron affinity of the elements which are the anions with one extra electron is negative?
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Why are(n’t) rechargeable batteries damaged by partial charging?

Originally asked in ElectricalEngineering.SE, but I was told Physics.SE might be a better place to ask. Over the years, I've come across websites and people with different opinions on the "correct" ...
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Bond Type in Orthophosphate

How can we find out the bond nature in LiBaPO4 by using charge transfer values obtained through DFT calculations?
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1answer
18 views

Charge density of sea water

If sea water contains salt ions and some H+ and OH- ions, what are the charge density of a certain volume of sea water? And is there a way to calculate?
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Electrons and wires [duplicate]

The electrons that carry the electric energy are in wires or in the battery ? battery provides a potential difference but from where electrons flow to make for example a bulb light. If they flow from ...
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2answers
59 views

From where electrons flow to make a bulb light?

Suppose we have the "basic" stuff like a battery 2 piece of wire and a bulb. Battery has a potential difference. But from where electrons flow to make the bulb light? from wire or from battery or from ...
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1answer
24 views

Faradays law of electrolysis history [closed]

what actually farday predict about electric charge,would he measured the value of that.i could not understand that how he predict about the existence of charge on atomic particles from his experiment ...
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2answers
75 views

$V = 4 volts$ but $I = 0$

Recently in my school, I tried to generate electricity from plants in a flower pot with copper and Zinc electrodes. The Potential difference in the voltmeter read 2 to 3 volts but when I connected the ...
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2answers
24 views

What is the advantage of stacking the electrocytes? Of having the stacks side by side?

Electric rays (genus Torpedo) can deliver electric shocks to stun their prey and to discourage predators. The voltage is produced by thin, wafer￾like cells called electrocytes, each of which acts as a ...
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1answer
22 views

Hydrogen oxygen fuel cells

In hydrogen - oxygen fuel cell, the electrode used is carbon electrode.Hydrogen is passed through through the anode compartment where it is oxidised. Oxygen is passed through the cathode compartment ...
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0answers
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Field between 2 electrodes experiment

We were asked to conduct an experiment that is as follows: Connect 4.5V constant voltage across 2 electrodes of thin Cu wire, dipped in a tub of copper sulfate solution. A needle is connected to a ...
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1answer
62 views

How can a battery 'come back to life'?

Earlier today, one of my family drained our car's battery by accident, by leaving the lights on too long. It wouldn't start at all, so they had to walk back home from where the car was parked (a few ...
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1answer
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When DC current flows through salty water, how does the current flow? How can you tune the (narowness of) the path?

Consider this very simple and well-known experiment with dirty/salty water: The light bulb turns on, and current is flowing. How can you know how this current is exactly flowing, and how the electric ...
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1answer
96 views

Factors affecting Battery Voltage

How do batteries produce a certain voltage, such as 1.5V or 9 V? From what I understand, battery EMF comes from oxidation of the anode, which releases electrons that can flow through a circuit. But ...
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1answer
38 views

Is there an equation for a solution's electrical conduction as temperature varies?

I'm looking for an equation that determines a solution's ability to conduct electricity as temperature varies, that hopefully could offer insight to a salt water experiment. I did an experiment ...
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0answers
17 views

Warburg impedance formula in the Laplace domain

I'am looking for the Warburg impedance formula in the Laplace domain. Online I found only formula with angular frequency: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_element https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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Why oxygen bubbles are larger than hydrogen bubbles during water electrolysis?

During water electrolysis, I found the oxygen bubbles are usually larger than the hydrogen bubbles. I think the reason is because different gases have different contact angles. The contact angle of ...
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1answer
225 views

Potential difference between two electrodes in an electrochemical cell

In an electrochemical cell, let's say you have a zinc and zinc ion half-cell as well as a copper and copper ion half-cell: The zinc electrode (or anode) dissolves into zinc ions while the copper ions ...
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5answers
555 views

At an atomic level, what happens when you connect two batteries in series so that their voltages are added?

I can't for the life of me figure this out. I feel like i'm missing some crucial detail about how batteries work. Imagine two batteries connected in series, like this: ...
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By shortening the N-type side to the P-type side of a diode with a wire, how does the electric potential looks like in each point of this circuit?

To avoid misunderstanding I'll first start with the notions. The electrochemical potential (which in semiconductors refers to as the Fermi level) is the sum of the chemical potential and electrical ...
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1answer
228 views

Why should potassium serve to stabilize a welding arc?

Of the many types of electric arc welding electrodes, there are two that consist of a steel core surrounded by a coating of “High cellulose sodium” and “High cellulose potassium.” The web sites (for ...
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1answer
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Why doesn't the potential difference of a battery diminish when charge flows? [closed]

I want to know, when the charges travel from higher potential to lower potential of battery through the circuit then the potential difference must diminish. As it was previously made by keeping more ...
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0answers
24 views

Why does the Anode and not the Cathode corode during eletrolysis of water into $H_2$ and $O_2$?

After experimenting with the production of Hydrogen from salt water, I kept on noticing that the Anode (-) gets coroded and not the Cathode (+). Is it perhaps that water in itself is a naturaly ...
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2answers
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Resistance of car battery

In my textbook, it is given that internal resistance of a car battery increases with decreasing temperature. But car batteries contain lead, which is a metal, and hence the resistance should decrease. ...
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1answer
55 views

What should be continuous at the interface of two materials, electric potential chemical potential or electrochemical potential?

At the interface between: 1) conductor/conductor 2) conductor/semiconductor (or dielectric) 3) semiconductor/semiconductor (or dielectric/dielectric) What quantity should be continuous? Is it the ...
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How is voltage induced in polarizable electrodes by ionic current?

I'm hoping to gain a technical but still intuitive understanding -- the literature I've found is either a bit general or directly goes to derivations. When a microelectrode is placed close to a ...
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1answer
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What happens when a non-rechargeable battery runs out?

In a simple DC circuit, a battery creates a potential difference by a chemical process. This potential difference exerts a force on the free electrons present in the conductor inducing a current. When ...
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1answer
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Ionisation of hydrogen

Is ionization of hydrogen gas atoms possible? I separated hydrogen from water by electrolysis but I want to obtain H+, how do I ionize that hydrogen gas? Is it possible to do it?
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Standard Gibbs - Temperature effects

The common teaching is that Gibbs Free Energy is calculated by the following: $$dG=dH-TdS$$ And: $$dG(T)=dH_o-TdS_o$$ Where $G_o$ is the Gibbs at a temperature 'T' and standard pressure/...
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What is the energetic efficiency of generating and storing $H_2$ and $O_2$, from water, for a later use?

I have an electrolysis related question. Lets call "$E_i$" the energy needed to achieve the decomposition potential to make electrolysis happen in a certain amount of water, storing both the ...
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0answers
26 views

Will a brief current generate if I connect with a conducting wire two pieces of elements with a large electronegativity difference?

I'm studying how voltaic cells behave and how batteries were invented. I read this article on the scientific american, and it explains that if you connect a piece of zinc with a piece of copper ...
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1answer
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How can I use multi-meter to measure the resistance of a solution?

I want to measure the resistance of saltwater solution. I am using a multimeter but I do not know how to use it to measure the resistance. Please help
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1answer
29 views

Where do voltages come from in solutions?

I have a clear understanding about how you can use thermodynamics to show that different electrode-solution pairs exist at different electric potentials... One can go through a few equations and ...
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39 views

Applicability of “generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck” and “Concentrated Solution Theory”

Following the classical book Electrochemical Systems by Newman and Thomas-Alyea (2004), it seems that chapter 12 (Concentrated Solutions) describes the species transport in concentrated solutions in a ...
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1answer
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Working of an electrochemical cell?

This is how I understand the working of an electrochemical cell: We have two beakers, the first contains a zinc road immersed in zinc sulfate solution and the second one is provided with a copper road ...
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1answer
478 views

Why is the electric field created by a battery non-conservative?

Electromotive force(emf) or $\mathcal{E}$ is defined as $$\mathcal{E} = \oint \frac{\vec{F}}{q} \cdot \mathrm{d}\vec{s}$$ Here, $\vec{F}$ is the force which pushes the charges through a conducting ...
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2answers
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What is the difference between the way the brain sends signals as opposed to how an electronic device sends signals? [closed]

As I understand it, a brain communicates through sending signals via ions and chemical reactions resulting in concentrations of ions, a computer sends signals by electrons. I'm really trying to do 3 ...
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159 views

Is the positive terminal of a battery positively charged?

I'll like to use a sensitive gadget that can detect electrostatic charge to test whether the +ve terminal of a battery is positively charge. The -ve terminal may need to be earthed. Is there such a ...
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Could electricity work with a flow of particles other than electrons?

Would a flow of positrons be theoretically possible? A flow of protons?
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1answer
145 views

How can a chemical gradient oppose an electrical gradient?

I'm a physicist taking a class on cell biology and we are currently discussing the concept of an electrochemical gradient, the difference in potential (voltage) and chemical concentrations across a ...
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162 views

Open circuit voltage of a DSSC

The open-circuit photovoltage, VOC, of a DSC is equal to the difference between the quasi-Fermi level in the TiO2 layer (which is in equilibrium with the Fermi level in the TCO) and the redox Fermi ...
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1answer
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Can anyone explain this condensation pattern?

What is the hair-like "polymer" that condenses on the caps of the plastic cell vial? Inside vial are cells in a mixture of FBS and DMSO. The vials were frozen slowly in a special isopropanol-filled ...
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2answers
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Can the energy of electrochemical gradient be transformed into electromagnetic radiation?

Imagine an impermeable wall between two aqueous solutions containing positively charged ions. If the ion concentrations differ on two sides of the wall, an electric potential energy is stored in the ...
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2answers
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Does the negative terminal of a battery have greater electron concentration then the positive terminal?

Does the negative terminal of a battery have greater electron concentration then the positive terminal? Else how would charge start flowing once a conducting wire is connected?
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3answers
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Does current run forever in water? (assuming the supply voltage is there forever)

Suppose pH of water is $6$, I think this means there is one $\text{H}^{+}$ ion for every $10^6$ water molecules. When we plug in the battery, I believe we see a current as the $\text{H}^{+}$ ions ...
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2answers
94 views

Why do batteries in series add up in voltage? (real explanation requested)

This has been asked before but I need to be clear on what kind of answer I'm looking for. All the other posts are just water analogies. I get it, you add the voltages together. And there's a magical ...
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1answer
241 views

breakdown voltage in vacuum

I was trying to use the paschen's law to calculate the breakdown voltage for our vacuum chamber. Our pressure is 10^-8 torr, and distance was 3mm. However, I cannot do it because Paschen only worked ...
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1answer
339 views

Why is the voltage in my battery rising?

While playing with some 9 volt batteries in a series circuit, I noticed that the voltage of the battery as measured by my voltmeter was increasing at a constant rate. After placing a bulb in my ...
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1answer
92 views

Does this kind of circuit work?

I am going to see if having electric voltage through fruit will slow the decay. So I have my treatment set up here: and I am going to wrap this so that: However, my teacher told me that this might ...
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Does the knowledge of a material's atomic structure provide sufficient data to predict its behavior with matter?

What are the properties of a material on an atomic point of view that define its behavior? The whole world around us consists of atoms of varying numbers of electrons, protons and neutrons. Suppose ...