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Questions tagged [electrochemistry]

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution).

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How to calculate the chemical potential for a 2D lattice gas with excluded volume?

The chemical potential of a 2D lattice gas is given by $\mu = k_bTln(\frac{c}{(1-c)q}) $ , where c is the concentration of particles on the lattice, T is the temperature, and $k_b $ is the ...
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Kinetic energy and current

When a battery is connected to a resistance circuit, we know that it loses energy because heat is emitted as a result of the collisions between the electrons and stuff, but my question is, is the ...
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1answer
16 views

Relationship between concentration and resistance of aqueous solutions

I'm a senior physics/chemistry student working on a practical assignment where I am trying to identify the resistance of CuSO4 in solution (distilled water). I have recorded my data and determined it ...
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35 views

Assumptions for Nernst Equation

While I am familiar with some of the conditions for the Nernst Equation, for example: 1) "The membrane is only permeable to one ion even if there are several other ions in the system" there is an ...
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1answer
39 views

How do electrons gain energy in a cell?

When electrons reach the positive terminal, how does the cell do work on them? I’ve read in a book that states voltage is literally the push that the cell exerts on electrons, which thus does work on ...
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Resistivity of dielectric liquids

I was wondering if anyone here knows how the resistivity values of highly resistive dielectric liquids have been determined since the best commercial conductivity sensor I can find online only ...
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114 views

Nernst Equation and Energy

I have a question regarding the Nernst equation and energy in a system. I know this is also a chemistry question, but I was interested in the thermodynamics (the energy of a system), so I decided to ...
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26 views

Explain how chemical bond energy is ultimately converted to electrical energy

I can understand how a cell develops emf, why the electron flows between the battery terminals. I do not understand, How the chemical bond energy is transformed to electrical energy? What are the ...
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31 views

Why is an electrodes standard reduction potential does not depend on amount of chemicals?

The standard reduction potential is fixed for the type of chemical reaction. Why is it so? Why is an emf of a cell or an electrode's Standard reduction potential does not depend on say, quantity of ...
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55 views

What happens when I connect the negative terminal of a power source to a metal electrode ? Do electrons flow into or out of the metal electrode?

I am basically trying to understand a concept in electrochemistry. I have a power source and am connecting the negative end of the power source to a working electrode (metal electrode). Will electrons ...
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1answer
19 views

Question about electrochemical reaction in fuel cell

The electrochemical reaction on the anode side of a fuel cell can be expressed as hydrogen split into hydrogen protons and electrons. I'm doing some research about the electrochemical reaction in a ...
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24 views

Electronegative - Electropositive atoms can attract ions?

Well I was just wondering how a copper-zinc battery works, with electrolyte an equilibrium of water and NaOH. It says that NaOH is dissolved (I understand that) into water forming H$_4$O$_8$Na+ ions ...
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Why are(n’t) rechargeable batteries damaged by partial charging?

Originally asked in ElectricalEngineering.SE, but I was told Physics.SE might be a better place to ask. Over the years, I've come across websites and people with different opinions on the "correct" ...
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Bond Type in Orthophosphate

How can we find out the bond nature in LiBaPO4 by using charge transfer values obtained through DFT calculations?
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33 views

Charge density of sea water

If sea water contains salt ions and some H+ and OH- ions, what are the charge density of a certain volume of sea water? And is there a way to calculate?
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Electrons and wires [duplicate]

The electrons that carry the electric energy are in wires or in the battery ? battery provides a potential difference but from where electrons flow to make for example a bulb light. If they flow from ...
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2answers
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From where electrons flow to make a bulb light?

Suppose we have the "basic" stuff like a battery 2 piece of wire and a bulb. Battery has a potential difference. But from where electrons flow to make the bulb light? from wire or from battery or from ...
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1answer
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Faradays law of electrolysis history [closed]

what actually farday predict about electric charge,would he measured the value of that.i could not understand that how he predict about the existence of charge on atomic particles from his experiment ...
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$V = 4 volts$ but $I = 0$

Recently in my school, I tried to generate electricity from plants in a flower pot with copper and Zinc electrodes. The Potential difference in the voltmeter read 2 to 3 volts but when I connected the ...
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2answers
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What is the advantage of stacking the electrocytes? Of having the stacks side by side?

Electric rays (genus Torpedo) can deliver electric shocks to stun their prey and to discourage predators. The voltage is produced by thin, wafer￾like cells called electrocytes, each of which acts as a ...
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Hydrogen oxygen fuel cells

In hydrogen - oxygen fuel cell, the electrode used is carbon electrode.Hydrogen is passed through through the anode compartment where it is oxidised. Oxygen is passed through the cathode compartment ...
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0answers
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Field between 2 electrodes experiment

We were asked to conduct an experiment that is as follows: Connect 4.5V constant voltage across 2 electrodes of thin Cu wire, dipped in a tub of copper sulfate solution. A needle is connected to a ...
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1answer
70 views

How can a battery 'come back to life'?

Earlier today, one of my family drained our car's battery by accident, by leaving the lights on too long. It wouldn't start at all, so they had to walk back home from where the car was parked (a few ...
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1answer
38 views

When DC current flows through salty water, how does the current flow? How can you tune the (narowness of) the path?

Consider this very simple and well-known experiment with dirty/salty water: The light bulb turns on, and current is flowing. How can you know how this current is exactly flowing, and how the electric ...
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1answer
203 views

Factors affecting Battery Voltage

How do batteries produce a certain voltage, such as 1.5V or 9 V? From what I understand, battery EMF comes from oxidation of the anode, which releases electrons that can flow through a circuit. But ...
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1answer
39 views

Is there an equation for a solution's electrical conduction as temperature varies?

I'm looking for an equation that determines a solution's ability to conduct electricity as temperature varies, that hopefully could offer insight to a salt water experiment. I did an experiment ...
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Warburg impedance formula in the Laplace domain

I'am looking for the Warburg impedance formula in the Laplace domain. Online I found only formula with angular frequency: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warburg_element https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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Why oxygen bubbles are larger than hydrogen bubbles during water electrolysis?

During water electrolysis, I found the oxygen bubbles are usually larger than the hydrogen bubbles. I think the reason is because different gases have different contact angles. The contact angle of ...
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1answer
733 views

Potential difference between two electrodes in an electrochemical cell

In an electrochemical cell, let's say you have a zinc and zinc ion half-cell as well as a copper and copper ion half-cell: The zinc electrode (or anode) dissolves into zinc ions while the copper ions ...
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5answers
624 views

At an atomic level, what happens when you connect two batteries in series so that their voltages are added?

I can't for the life of me figure this out. I feel like i'm missing some crucial detail about how batteries work. Imagine two batteries connected in series, like this: ...
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By shortening the N-type side to the P-type side of a diode with a wire, how does the electric potential looks like in each point of this circuit?

To avoid misunderstanding I'll first start with the notions. The electrochemical potential (which in semiconductors refers to as the Fermi level) is the sum of the chemical potential and electrical ...
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1answer
455 views

Why should potassium serve to stabilize a welding arc?

Of the many types of electric arc welding electrodes, there are two that consist of a steel core surrounded by a coating of “High cellulose sodium” and “High cellulose potassium.” The web sites (for ...
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1answer
77 views

Why doesn't the potential difference of a battery diminish when charge flows? [closed]

I want to know, when the charges travel from higher potential to lower potential of battery through the circuit then the potential difference must diminish. As it was previously made by keeping more ...
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0answers
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Why does the Anode and not the Cathode corode during eletrolysis of water into $H_2$ and $O_2$?

After experimenting with the production of Hydrogen from salt water, I kept on noticing that the Anode (-) gets coroded and not the Cathode (+). Is it perhaps that water in itself is a naturaly ...
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2answers
125 views

Resistance of car battery

In my textbook, it is given that internal resistance of a car battery increases with decreasing temperature. But car batteries contain lead, which is a metal, and hence the resistance should decrease. ...
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1answer
63 views

What should be continuous at the interface of two materials, electric potential chemical potential or electrochemical potential?

At the interface between: 1) conductor/conductor 2) conductor/semiconductor (or dielectric) 3) semiconductor/semiconductor (or dielectric/dielectric) What quantity should be continuous? Is it the ...
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1answer
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What happens when a non-rechargeable battery runs out?

In a simple DC circuit, a battery creates a potential difference by a chemical process. This potential difference exerts a force on the free electrons present in the conductor inducing a current. When ...
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1answer
297 views

Ionisation of hydrogen

Is ionization of hydrogen gas atoms possible? I separated hydrogen from water by electrolysis but I want to obtain H+, how do I ionize that hydrogen gas? Is it possible to do it?
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Will a brief current generate if I connect with a conducting wire two pieces of elements with a large electronegativity difference?

I'm studying how voltaic cells behave and how batteries were invented. I read this article on the scientific american, and it explains that if you connect a piece of zinc with a piece of copper ...
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1answer
32 views

How can I use multi-meter to measure the resistance of a solution?

I want to measure the resistance of saltwater solution. I am using a multimeter but I do not know how to use it to measure the resistance. Please help
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29 views

Where do voltages come from in solutions?

I have a clear understanding about how you can use thermodynamics to show that different electrode-solution pairs exist at different electric potentials... One can go through a few equations and ...
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1answer
50 views

Working of an electrochemical cell?

This is how I understand the working of an electrochemical cell: We have two beakers, the first contains a zinc road immersed in zinc sulfate solution and the second one is provided with a copper road ...
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1answer
656 views

Why is the electric field created by a battery non-conservative?

Electromotive force(emf) or $\mathcal{E}$ is defined as $$\mathcal{E} = \oint \frac{\vec{F}}{q} \cdot \mathrm{d}\vec{s}$$ Here, $\vec{F}$ is the force which pushes the charges through a conducting ...
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What is the difference between the way the brain sends signals as opposed to how an electronic device sends signals? [closed]

As I understand it, a brain communicates through sending signals via ions and chemical reactions resulting in concentrations of ions, a computer sends signals by electrons. I'm really trying to do 3 ...
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78 views

Could electricity work with a flow of particles other than electrons?

Would a flow of positrons be theoretically possible? A flow of protons?
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1answer
207 views

How can a chemical gradient oppose an electrical gradient?

I'm a physicist taking a class on cell biology and we are currently discussing the concept of an electrochemical gradient, the difference in potential (voltage) and chemical concentrations across a ...
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174 views

Chemistry of electrical conductivity of pure water

I understand the electrical conductivity of pure water is very low, but not zero, and is due to the slight number of H+ and OH- ions naturally present. I understand that they will move under the ...
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1answer
76 views

Can anyone explain this condensation pattern?

What is the hair-like "polymer" that condenses on the caps of the plastic cell vial? Inside vial are cells in a mixture of FBS and DMSO. The vials were frozen slowly in a special isopropanol-filled ...
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Can the energy of electrochemical gradient be transformed into electromagnetic radiation?

Imagine an impermeable wall between two aqueous solutions containing positively charged ions. If the ion concentrations differ on two sides of the wall, an electric potential energy is stored in the ...
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Does the negative terminal of a battery have greater electron concentration then the positive terminal?

Does the negative terminal of a battery have greater electron concentration then the positive terminal? Else how would charge start flowing once a conducting wire is connected?