Questions tagged [electrochemistry]

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution).

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How Does Electrical Work Change Internal Energy of the System?

I know this stack exchange may not be the most appropriate to ask this question and it is better to ask it at chemistry stack exchange. However, I got no satisfying answers there so I figured I'll ...
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What does a battery produce? Is it Electric Potential Difference (EPD) or Electro Motive Force (EMF)?

I have read a lot of posts about Electro Motive Force, Electric Potential Difference and their differences, but I still confused. What I know is that EMF produces a EPD and keeps it constant, then ...
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Why does the potential across the terminals of battery increase on moving from negative terminal to positive terminal?

I really want to know that how does battery create a potential difference across the circuit. When we cross the battery from its negative terminal to positive terminal the potential rises by the ...
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What kind of morphology is best suited for $\rm ZnO$ nanoparticles for them to have great piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, after doping?

I am working on a project where I'll be synthesizing doped $\rm ZnO$ nanoparticles. For the time being, I'm researching to find a good dopant which is rather unique and less worked on but promising. I ...
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Is a negative absolute reduction potential impossible?

The lower the reduction potential of species, the lower the ionization energy of the species. Reduction potential is a species ability to gain electrons, and its "counterforce" is oxidation ...
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Why the electric field inside the battery (when connected to a circuit) opposes the electric field into the wire?

I mean yea, ok, it makes sense inside the battery to point from + to -, but what the physical meaning of being opposite to the current flow (or the E-field inside the wire) is? For the sake of ...
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43 views

How the electric potential changes with $r$?

I have the following experiment shown in the image. I fix the positive terminal of the multimeter and change the negative terminal, from $r = 0$ to $r = 24$ cm. I get an approximate linear ...
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36 views

Can direct current split $\rm NaCl$ in your body into Sodium and Chlorine?

We can split Sodium Chloride into Sodium and Chlorine through electrolysis by passing a current through the solution. But what if we were accidentally letting a Direct Current flow through our body, ...
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What's happening to the potential energy of electrons after they left battery?

friends. I am new in the electrical field so I must show my guided point of sides that related to my question before I ask it, for understanding how I think. first, let's begin with the battery, I ...
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Possible to use alcali solution to discharge static electricity?

My question may contain wrong assumptions: I believe static electricity present in a workshop because of friction may be caused by electrons or negative ions I believe that it is somehow possible to ...
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1answer
35 views

Why does the high charge density of a proton prevent it from existing alone in a solution?

My chemistry lecture notes say that when an acid is in a solution, it can give off protons, but only when there is another molecule that can accept those protons. It is said that the reason why the ...
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Discharging of a rechargeable battery

When we connect a load to a battery what is the reason of moving electron to load? Is it correct to say because in charging we forced positive ions to placed in anode, when we connect two electrodes ...
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How does cold make batteries drain faster yet simultaneously they should be refrigerated to keep a charge?

I have always known via common knowledge that batteries drain quicker when it's cold. I've been told it's best to keep them in an inner pocket close to body heat when outdoors (e.g., batteries for ...
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In a new unconnected battery, has a chemical reaction already occurred to cause excess electrons on anode end?

REACTION 1: When I buy a new unconnected alkaline cell, has a chemical reaction already occurred on anode end which releases electrons on anode end? REACTION 2: Also, in the same new unconnected state ...
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236 views

Fundamentals: The role of Battery in a circuit

As I understood, the analogy of a charge moving through a circuit is similar to water flowing from a high altitude to a low altitude (like waterfalls). But in waterfalls there are two requirements if ...
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What happens when a battery discharges?

Questions I am interested in: What determines the amount of current a battery can supply? What changes when a battery discharges - voltage, max current, or both? What is the best predictor of the ...
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72 views

Conceptual understanding of how a battery ensures that a capacitor has the same potential difference as it?

I was wondering how exactly a battery is able to ensure that a capacitor connected to it would have the same potential difference as it. Like, thinking about a battery similarly to a capacitor, I ...
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1answer
40 views

Would increasing separation of terminals of a battery increase potential differnce?

If my understanding is correct, the chemical reaction in a battery is basically a conveyor belt that moves electrons from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery until the electric field ...
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Charging of a capacitor by battery

I know that a battery does work when it takes positive charge from one plate of capacitor and deposits it to the other plate, thereby creating equal and oppositely charged plates having electric field ...
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Temporal evolution and dynamics of free ions and charges in an electrolytic cell

I am interested in the dynamics of ions in an electrolytic cell. For example, consider two electrodes connected with a battery, in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Initial state: the circuit is ...
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91 views

How does the electrochemical potential within a battery work at the level of basic E&M?

The explanations that I've seen for how batteries work (like this one) tend to go along these lines: One electrode "has an electrochemical potential that makes it want to give up electrons" ...
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38 views

Why internal resistance increase with drop in temperature but External resistance decreases with decrease in temperature? [closed]

Why does internal resistance of a battery increases with drop in temperature but opposite happens if it is external resistance and if both happens simultaneously then why is the effect not cancelled? ...
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1answer
35 views

Are the potentials of the electrolytes equal in Galvanic cell?

My book defines Electrode Potential for a Galvanic Cell as follows: A potential difference that develops between the electrode and the electrolyte is called Electrode Potential $$E= V_{electrode} - ...
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Does membrane permeability affect the equilibrium reached by two different concentrations of equally charged ions?

I'm asking this question to aid understanding of the formation of membrane potential in a cell from electrochemical gradients of ions e.g. why the membrane potential is skewed towards the equilibrium ...
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1answer
736 views

Why does alkaline battery is more likely to damage quartz clock? [closed]

When I purchase a quartz table/wall clock, most of the time it has a sticker saying not to use alkaline battery and from this quora question. There is also mixed thought about this but in theory (I ...
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Why least active metals have highest conductivity

Metals like copper, gold,silver hold the lowest spot in chemical reactivity series ie; they show more tendency to get reduced than any other metal; but in terms of electrical conductivity they hold ...
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Calculating surface charge in Thomas-Fermi layer

My understanding is that chemical potential at the surface of a bulk crystal is concentrated at, and would be described by, the Thomas-Fermi Layer (see Ad-atoms and underpotential): https://www....
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830 views

In a circuit, does a battery create electrons which it 'injects' into the copper wire? [duplicate]

Are electrons created from a battery and then 'injected' into the copper wire? If no, does that mean the battery loses power because the copper wire has run out of free electrons?
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How would a light bulb filled with $H_2$ gas behave?

I am modifying light bulbs trying to use unique bottles and jars for the envelope. I was thinking I could prevent the filament from oxidizing by removing all $O_2$ before sealing it, and an easy way ...
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Will diamagnetic levitation impede chemical reactions?

Scientists have shown that mice and frogs can be lifted using diamagnetic levitation (since they repel the magnetic field). But I'm wondering if diamagnetic levitation could be harmful to creatures ...
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1answer
71 views

Continuity of electric displacement field inside ion solution

I am trying to model transport of ions (calcium, potassium, chloride etc.) in water. The ions move because of the influence of diffusion and electric force and can be modeled by the Poisson-Nernst-...
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3answers
170 views

Confusion in definition of emf

The emf of a cell is defined as the work done per unit positive charge in taking it around the complete circuit of the cell (i.e. in the wire outside the cell and the electrolyte within the cell). But ...
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How does a battery create potential difference? [duplicate]

I'm in year 10 (9th Grade for the Americans) and I just had a question about physics. How does a battery create potential difference? It it because the electrons are gaining energy as they get pulled ...
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35 views

Can a voltmeter itself disturb the electrochemical potential of battery?

I'm trying to understand the effect on a system when a voltage of a system is measured by connecting a voltmeter. For example let's say we are trying to measure the voltage of a Li-ion battery. The ...
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1answer
44 views

Electric Battery

Some say that the battery supplies charge, some say that it only maintains potential difference, I've also heard that it maintains an electric field in the wire. I'm confused. What does battery ...
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56 views

Battery voltage jump when applying constant current

When a constant current is applied to a battery, its voltage jumps by a huge amount in a moment. It jumps up if we apply constant charge current and down if we apply constant discharge current. I know ...
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1answer
63 views

Green Aurora Light: Experimental Replication?

From what I've read, the green light found in the earth's auroras is the result of a reaction between oxygen and nitrogen (supposedly a new element was once proposed to explain it until the science ...
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3answers
239 views

Why doesn't a chemical reaction occur with the movement of electrons in the context of electricity?

In school it is generally taught that the movement of electrons between two atoms causes a chemical reaction. However, when it comes to electricity why doesn't a chemical reaction occur with the ...
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1answer
39 views

Do people work on improving battery efficiency by increasing entropy difference?

I have been reading a Daniel Schroeder's book called "An introduction to Thermal physics", and after having completed first couple of paragraphs of "Free energy as available work" (...
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1answer
100 views

Can electricity pass through a flat battery? [closed]

Let’s say there are 4 batteries in series in a circuit connected to a bulb. One of the battery is flat. Can the bulb still light up? I’m so confused now.
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Formulating electric potential in a battery

The electric potential $V$ around an electric field $E$ can be described with this formula: $$V=Ed$$ where $d$ is the distance from an electric charge. Now, if I recall it correctly from ...
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1answer
31 views

Does potassium ions have a longer range attraction than sodium ions or hydrogen ions?

Electronegativity decreases with period in in the periodic table. The explanation for that is because the distance to the nucleus decreases with each orbital shell of electrons, if I got that right. ...
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4answers
131 views

Why exactly do we feel a shock when we place our hand into a conducting solution?

I have a very naive question. Suppose you have pure water in a flask, and you place two ends of a copper wire (which are connected to a battery) into the water. If you were to place your hand into the ...
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2answers
409 views

Confusion between positive and negative terminals of a battery

I am confused that whether the positive terminal in physics refers just to a higher potential or a positive charge. This also comes from the fact that anode and cathode are differently charged in ...
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1answer
210 views

Lemon Battery Voltage Increase

Suppose I have 2 lemons each with a zinc nail and a penny for electrodes and I wire them up in series so that Nail-A passes through a load and connects to Penny-B and Nail-B connects to Penny-A. I ...
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1answer
207 views

What is the non-electrostatic force exerted on an electron in the given scenario?

My teacher was explaining emf to me and he was using an example of a simple electrolytic cell. In this example the two electrodes had been placed in the same solution and had been connected by a wire. ...
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2answers
108 views

What exactly happens when $\rm NaCl$ water conducts electricity? [closed]

Assume a DC power source with $2$ electrodes made of Fe. We dip those $2$ electrodes into table salt water. What happens exactly? Will $H^+$ and $Na^+$ migrate to the negative electrode by ...
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1answer
523 views

Will earthing an aluminium boat reduce the rate of hull corrosion?

First question here as I am having trouble getting a decent answer anywhere else, such as boat service workshops etc. I wish to reduce corrosion on an aluminium hull over its lifetime, hence this ...
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1answer
43 views

Why does a battery voltage depend on its state of charge?

I know that measuring the open-circuit voltage gives a good indication of the state of charge of a battery, both for rechargeables and single-use. But why is this so? As far as I can see the voltage ...
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73 views

What is the strength of current in electrolytes?

if a battery is connected to an electrolytic cell, what is the magnitude of the current in the electrolyte compared to the the magnitude of the current in the wire? This doesn't make sense to me ...

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