Questions tagged [electric-circuits]

An electronic system, with closed loop current flow, and relative electrical potentials present across electrical components.

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5k views

How are the CPU power and temperature caculated/estimated?

From Wikipedia The power consumed by a CPU, is approximately proportional to CPU frequency, and to the square of the CPU voltage: $$ P = C V^2 f $$ (where C is capacitance, f is frequency ...
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Cyclist's electrical tingling under power lines

It's been happening to me for years. I finally decided to ask users who are better with "practical physics" when I was told that my experience – that I am going to describe momentarily – prove that I ...
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Does using batteries in a series raise the overall Wh's of the batteries used? Why/Why Not?

If one has 2 batteries of 6 Volts each with 500 mAh each, then separately the batteries should provide 6 Volts * 500 mAh = 3 Wh each or 6 Wh total. However would it be the case that if someone where ...
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1answer
759 views

Emf Of a Cell in a common circuit

My questions will be based on the above figure. The Emf Source V1 and R1 Together form a cell(R1 is internal resistance) R2 Represents the entire load on the source VoltMeter My teacher told us ...
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RC circuit theory and voltage in the capacitor vs Ohm's Law

Consider a simple series RC circuit at steady state (capacitor is full). I've been told that once the capacitor is full we can literally "cut" the circuit because no current can flow. That ...
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1answer
116 views

Measure the voltage of a resistor without error

We have a simple circuit given, a resistor $R_x$ and a fixed current source with $I = 50 \, \mathrm{\mu A}$. Now over the resistor there is a currentmeter which has an internal resistance. In any case ...
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Lightbulbs in circuits. Why does the current go UP? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why does the light bulb's brightness decrease? So I have a circuit in the picture with three resistors. If I were to remove/disconnect $R_2$ from the circuit, what would ...
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Why connect cells in parallel?

Say there is a circuit with two $1.5\ V$ cells and a $100 \ \Omega$ resistor. If you connect two cells in series, then the total emf is $3\ V$. And the current will be $3/100 = 0.03\ A$ (Using $V = IR$...
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Why does the light bulb's brightness decrease?

The book said that the brightness of R1 would increase and R2 would decrease. I don't understand this at all. Why does adding a wire from b to c change anything to R1? Shouldn't charge still flow ...
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In an alternating current, do electrons flow from the source to the device?

If electrons in an alternating current periodically reverse their direction, do they really flow? Won't they always come back to the same position?
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How does a voltage independent current source work?

I'm having some trouble understanding what a voltage-independent current source is. How can you have a current without a voltage? As I understand it, voltage or EMF is the force that drives the ...
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1answer
365 views

Electric circuit. Slight problem with the sign on voltages

Translation first! The figure shows an electric circuit. a) Use Kirchhoffs 2.law on the part-circuit abed and show that $I_3$ = 0,50A. b) Explain that $I_2 + I_5 = 2,0A$. Use Kirchhoffs 2.law on the ...
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What's the right way to calculate charge on a capacitor? [closed]

How much charge is on each plate of a 4.00-F capacitor when it is connected to a 12.0-V battery? I said 2.4 x 10^-5 C because there are two plates of a parallel plate capacitor. But the key said only ...
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2answers
279 views

Is it true that capacitors closer to a power source charges quicker and gets priority?

Let's say I hook two capacitor in a parallel circuit with a voltage source. Would the capacitor closer to the battery be charged up first? Because when the voltage excites and draws electrons from the ...
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Is this really how a capacitor works? Why doesn't it behave like a resistor?

My book says a capacitor is two conducts being connected by an insulator. Now let's take a parallel plate capacitor to simplify the problem I have. Suppose I got two parallel plate capacitor in ...
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3answers
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How does energy depend on frequency in an alternating current circuit?

In what relation is the energy input in an alternating current circuit to its frequency? I'd guess I have to compute something like $$E=\int P(\omega,t) dt=\int U(\omega,t) I(\omega,t) dt, $$ but ...
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What defines the brightness of a bulb? [closed]

So I have a question. There are three identical bulbs, 2 of them are connected in parallel and the third is basically in series, on the same circuit. If the one of the lamps in parallel breaks, what ...
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How do I calculate output voltage from a given supply voltage and resistance?

I have searched everywhere but I can't seem to find out how I can calculate the output voltage (or voltage over a component) from the resistance of a resistor (or other component) and the supply ...
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1answer
493 views

What would happen to electronic circuits when traveling near the speed of light?

Imagine a space ship, loaded with all sorts of computer systems, traveling near the speed of light. Electricity itself is very fast, and can reach speeds close the speed of light. (up to 99% ...
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1answer
908 views

Question Based On Direct And Alternating Current

A Wikipedia article on Power engineering reads, Most refrigerators, air conditioners, pumps and industrial machinery use AC power whereas most computers and digital equipment use DC power. As far ...
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How is contact resistivity defined for a Schottky contact, or the Schottky barrier height for an ohmic contact?

Based on the transfer length method (TLM), one can accurately calculate the contact resistivity for an ohmic contact, by evaluating the absolute resistance measured through the test structure and ...
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Strategies against 50 Hz mains hum on detector signals?

I'm having problems with a strong 50 Hz mains hum on signals created by photodetectors. I assume that they are due to ground loops and I realize that the best option would be to remove those. What are ...
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Resistor circuit that isn't parallel or series

What's the equivalent resistance in this circuit (between points A and B)?
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1answer
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RC Circuit , Calculate Time Constant

Given this diagram: With S1 switch closed and S2 switch left open, I am trying to find the time constant Relevant equations I know τ = RC for a basic circuit, but how would you calculate it for a ...
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what is the proper way to connect two light bulbs in a circuit? in series or parallel?

What is the proper way to connect two light bulbs in a circuit? in series or in parallel and why? My thought is that it's better to hook them in parallel, since if we take into account Ohm's Law, the ...
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General integral to find resistance

My question is: is there a simple and truly general equation for the resistance between two electrical equipotential surfaces?. Obviously, if so, what is it, and if not, why? It would be very ...
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1answer
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Why does electrical current start to flow?

What happens microscopically when an electrical current starts to flow? I'd like to understand microscopically what happens in detail when electrons start moving (quasi-classically). Electrons can ...
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Turn-on delay time for Laser diode

Do you know any simple explanation on the reason why the turn-on delay time on a laser diode is reducing while we increase the bias current? Turn on delay,is the time that the laser needs from the ...
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1answer
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How to calculate the charge and the potential across a charged capacitor charging an uncharged capacitor?

Initially, there is a single capacitor $A$ attached to a power source that charges it to a certain voltage $V$. Once it is charged, it is instantaneously removed and placed in a circuit with an ...
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Current in a simple circuit

I was going over my notes for an introductory course to electricity and magnetism and was intrigued by something I don't have an answer to. I remember my professor mentioning, to the best I can ...
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3answers
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How much energy was consumed when we turn on/off light?

My parents told me to turn off the light when I am not using it. But I remember my physics teacher told me that the action of turning on/off a light can cause huge energy. I am wondering how much is ...
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1answer
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As ISA Practical - Resistors in Parallel [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Current against the inverse of resistance graph, I = V/R +c How would you set up a circuit with a fixed resistor in parallel with a variable one. We are told to measure the ...
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1answer
903 views

Electrical flow in a simple parallel circuit

I'm having trouble understanding something in one of my text books: Let’s have a look at the implications of each circuit configuration. Figure 3.13 shows the Conventional representation of a ...
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1answer
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buiding circuits from color superconductors

caveat: the sort of exotic matter engineering in here is currently beyond the reach of our technology, but, that having been said: Has their been any research on building models of these sorts of ...
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How calculate resistance between two points for arbitrary resistor grid?

I need to calculate resistance in an electrical grid. Grid is a graph. Edges of a graph are resistors. How calculate resistance between any two vertexes for arbitrary graph? I know Kirchoff law and ...
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2answers
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Relating milliampere-hours to watt-hours for batteries

I've seen many batteries that are measured in milliampere hours (mAh), while others are measured in watt hours (wh). How can I convert them between each other so that I can actually compare them? It's ...
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Internal resistance V=IR circuit question [closed]

I don't know how to resolve this problem. A complete circuit consists of a 18,0 V battery (internal resistance r) and a resistor R. The terminal voltage of the circuit is 15,8 V and the current is 4,...
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1answer
565 views

What electric potential is found over individual resistors connected in series to an AC power supply?

Given a set of resistors connected in series to an AC power supply: What formula governs the peak-to-peak voltage which will be measured when voltage is probed over individual resistors and sets of ...
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1answer
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Current against the inverse of resistance graph, $I = V/R +c$

If I have a plot of current ($y$ axis) against 1/Resistance ($x$ axis). The circuit it is measured from is a simply 2 resistors connected in parallel to battery, where the potential across the ...
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4answers
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The role of resistor in e.g. an AND gate

What is the role of the resistor in e.g. an AND gate like this one? : One often sees lots of resistors in electric circuits, but I haven't really understood their role.
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Voltage and Current in transformers

In transformers, the ratio of the voltages equals the ratio of the turns - so double the output coil's turns and the output voltage doubles. Then, in order to conserve energy, current halves. This ...
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2answers
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What is the potential difference between point X and point Y?

Here is the problem: In the above figure I want help on finding the potential difference between X and Y. It is getting quite confusing due to the battery in the middle. I found the current in both ...
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1answer
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Can an arbitrary RLC-circuit network have non-minimum phase zeros?

I am working with certain input-output maps that can be thought of as large RLC-networks. I thought maybe this might be a place to get some thoughts/ideas/answers. My basic question is, given some ...
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1answer
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Circuit Simulation

I am making a circuit simulation program, and I am not sure how to simulate the behavior of Diodes. Take this circuit:              &...
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Tying knots in power cables to prevent power surge from lightning strikes

There are plenty of references to this claim on the internet that tying knots in power cables will prevent a piece of equipment e.g. television or computer from a power surge. How can this be ...
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Electric field of not-grounded conducting plate with a given potential?

I have been trying to find an equation (or some solution) of how to calculate the electric field strength (in N/C) of a conducting rectangular (nearly flat) plate which has non-zero potential to it, ...
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Calculating time for a fully charged UPS

I have a UPS of 1000 Volts connected with 2 batteries each of 150 Amp. How much time it will take to consume the whole UPS (after fully charged) when a device of 1Amp is getting electricity form that ...
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1answer
381 views

No Voltage in a Circuit but still a Current, How?

Hi I've done an experiment in physics using a basic circuit. Can anybody explain how come the data logging equipment I was using continued to register a current when there isn't a positvie voltage in ...
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What would be the effective resistance of the ladder of resistors having n steps

I'm a tutor. This is a high school level problem. In high school, every one have might have solved a problem of effective resistance of a ladder of resistors having infinite steps. Now the problem is ...
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Creating an ammeter? [closed]

Three resistances AB, BC, CD are joined in series and placed across the terminals of a galvanometer. The resistance of the galvanometer is 15 ohm and it gives full scale deflection for a current of 5 ...