Questions tagged [eigenvalue]

A linear operator (including a matrix) acting on a non-zero *eigenvector* preserves its direction but, in general, scales its magnitude by a scalar quantity *λ* called the *eigenvalue* or characteristic value associated with that eigenvector. Even though it is normally used for linear operators, it may also extend to nonlinear operations, such as Schroeder functional composition, which evoke linear operations.

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1answer
24 views

Position operator acting on eigenfunctions

Gennaro Auletta in his book makes the following argument to show that multiplicative operator acting on his eigenvectors acts in a multiplicative way on eigenfunctions as well. Here's the argument. ...
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What is the problem of having an inertia tensor not satisfying the triangle inequality?

It is well known that rigid body inertia tensors are 3 by 3 positive semidefinite matrices, which is the same as saying that their eigenvalues are all non-negative. A little less known is the fact ...
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What's the space of eigenvalues/field configurations for a fermion?

In the Schrödinger picture of quantum field theory, the field eigenstates of a real scalar field $\hat\phi(\mathbf x)$ with $\mathbf x \in\mathbb R^3$ are the states $\hat\phi(\mathbf x)|\phi\rangle=\...
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Eigenstate of field operator in QFT

Why don't people discuss the eigenstate of the field operator? For example, the real scalar field the field operator is Hermitian, so its eigenstate is an observable quantity.
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1answer
83 views

Energy eigenvalue with Potential $-e^2/ x$

If I have potential which are very well-known like, square barrier, or square well, or step potential, What I do is to set the boundary conditions in Schrödinger's equations. Sometime, the ground ...
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143 views

Making An Energy Momentum Plot For A Rashba Model (Using Discretization)

I want to make a plot of the Energy versus the Momentum of the Rashba model, using discrete matrices. First Ill show how I did this for the free particle. Subsequently I will show what goes wrong for ...
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1answer
348 views

Eigenvalues, Hermitian operators and observables in quantum mechanics

Consider a hermitian operator. So a) in a space of infinite dimension its eigenvectors are a base. b) in a finite-dimensional space the matrix that represents the hermitian operator is always ...
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Trouble understanding Sakurai's calculation of $\exp\left(\frac{iS_Z\phi}{\hbar}\right) \;S_x \; \exp\left(\frac{-iS_Z\phi}{\hbar}\right)$

I'm having some trouble with a derivation in Sakurai's Modern Quantum Mechanics (specifically Derivation 1 on §3.2, p. 159), where he computes $$ \exp\left(\frac{iS_Z\phi}{\hbar}\right) \;S_x \; \exp\...
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What is the spectrum of $\hat x \hat p + \hat p \hat x$?

In quantum mechanics we know that the canonical position $\hat x$ and momentum operator $\hat p$ satisfying \begin{align} [\hat x,\hat p] = i \quad (\hbar = 1) \end{align} have continuous spectrum. ...
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163 views

Probability of a specific energy state

We consider the normalized wave function: $$\psi(x,t) = \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}}\psi_0(x)\exp\left(\frac{-iE_0t}{\hbar}\right) + \sqrt{\frac{1}{3}}\psi_1(x)\exp\left(\frac{-iE_1t}{\hbar}\right) $$ To ...
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For vibrations in continuous beam, what is the unit of eigenvalue?

I have been solving a fourth order euler bernoulli differential equation to solve for vibrations of a continuous cantilever beam. When I verified for them using Comsol eigenvalue solver, it gives me ...
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Observing a system in an energy eigenstate when the eigenstate is not normalized

In the following notes from an MIT OCW course, Zweibach claims that energy eigenstates are not necessarily normalized. https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-05-quantum-physics-ii-fall-2013/lecture-...
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Chua's Circuit: an inequality ensuring that the equilibrium is not stable

According to Kennedy's Robust op-amp realization of Chua's circuit(1992), the differential equations satisfied by several physical quantities in Chua's circuit are $$\begin{aligned} C_{1} \frac{d v_{...
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Is $X\otimes X$ not the simultaneous position operator?

I had thought that $X\otimes X$ would be the operator on $H_1\otimes H_2$ to simultaneously measure the x-positions of two particles. But there seems to be something wrong with this -- for a given ...
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Schrödinger wavefunctional quantum-field eigenstates

The reason that I have this problem is that I'm trying to solve problem 14.4 of Schwartz's QFT book, which've confused me for a long time. The problem is to construct the eigenstates of a quantum ...
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1answer
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Different formula to find $2\times 2$ Hamiltonian's eigenvalues [closed]

Consider the Hamiltonian $$ \left[ \begin{matrix} E_1 & -A\\ -A& E_2\\ \end{matrix} \right] $$ where $A$, $E_1,E_2$ are real numbers. I have seen a different formula to ...
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168 views

Eigenvalues of the Klein-Gordon operator

If I've understood what I've read correctly, the eigenvalues of the Klein-Gordon (KG) operator $\Box+m^{2}$ are $-p^{2}+m^{2}$, but how does one show this? Naively I assumed that the eigenfunctions ...
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1answer
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Eigenvectors of the BCS Hamiltonian

In introductory superconductivity one often studies the BCS Hamiltonian $$H= \begin{pmatrix} \xi & -\Delta \\ -\Delta & -\xi \end{pmatrix} $$ I can find the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors by ...
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How to solve these coupled differential equations?

I am trying to solve for wavefunctions of 2D tilted Dirac systems, the Hamiltonian for which is: $$\hat H = v_{x}\sigma_{x}\hat p_{x}+v_{y}\sigma_{y}\hat p_{y}+I_{2}(v_{t}^{x}\hat p_{x}+v_{t}^{y}\hat ...
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Do imaginary measurements exists? [duplicate]

I'm sorry if this question is too metaphysical, but I will give it a try. My textbook in introductory quantum mechanics is basing a lot of its proof and derivations on the fact that the value of the ...
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1answer
194 views

Graphical determination of energy eigenvalues (symmetrical potential well)

It is about a particle with mass $m$ in a potential $V(x)$: I want to do a graphical determination(at first only the symmetrical case) of the energy eigenvalues. I will show you my previous work: ...
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What are the Eigenstates and Eigenvalues? [closed]

In quantum mechanics I keep hearing about them. Kindly tell about them...not at a very very high level but simple enough to understand completely
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Eigenvalues of Unitary Matrices

I am considering the standard equation for a unitary transformation $\alpha^* = U \alpha U^{-1}$, where $\alpha$ is an arbitrary linear operator and $U$ is a unitary matrix. Since in quantum ...
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1answer
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Confusion on kinetic energy quadratic forms and eigenfrequencies

I am new to the idea of expressing kinetic energy in terms of the quadratic form. I noticed that online, people often express the kinetic energy as: $$T = \frac{1}{2} \dot q^T M \dot q \tag{1}$$ ...
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How to do Weierstrass-transform in MATLAB? [closed]

I have a diagonalization problem. I have the eigenstates correctly, and I want to do a Gaussian-smearing (Weierstrass-transform?) on them. So I have the wave functions ($\Psi$, $1\times N$ vectors), ...
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Why do we use Hermitian operators in QM?

Position, momentum, energy and other observables yield real-valued measurements. The Hilbert-space formalism accounts for this physical fact by associating observables with Hermitian ('self-adjoint') ...
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1answer
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How Do We Define Integration over Bra and Ket Vectors?

I'm having trouble understanding the completeness condition for bra and ket vectors in Hilbert space, especially in the continuous case. The discrete case makes a fair amount of sense; given any ...
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1answer
63 views

Eigenvectors of spin-spin coupling Hamiltonian

We want to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian, $H = \vec{\sigma_1}.\vec{\sigma_2}$ , where the subscript indicates the particle number. The usual way to go about it is to find ...
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Is it possible to derive $2\times 2$ Lorentz transformation matrix from only eigenvectors?

As a preface, I am somewhat familiar with year 1 linear algebra but not too familiar with how one makes the connection to Lorentz transformation matrices so I apologize if the answer is obvious. One ...
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How can I meaningfully diagonalize the eigenvector subspace of a degenerate phonon mode?

It often occurs to find phonon modes which are degenerate by symmetry. In such occasions the eigenvector is usually not physically insightful, as is is a linear combination of the n degenerate ...
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1answer
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Negativity of the real part of eigenvalues of Lindblad operators

I'm looking for a proof of the fact that the real part of eigenvalues of Lindblad operators is always negative. So far I have only found handwavy arguments such as "things should not blow up at ...
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2answers
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Finding the eigenstates of an operator [closed]

I am currently taking a course in QM and can't see how the eigenstates have been found for examples like this one: Question Let $\phi _1$ and $\phi _2$ be two normalised wavefunctions orthogonal onto ...
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2answers
135 views

Solving the free particle problem in momentum space

$\newcommand{\ket}[1]{|#1\rangle}$$\newcommand{\bra}[1]{\langle#1|}$(Note: this question was asked before here but I didn't follow the answer.) For the free particle, Schrödinger's equation is given ...
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2answers
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Difference between operators used to represent quantum gates vs that to represent physical observables?

I have learnt that informations about a physical observable property is buried in the state vector of a quantum system. To get the possible value of a property all we need to do is multiply the state ...
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1answer
125 views

Eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian

Is every eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian a form of energy? If not are there values of the Hamiltonian that do not correspond to the energy of the system?
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3answers
169 views

Superposition principle forbids quantisation?

Apparently bound states in quantum mechanics require energy states to be discrete. That means energy in such systems is quantized, right? However, say that we have a superposition of energy ...
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1answer
266 views

Bloch's Theorem without periodic boundary condition - mathematically rigorous way

I am looking for a proof of Bloch's Theorem which does not use periodic boundary conditions. Sometimes one happens to see non-rigorous demonstrations of Bloch's Theorem without the use of periodic ...
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1answer
93 views

What is energy in quantum mechanics?

Is it wrong to say energy is the expectation value of Hamiltonian? Or should I say energy is the eigenvalue of Hamiltonian?
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1answer
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Arriving at the Quantum Mechanial Potential From The Energy Eigenvalues [duplicate]

In Quantum Mechanics, we know that given a potential we can solve the eigen value problem to find out the energy eigen values and eigen functions. Now suppose in an experiment we have information only ...
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Numerical exact diagonalization of tight binding Hamiltonian

I want to exactly diagonalize the following Hamiltonian for $10$ number of sites and $4$ number of spinless fermions $$H = -t\sum_i^{L-1} \big[c_i^\dagger c_{i+1} - c_i c_{i+1}^\dagger\big] + V\sum_i^{...
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2answers
131 views

Creation operator acting on a coherent state. Occupation number operator

For a coherent state $$|\alpha\rangle=e^{-\frac{|\alpha|^{2}}{2}}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{\alpha^{n}(a^{\dagger})^n}{n!}|0\rangle$$ I want to find a simplified expression for $a^{\dagger}|\alpha\...
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Some questions on coherent states and corresponding Hilbert spaces. Reproducing kernal

I have a few questions related to coherent states. I use this source https://homepage.univie.ac.at/reinhold.bertlmann/pdfs/T2_Skript_Ch_5.pdf. Using standart inner product $\langle\cdot|\cdot\rangle$ ...
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1answer
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Confusion of measuring two quantities on a quantum system

Let's say there are two observables corresponding to two operators A and B, and let's say my system is in a state Phi where with probability 1 if I measure A I get 3 (let's say 3 Joules), If I ...
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1answer
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1d Ising model: Transfer matrices

we came across a peculiarity when calculating the partition function of $N$ spins $s_i=\pm1$ with Hamiltonian $$H=-J\sum_{i=1}^Ns_is_{i+1}$$ where we impose periodic boundary conditions such that $s_{...
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1answer
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Eigenvalues of the thermal state density operator

We define the thermal density operator as $$\tau(\beta) = \frac{e^{-\beta H}}{\mathrm{Tr}(e^{-\beta H})}$$ where $H$ is the systems Hamiltonian. Today I was told that the eigenvalues of the ...
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Coherent state being the eigenstate of the annihilation operator

From what I understand, the physical relevance and interest of a coherent state is that its dynamics closely resembles the one of its classical analogue. For example, for a quantum SHO $\langle x \...
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What does $\left|x,t\right>$ actually mean (Heisenberg picture)?

I am pretty much confused with this notation I believe. The Heisenberg states are denoted by $\left|x,t\right>$ and the Schrodinger states are given by $\left|x(t)\right>$. It seems like both of ...
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7answers
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Why are Only Real Things Measurable?

Why can't we measure imaginary numbers? I mean, we can take the projection of a complex wave to be the "viewable" part, so why are imaginary numbers given this immeasurable descriptor? Namely with ...
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1answer
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What is the term for a particle spin's uncollapsed position? What is the orbiting “thing”?

I'm not sure if I have the correct visual model, but I imagine that a particle spin can be represented by a single point on the orbit, or by a superposition state (like a random plane through a corner ...
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Expansion of the infinite square well [closed]

I was studying the expectation value of the energy of a particle in the groud state of the infinite square well after its expansion in terms of width (from $a$ to $2a$), which is: $$\langle H\rangle= ...