# Questions tagged [differentiation]

Differentiation is the set of techniques and results from Differential Calculus, concerning the calculation of derivatives of functions or distributions.

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### Landau's approach to collisions in plasma

I can't understand some steps in obtaining the collision term in the Boltzmann equation for plasma. For the first time it was made by L.D. Landau in his article "The kinetic equation in the case of ...
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### Tensor Differentiation

In the book "Tensors, Relativity and Cosmology" the author derived Maxwell's Equation in covariant form using the EM field tensor Lagrangian $L=-\frac{1}{4}F^{jl}F_{jl}$ (source=0). One of the steps ...
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### Is the derivative with respect to a fermion field Grassmann-odd?

Fermion fields anticommute because they are Grassmann numbers, that is, \begin{equation} \psi \chi = - \chi \psi. \end{equation} I was wondering whether derivatives with respect to Grassmann numbers ...
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### General Relativity and cosmology [duplicate]

What is the physical meaning of Ricci scalar is a covariantly constant?
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### Differentiating the Free Energy for the Chemical Potential

I wanted to ask a question about the partial differential of the Free Energy equation. I learnt to prove the Free Energy equation: \begin{aligned} \frac{F\left(N_{A}, N_{B}\right)}{k T}=& N_{...
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### $R$-Symmetry of gauge field

Suppose $V$ is a superfield scalar under R-transformations. This means that under an R-transformation $V\mapsto V'$ where $V'(x,\theta,\bar{\theta})=V(x,e^{-iK}\theta,e^{iK}\bar{\theta})$. What is ...
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### Taylor expansion in derivation of Noether-theorem

In my classical mechanics lecture we derived the Noether-theorem for a coordinate transformation given by: $$q_i(t) \rightarrow q^{'}_i(t)=q_i(t) + \delta q_i(t) = q_i(t) + \lambda I_i(q,\dot q,t).$$...
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### Why is force 0 either side of an inflexion point in neutral equilibrium?

In Tipler & Mosca 5th edition p173 it defines neutral equilibrium as a point in a U-x curve where $\frac{dU}{dx}=0$ and also $\frac{dU}{dx}=0$ for a small displacement either side of the point. ...
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### Differentiability of electric field due to bounded volume charge distribution

In books on electromagnetism, one often sees expressions of Maxwell's equations like $\nabla \cdot \mathbf{E}$ and $\nabla \times \mathbf{E}$. These expressions make sense if $\mathbf{E}$ (which is ...
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### Derivating operator acting on ket

I'm deducing a formula, and I used the "product rule" $\frac{\partial}{\partial t}(A|\phi>)=(\frac{\partial A}{\partial t})|\phi>+A\frac{\partial}{\partial t}|\phi>$. I'm actually getting the ...
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### Variation under infinitesimal reparametrization

Say that under the infinitesimal reparametrization $\sigma \rightarrow \sigma' = \sigma-\xi(\sigma)$, $x^\mu$ transforms as a scalar, i.e. $x'^\mu(\sigma')=x^\mu(\sigma)$. I would like to show the ...
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### Does it make sense to speak in a total derivative of a functional? Part II

I am trying to derive the Noether theorem from the following integral action: \begin{equation} S=\int_{\mathbb{\Omega}}d^{D}x~\mathcal{L}\left( \phi_{r},\partial_{\nu}% \phi_{r},x\right) , \tag{II.1}\...
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### Does it make sense to speak in a total derivative of a functional? Part I

I would like to consider the problem of the total derivative of a given functional \begin{equation} \mathcal{L}\bigg[\phi\big(x,y,z,t\big),\frac{\partial{\phi}}{\partial{x}}\big(x,y,z,t\big),\frac{\...
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### A problem in newtonian physics [closed]

Hello! I have solved problem 89 using analytic way, i.e, the length of the string will always be constant, so repeated substitutions and differentiating will make way(i got answer as "c"). But is ...
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### Vector calculus simplification in calculation of generalized force

Consider a system of $N$ particles subject to forces $\vec F_i\ (i=1\dots N)$ that derive from a potential $V$. My lecture notes propose a simple proof that $$Q_j = -\frac{\partial V}{\partial q_j}$$ ...
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### Covariant derivative of a composite field and the chain rule

I have a gauge theory with some rather strange covariant derivatives and I am wondering how they act on a composite field like $\psi= \phi\psi'$. In my setup, the covariant derivative acting on a ...
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### Showing the form of the covariant derivative of $\phi$, if $\phi$ transforms as the adjoint representation of $SU(n)$

I want to show that if $\phi$ transforms as the adjoint representation of SU(n), its covariant derivative is given by $\textbf{D}_\mu \phi = \partial_\mu \phi + i [\textbf{A}_\mu, \phi]$. (Exercise in ...
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### Is the partial derivative in the Dirac equation in curved space contracted with a tetrad?

The Dirac Equation in Curved spacetime makes a difference between Lorentzian indicies and Covariant indicies. In the equation we find a $\partial_\mu$. Is this actually $e^a_\mu\partial_a$ where $e$ ...
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### Why, when going from special to general relativity, do we just replace partial derivatives with covariant derivatives?

I've come across several references to the idea that to upgrade a law of physics to general relativity all you have to do is replace any partial derivatives with covariant derivatives. I understand ...
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### Derivation of Covariant derivative for fermionic fields

I've been reading about the Dirac equation in curved spacetime and understand the nature of the verbien, but am wondering what the relationship is between the two definitions of the Fermionic ...
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### Deciding which given function represents wave function? [closed]

I have been given four functions: $u(x, t) = (x + 3t^3)^{1/3}$ $u(x,t) = 2\cos(5t)\sin(5x)$ $u(x,t)=(x−5t)^2 + \exp(\cos(5t+x))$ $u(x,t)=x^2\cos(7x−t)$ None of them seems to satisfy the ...
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### How does the partial derivative of a tensor of rank $n$ creates a tensor of rank $n+1$? (cartesian coordinates)

The partial derivative of a tensor of rank $n$, $T_{...i}$, with respect to $x^j$ can be expressed using the transformation rule: \begin{equation} \frac{\partial}{\partial x^j}T'_{...i}=\frac{\...
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### Explanation of the identities $\rho=\rho(\delta)$ ($\delta$ function) and $\rho=q\,\delta(\bar{r})$
Poisson's equation is $$\boldsymbol{\nabla}^{2}\varphi=-4\pi k_{e}\,\rho, \tag{*}$$ that in the case of a point charge $q$, already with spherical symmetry, has as solution \begin{equation} \varphi(...
### Divergence of $\frac{1}{s}\hat{s}$ in cylindrical coordinates
In Griffiths' electrodynamics, the divergence of $\frac{1}{r^{2}}\hat{r}$ is evaluated in spherical coordinates to be $4\pi\delta(r)$. I encounter the same problem in case of $\frac{1}{s}\hat{s}$ ...